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Technical Paper

The Implementation of a Conceptual Aerospace Systems Design and Analysis Toolkit

The Conceptual Aerospace Systems Design and Analysis Toolkit (CASDAT) provides a baseline assessment capability for the Air Force Research Laboratory. The historical development of CASDAT is of benefit to the design research community because considerable effort was expended in the classification of the analysis tools. Its implementation proves to also be of importance because of the definition of assessment use cases. As a result, CASDAT is compatible with accepted analysis tools and can be used with state-of-the-art assessment methods, including technology forecasting and probabilistic design.
Journal Article

Technology Selection for Optimal Power Distribution Efficiency in a Turboelectric Propulsion System

Turboelectric propulsion is a technology that can potentially reduce aircraft noise, increase fuel efficiency, and decrease harmful emissions. In a turbo-electric system, the propulsor (fans) is no longer connected to the turbine through a mechanical connection. Instead, a superconducting generator connected to a gas turbine produces electrical power which is delivered to distributed fans. This configuration can potentially decrease fuel burn by 10% [1]. One of the primary challenges in implementing turboelectric electric propulsion is designing the power distribution system to transmit power from the generator to the fans. The power distribution system is required to transmit 40 MW of power from the generator to the electrical loads on the aircraft. A conventional aircraft distribution cannot efficiently or reliably transmit this large amount of power; therefore, new power distribution technologies must be considered.
Technical Paper

Methodology for the Conceptual Design Process of Morphing Configurations

Traditional historical-data based design processes are clearly inappropriate for morphing vehicles. There are no historical data for these type of configurations, the appropriate mission for this class of vehicles is unknown, and there are many unique aspects of a morphing vehicle that are dependent on the specific concept chosen. The design process proposed in this paper attempts to account for these difficulties in a flexible and transparent manner while leveraging existing tools and processes wherever possible.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Parametric Anaylsis to the Aerodynamic Design of a Hypersonic Strike Fighter

A Hypersonic Strike Fighter (HSF) would provide many benefits over current fighters, including increased effectiveness and survivability. However, there are many design challenges to developing such a vehicle. Therefore the conceptual design of an HSF requires the development of new tools and methods to analyze and select vehicle concepts. A parametric method was developed to determine aerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic vehicles in a rapid, automated way. This parametric method and other tools were then used to select a baseline design and optimize this baseline for the notional mission.
Technical Paper

Impact of Configuration and Requirements on the Sonic Boom of a Quiet Supersonic Jet

Market forecasts predict a potentially large market for a Quiet Supersonic Business Jet provided that several technical hurdles are overcome prior to fielding such a vehicle. In order to be economically viable, the QSJ must be able to fly at supersonic speeds overland and operate from regional airports in addition to meeting government noise and emission requirements. As a result of these conflicting constraints on the design, the process of selecting a configuration for low sonic boom is a difficult one. Response Surface Methodology along with physics-based analysis tools were used to create an environment in which the sonic boom can be studied as a function of design and mission parameters. Ten disciplinary codes were linked with a sizing and synthesis code by using a commercial wrapper in order to calculate the required responses with the desired level of fidelity.
Technical Paper

Formulation, Realization, and Demonstration of a Process to Generate Aerodynamic Metamodels for Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle Design

The desire to facilitate the conceptual and preliminary design of hypersonic cruise vehicles has created the need for simple, fast, versatile, and trusted aerodynamic analysis tools. Metamodels representing physics-based engineering codes provide instantaneous access to calibrated tools. Nonlinear transformations extend the capability of metamodels to accurately represent a large design space. Independence, superposition, and scaling properties of the hypersonic engineering method afford an expansive design space without traditional compounding penalties. This one-time investment results in aerodynamic and volumetric metamodels of superior quality and versatility which may be used in many forms throughout early design. As a module, they can be an integral component within a multidisciplinary analysis and optimization package. Aerodynamic polars they produce may provide performance information for mission analysis.
Technical Paper

Formulation of an Integrating Framework for Conceptual Object-Oriented Systems Design

In this paper, a brief overview is given of the different alternatives to an integrating computational framework. A new framework will be introduced, which incorporates the latest computational techniques and more importantly a mind-set emphasizing flexibility, modularity, portability and re-usability. This introduction will include a thorough review of the fundamental design decisions that went into developing this new integrated computational framework. Distributed object computing extends an object-oriented system which allows objects to interact across heterogenous networks and interoperate as a unified whole. Integrated computing frameworks are discussed, together with data transport techniques such as Extensible Markup Language (XML) and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) to achieve platform, code and meta-model independent integration.
Technical Paper

