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Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Benefits of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engines

A detailed thermodynamic analysis was performed to demonstrate the fundamental efficiency advantage of an opposed-piston two-stroke engine over a standard four-stroke engine. Three engine configurations were considered: a baseline six-cylinder four-stroke engine, a hypothetical three-cylinder opposed-piston four-stroke engine, and a three-cylinder opposed-piston two-stroke engine. The bore and stroke per piston were held constant for all engine configurations to minimize any potential differences in friction. The closed-cycle performance of the engine configurations were compared using a custom analysis tool that allowed the sources of thermal efficiency differences to be identified and quantified.
Technical Paper

The Prediction of Auto Ignition in a Spark-Ignited Engine

A constant volume combustion simulation has been used to compute the ignition delays of pure fuels and binary fuel mixtures in air. Minima in the ignition delays were predicted by a comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism for binary fuel mixtures with methane. A model has been developed to predict the occurrence of autoignition in a spark ignited engine. Experimental pressure data from a CFR engine were used in the model to simulate the temperature-pressure history of the end gas and to determine the time when autoignition occurred. Comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanisms were used to predict the reactions in the end gas. Methanol, methane, ethane, ethylene, propane and n-butane were used as fuels. The initial temperatures in the model were adjusted to give agreement between predicted and observed autoignition. Engine data for methane-ethane mixtures indicated a problem with the kinetic mechanism.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Oxygenate and Gasoline-Diesel Fuel Blends on Diesel Engine Emissions

A study was performed in which the effects on the regulated emissions from a commercial small DI diesel engine were measured for different refinery-derived fuel blends. Seven different fuel blends were tested, of which two were deemed to merit more detailed evaluation. To investigate the effects of fuel properties on the combustion processes with these fuel blends, two-color pyrometry was used via optically accessible cylinderheads. Additional data were obtained with one of the fuel blends with a heavy-duty DI diesel engine. California diesel fuel was used as a baseline. The fuel blends were made by mixing the components typically found in gasoline, such as methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and whole fluid catalytic cracking gasoline (WH-FCC). The mixing was performed on a volume basis. Cetane improver (CI) was added to maintain the same cetane number (CN) of the fuel blends as that of the baseline fuel.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Aromatic Structure and Content on Direct Injection Diesel Engine Particulates

A single cylinder, Cummins NH, direct-injection, diesel engine has been operated in order to evaluate the effects of aromatic content and aromatic structure on diesel engine particulates. Results from three fuels are shown. The first fuel, a low sulfur Chevron diesel fuel was used as a base fuel for comparison. The other fuels consisted of the base fuel and 10% by volume of 1-2-3-4 tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) a single-ring aromatic and naphthalene, a double-ring aromatic. The fuels were chosen to vary aromatic content and structure while minimizing differences in boiling points and cetane number. Measurements included exhaust particulates using a mini-dilution tunnel, exhaust emissions including THC, CO2, NO/NOx, O2, injection timing, two-color radiation, soluble organic fraction, and cylinder pressure. Particulate measurements were found to be sensitive to temperature and flow conditions in the mini-dilution tunnel and exhaust system.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Gasoline Fueled HCCI Using Negative Valve Overlap

Gasoline fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with internal exhaust gas re-circulation using Negative Valve Overlap (NOL) was investigated by means of calculation and experiment in order to apply this technology to practical use with sufficient operating range and with acceptable emission and fuel consumption. In this paper we discuss the basic characteristics of NOL-HCCI with emphasis on the influence of intake valve timing on load range, residual gas fraction and induction air flow rate. Emission and fuel consumption under various operation conditions are also discussed. A water-cooled 250cc single cylinder engine with a direct injection system was used for this study. Three sets of valve timing were selected to investigate the effect of intake valve opening duration. Experimental results demonstrated that an engine speed of approximately 2000rpm yields an NMEP (Net Mean Effective Pressure) range from 200kPa to 400kPa.
Journal Article

Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime

An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline (termed GDICI for Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition) in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. As an aid to plan engine experiments at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min), exploration of operating conditions was first performed numerically employing a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion. Operation ranges of a light-duty diesel engine operating with GDICI combustion with constraints of combustion efficiency, noise level (pressure rise rate) and emissions were identified as functions of injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation rate and the fuel split ratio of double-pulse injections.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of a Diesel Exhaust System Thermal Model

