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Technical Paper

On LES Grid Criteria for Spray Induced Turbulence

Using non-viscosity dynamic structure Large Eddy Simulations (LES) turbulence model, spray=induced turbulence is investigated on a number of different Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) grids of varying mesh sizes (from 0.5 to 2 mm mesh). Turbulent flow is induced inside a quiescent chamber by liquid fuel spray and then left to decay after end of injection by virtue of its molecular viscosity and turbulent dissipation. Coherent structures (CS) of this turbulent flow are constructed and visualized using λ2 definition. Using CS, analysis is performed on the turbulent flow around the liquid spray jet. These CS from LES are then compared against the results from RANS calculations as well. The visualization of CS helps to explain the mechanism of fuel-air mixing obtained from LES results and its difference with RANS calculations.
Technical Paper

Modeling Ignition and Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines Based on Swept-Volume Method

A swept-volume method of calculating the volume swept by the flame during each time step is developed and used to improve the calculation of fuel reaction rates. The improved reaction rates have been applied to the ignition model and coupled with the level set G-equation combustion model. In the ignition model, a single initial kernel is formed after which the kernel is convected by the gas flow and its growth rate is determined by the flame speed and thermal expansion due to the energy transfer from the electrical circuit. The predicted ignition kernel size was compared with the available experimental data and good agreements were achieved. Once the ignition kernel reaches a size when the fully turbulent flame is developed, the G-equation model is switched on to track the mean turbulent flame front propagation.
Technical Paper

Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Dispersion Effects in Direct Injection Diesel and Gasoline Sprays

In most large-eddy simulation (LES) applications to two-phase engine flows, the liquid-air interactions need to be accounted for as source terms in the respective governing equations. Accurate calculation of these source terms requires the relative velocity “seen” by liquid droplets as they move across the flow, which generally needs to be estimated using a turbulent dispersion model. Turbulent dispersion modeling in LES is very scarce in the literature. In most studies on engine spray flows, sub-grid scale (SGS) models for the turbulent dispersion still follow the same stochastic approach originally proposed for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS). In this study, an SGS dispersion model is formulated in which the instantaneous gas velocity is decomposed into a deterministic part and a stochastic part. The deterministic part is reconstructed using the approximate deconvolution method (ADM), in which the large-scale flow can be readily calculated.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Scalar Dissipation Rate in an Internal Combustion Engine

A novel algebraic similarity model for subgrid scalar dissipation rate has been developed as part of the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) package KIVA3V-LES for diesel engine study. The model is proposed from an a priori study using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of forced isotropic turbulence. In the a posteriori test, fully resolved turbulent passive scalar field measurements are used to validate the model in actual engine flows. For reason of the length limit by SAE and the specific interest in engine applications, only a prior test and a posteriori test in engine flows are included in this paper. A posteriori tests in isotropic cube flow, turbulent round jet and flame cases will be presented in separate papers. An engine LES simulation of multi consecutive cycles was performed in this study.
Technical Paper

Intake and In-Cylinder Flow Modeling Characterization of Mixing and Comparison with Flow Bench Results

A modified version of the three dimensional CFD code KIVA-3, which accommodates moving valves and a moving piston crown, has been applied to a heavy-duty, four cycle, dual intake valve, direct injection, diesel engine The fluid domain encompasses an intake runner, two valved ports and a cylinder with a Mexican hat bowl-in-piston configuration In the first part of the study, the modified KIVA-3 code was used to simulate the flow through the port and cylinder of the engine without a piston The intake valves were cycled (300 rpm at the camshaft) Two turbulence models were compared in this part of the study, standard k - ε and the RNG modified k - ε as discussed in [11] The results were compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) images Large scale flow features of the computer simulations agreed moderately well with the ensemble averaged flow bench results There was very little difference between the results from the two turbulence models Motored engine simulations including a piston were conducted to characterize the in-cylinder gas flow and mixing during the intake and compression strokes Characterization methods were developed which yield insight into the in-cylinder gas motion and mixing during both strokes Intake and residual gases are tracked separately, both large scale convection and turbulent mixing are investigated, flow critical points are examined to provide information about flow topology and turbulence production is correlated with the evolution of flow structures Results show that mixing of the intake and residual gases is very non-uniform Many complex flow structures develop during intake and are destroyed during compression However, several structures survive through compression and contribute to enhanced mixing near top dead center These significant structures have been identified and tracked back to intake The flow field near top dead center exhibits spatial inhomogeneities in temperature and small scale mixing parameters such as turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate
Journal Article

Effects of Numerical Schemes on Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Planar Gas Jet and Diesel Spray

Three time integration schemes and four finite volume interpolation schemes for the convection term in momentum equation were tested under turbulent planar gas jet and Sandia non-reacting vaporizing Spray-H cases. The three time integration schemes are the first-order Euler implicit scheme, the second-order backward scheme, and the second-order Crank-Nicolson scheme. The four spatial interpolation schemes are cubic central, linear central, upwind, and vanLeer schemes. Velocity magnitude contour, centerline and radial mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles for the planar turbulent gas jet case, and fuel vapor contour and liquid and vapor penetrations for the Diesel spray case predicted by the different numerical schemes were compared. The sensitivity of the numerical schemes to mesh resolution was also investigated. The non-viscosity based dynamic structure subgrid model was used. The numerical tool used in this study was OpenFOAM.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Components Along with Temperature and Equivalence Ratio on the Combustion of n-Heptane Fuel

Fundamental simulations in a quiescent cell under adiabatic conditions were made to understand the effect of temperature, equivalence ratio and the components of the recirculated exhaust gas, viz., CO2 and H2O, on the combustion of n-Heptane. Simulations were made in single phase in which evaporated n-Heptane was uniformly distributed in the domain. Computations were made for two different temperatures and four different EGR levels. CO2 or H2O or N2was used as EGR. It was found that the initiation of the main combustion process was primarily determined by two competing factors, i.e., the amount of initial OH concentration in the domain and the specific heat of the mixture. Further, initial OH concentration can be controlled by the manipulating the ambient temperature in the domain, and the specific heat capacity of the mixture via the mixture composition. In addition to these, the pre combustion and the subsequent post combustion can also be controlled via the equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Lift-Off Characteristics of n-Heptane Sprays Using Direct Numerical Simulations

Fundamental simulations using DNS type procedures were used to investigate the ignition, combustion characteristics and the lift-off trends of a spatially evolving turbulent liquid fuel jet. In particular, the spatially evolving n-Heptane spray injected in a two-dimensional rectangular domain with an engine like environment was investigated. The computational results were compared to the experimental observations from an optical engine as reported in the literature. It was found that an initial fuel rich combustion downstream of the spray tip is followed by diffusion combustion. Investigations were also made to understand the effects of injection velocity, ambient temperature and the droplet radius on the lift-off length. For each of these parameters three different values in a given range were chosen. For both injection velocity and droplet radius, an increase resulted in a near linear increase in the lift-off length.