A modeling study has been conducted in order to characterize the heat transfer in an automotive diesel exhaust system. The exhaust system model, focusing on 2 exhaust pipes, has been created using a transient 1-D engine flow network simulation program. Model results are in excellent agreement with experimental data gathered before commencement of the modeling study. Predicted pipe exit stream temperatures are generally within one percent of experimental values. Sensitivity analysis of the model was the major focus of this study. Four separate variables were chosen for the sensitivity analysis. These being the external convective heat transfer coefficient, external emissivity, mass flow rate of exhaust gases, and amplitude of incoming pressure fluctuations. These variables were independently studied to determine their contribution to changes in exhaust gas stream temperature and system heat flux. There are two primary benefits obtained from conducting this analysis.
Technical Paper

Predictions of Autoignition in a Spark-Ignition Engine Using Chemical Kinetics

A model developed to predict outoignition is used with data from a premixed charge, spark-ignition engine. A detailed chemical kinetics mechanism is used to predict the reactions which occur in the end-gas and lead to autoignition. Experimental pressure data from a CFR engine are used in the model to determine end-gas temperatures. The initial temperature at the time of spark must be increased above the bulk temperature for the predicted time of outoignition to agree with the observed time. A method for estimating the initial temperature based on an adiabotic compression from the time of intake valve closing is presented. The predictions of the model are examined over a range of engine speeds and fuel-air equivalence ratios. The magnitude by which the initial temperature must be increased above the bulk temperature decreases with increasing engine speed. This magnitude follows a trend which can be related to a heat transfer correlation.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number-based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample-handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark-ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion.
Technical Paper

Optical Measurements of Soot Particle Size, Number Density, and Temperature in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine as a Function of Speed and Load

In-cylinder measurements of soot particle size, number density, and temperature have been made using optical measurements in a direct injection diesel engine. The measurements were made at one location approximately 5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide above the bowl near the head. Two optical techniques were used simultaneously involving light scattering, extinction and radiation. An optical probe was designed and mounted in a modified exhaust valve which introduced a beam of light into the cylinder and collected the scattered and radiating light from the soot. The resulting measurements were semi-quantitative, giving an absolute uncertainty on the order of ± 50% which was attributed mainly to the uncertainty of the optical properties of the soot and the heterogeneous nature of the soot cloud. Measurements at three speeds and three overall equivalence ratios were made.
Technical Paper

Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique.
Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of the Soot Deposition Mechanism in Diesel Particulate Filters

A computational, three-dimensional approach to investigate the behavior of diesel soot particles in the micro-channels of wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters is presented. The KIVA3V CFD code, already extended to solve the 2D conservation equations for porous media materials [1], has been enhanced to solve in 2-D and 3-D the governing equations for reacting and compressible flows through porous media in non axes-symmetric geometries. With respect to previous work [1], a different mathematical approach has been followed in the implementation of the numerical solver for porous media, in order to achieve a faster convergency as source terms were added to the governing equations. The Darcy pressure drop has been included in the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation has been extended to account for the thermal exchange between the gas flow and the porous wall.
Journal Article

Micro-scale Study of DPF Permeability as a Function of PM Loading

An investigation of the permeability evolution of a diesel particulate filter channel wall as a function of soot loading was conducted. This investigation examined the effects of varying particle characteristics and two filtration velocities (4 and 8 cm/s) on the wall permeability throughout a 1 g/L soot loading. This study was possible using the Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis (DEFA) system that was modified to perform temperature controlled in-situ flow tests. The DEFA system allows for isolation of the pressure drop due to the filter wall and soot cake layer greatly simplifying the permeability calculation. Permeability evolution fundamentals and the effects of loading conditions were studied by filling 18 filters with the DEFA system. The filters were loaded using one of four operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. These operating conditions were comprehensively characterized giving insight into the effects of varying particle characteristics.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Trace Metal Composition in Diesel Engine Particulate and its Potential for Determining Oil Consumption: ICPMS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) and ATOFMS (Aerosol Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer) Measurements

Current regulations stipulate acceptable levels of particulate emissions based on the mass collected on filters obtained by sampling in diluted exhaust. Although precise, this gives us only aggregated information. If in addition to the mass based measurements, detailed chemical analysis of the particulate matter (PM) is performed, additional subtle information about the combustion process can be revealed. This paper reports the results of detailed chemical analysis of trace metal in the PM emitted from a single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. The trace metal concentrations are used as an indicator of oil consumption. Two techniques were used to make the trace metal concentration measurements. PM was captured on filters and trace metals were quantified with an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS), and also an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was used to perform particle size and composition measurements in real time.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Cetane Number, Volatility, and Total Aromatic Content on Highly-Dilute Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

The objective of this study is to increase fundamental understanding of the effects of fuel composition and properties on low temperature combustion (LTC) and to identify major properties that could enable engine performance and emission improvements, especially under high load conditions. A series of experiments and computational simulations were conducted under LTC conditions using 67% EGR with 9.5% inlet O₂ concentration on a single-cylinder version of the General Motors Corporation 1.9L direct injection diesel engine. This research investigated the effects of Cetane number (CN), volatility and total aromatic content of diesel fuels on LTC operation. The values of CN, volatility, and total aromatic content studied were selected in a DOE (Design of Experiments) fashion with each variable having a base value as well as a lower and higher level. Timing sweeps were performed for all fuels at a lower load condition of 5.5 bar net IMEP at 2000 rpm using a single-pulse injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effect of DPF Loading and Passive Regeneration on Engine Performance and Emissions Using an Integrated System Simulation

An integrated system model containing sub-models for a diesel engine, NOx and soot emissions, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been used to simulate stead-state engine operating conditions. The simulation results have been used to investigate the effect of DPF loading and passive regeneration on engine performance and emissions. This work is the continuation of previous work done to create an overall diesel engine/exhaust system integrated model. As in the previous work, a diesel engine, exhaust system, engine soot emissions, and diesel particulate filter (DPF) sub-models have been integrated into an overall model using Matlab Simulink. For the current work new sub-models have been added for engine-out NOx emissions and an engine feedback controller. The integrated model is intended for use in simulating the interaction of the engine and exhaust aftertreatment components.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Characteristics of a High Pressure Injector

This paper will focus on the spray characteristics of a high pressure (up to 155 MPa) accumulator type injector in a high pressure (chosen density) quiescent spray chamber. The injector uses a standard single orifice nozzle which produces a full cone spray. Using this apparatus, we are examining the fundamental aspects of high pressure spray formation under controlled conditions. Experimental data was collected using high speed photography (10,000 frames per second) which used a pulsed copper-vapor laser as a light source. Two photographic techniques are being utilized. Direct attenuation allows measurement of tip penetration, spray cone angle, and injection duration. Scattering from a sheet of laser light perpendicular to the camera field of view is being developed in an attempt to resolve inner spray cone structure. In addition to the quantitative data from the high speed photography, injector accumulator pressure, supply pressure and injection rate histories were recorded.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Transient Emissions and Mixed Mode Combustion for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

The use of low temperature combustion (LTC) modes has demonstrated abilities to lower diesel engine emissions while maintaining good fuel consumption. LTC is assumed to be a viable solution to assist in meeting stringent upcoming diesel engine emissions targets, particularly nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, LTC is currently limited to low engine loads and is not a feasible solution at higher loads on production engines. A mixed mode combustion strategy must be implemented to take advantage of the benefits offered from LTC at the low loads and speeds while switching to a conventional diesel combustion strategy at higher loads and speeds and thus allowing full range use of the engine under realistic driving conditions. Experiments were performed to characterize engine out emissions during transient engine operating conditions involving LTC combustion strategies.
Technical Paper

Investigation of MicroFlow Machining Effects on Diesel Injector Spray Characteristics

An investigation of the effect of microflow machining on the spray characteristics of diesel injectors was undertaken. A collection of four VCO injector tips were tested prior to and after an abrasive flow process using a high viscosity media. The injector nozzles were tested on a spray fixture. Rate of injection measurements and high-speed digital images were used for the quantification of the air entrainment rate. Comparisons of the spray characteristics and A/F ratios were made for conditions of before and after the abrasive flow process. Results showed a significant decrease in the injection-to-injection variability and improvement of the spray symmetry. A link between the quantity of air entrained and potential differences in spray plume internal chemical composition and temperature is proposed via equilibrium calculations.
Technical Paper

Investigation into Different DPF Regeneration Strategies Based on Fuel Economy Using Integrated System Simulation

An integrated system model containing sub-models for a multi-cylinder diesel engine, NOx and soot(PM) emissions, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been developed to simulate the engine and aftertreatment systems at transient engine operating conditions. The objective of this work is two-fold; ensure correct implementation of the integrated system level model and apply the integrated model to understand the fuel economy trade-off for various DPF regeneration strategies. The current study focuses on a 1.9L turbocharged diesel engine and its exhaust system. The engine model was built in GT-Power and validated against experimental data at full-load conditions. The DPF model is calibrated for the current engine application by matching the clean DPF pressure drop for different mass flow rates. Load, boost pressure, speed and EGR controllers are tuned and linked with the current engine model.