Development of an Object Oriented Vehicle Library for Automated Design Analysis

In today’s emerging parametric and probabilistic design environments, disciplinary or multidisciplinary analysis data are represented efficiently with the use of metamodels. Each metamodel is an efficient replacement for a particular design analysis tool. An object oriented library is developed in this paper to represent vehicle configuration in a generic manner and assist the analysis data collection for the metamodeling process. The library is used to produce input files for design analysis tools. It can also be used to create preprocessors for integration environments used in the design process. This allows for smoother integrations of analysis programs within such environments as the environment now needs only replace data in one central input file rather than a file for each analysis tool.
Technical Paper

Development of Response Surface Equations for High-Speed Civil Transport Takeoff and Landing Noise

As an element of a design optimization study of high speed civil transport (HSCT), response surface equations (RSEs) were developed with the goal of accurately predicting the sideline, takeoff, and approach noise levels for any combination of selected design variables. These RSEs were needed during vehicle synthesis to constrain the aircraft design to meet FAR 36, Stage 3 noise levels. Development of the RSEs was useful as an application of response surface methodology to a previously untested discipline. Noise levels were predicted using the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP), with additional corrections to account for inlet and exhaust duct lining, mixer-ejector nozzles, multiple fan stages, and wing reflection. The fan, jet, and airframe contributions were considered in the aircraft source noise prediction.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of a Probabilistic Technique for the Determination of Aircraft Economic Viability

Over the past few years, modern aircraft design has experienced a paradigm shift from designing for performance to designing for affordability. This paper contains a probabilistic approach that will allow traditional deterministic design methods to be extended to account for disciplinary, economic, and technological uncertainty. The probabilistic approach was facilitated by the Fast Probability Integration (FPI) technique; a technique which allows the designer to gather valuable information about the vehicle's behavior in the design space. This technique is efficient for assessing multi-attribute, multi-constraint problems in a more realistic fashion. For implementation purposes, this technique is applied to illustrate how both economic and technological uncertainty associated with a Very Large Transport aircraft may be assessed.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design of Current Technology and Advanced Concepts for an Efficient Multi-Mach Aircraft

A design process is formulated and implemented for the taxonomy selection and system-level optimization of an Efficient Multi-Mach Aircraft Current Technology Concept and an Advanced Concept. Concept space exploration of taxonomy alternatives is performed with multi-objective genetic algorithms and a Powell’s method scheme for vehicle optimization in a multidisciplinary modeling and simulation environment. A dynamic sensitivity visualization analysis tool is generated for the Advanced Concept with response surface equations.
Technical Paper

Bi-level Integrated System Synthesis: A Proposed Application to Aeroelastic Constraint Analysis in a Conceptual Design Environment

The projection of aeroelastic constraints in the design space has long been a want in the design process of vehicles. These properties are usually not established accurately until later phases of design. The desire is to bring another interactive constraint to the conceptual design phase and allow the designer to see the impact of design decisions on aeroelastic characteristics. Even though a number of analysis and optimization tools have been developed to support aeroelastic analysis and optimization in the flight vehicle design process, the toolbox is far from being complete. The results often cannot be obtained in a manner timely enough and the natural division of the engineering team into specialty groups is not supported very well by the aerodynamic-structures monolithic codes typically in the above toolbox. The monolithic codes are also not amenable to the use of concurrent processing now made available by computer technology.
Technical Paper

Aerospace Systems Design: Economics as a New Way of Thinking?

One of the major impetuses for the development of modern, robust design methodologies is the need for affordable aerospace systems. Because the affordability of a system is directly tied to the economics of developing, manufacturing, operating, and disposing of that system, it has become common practice to perform an economic analysis of a potential system to evaluate its viability. Additionally, as needs for improved modeling, analysis, and evaluation capability have arisen, several techniques which have proved themselves popular in economics have been adopted. While adopting these techniques has improved the capabilities of the designer/engineer, they do not proceed far enough. That is aerospace systems design, and consequently all complex systems design, could actually be considered an exercise in economics. All of the players, i.e. designers, firms, end users, and the systems themselves can be considered microeconomic entities.
Technical Paper

A Method for Concept Exploration of Hypersonic Vehicles in the Presence of Open & Evolving Requirements

Several unique aspects of the design of hypersonic aerospace systems necessitate a truly multidisciplinary approach from the outset of the program. These coupled with a vague or changing requirements environment, provide an impetus for the development of a systematic and unified approach for the exploration and evaluation of alternative hypersonic vehicle concepts. The method formulated and outlined in this paper is founded upon non-deterministic conceptual & preliminary design formulations introduced over the past decade and introduces the concept of viewing system level requirements in a similar manner. The proposed method is then implemented for the concept exploration and design of a Hypersonic Strike Fighter in the presence of ambiguous open and/or evolving requirements.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Assessment of High Speed Rotorcraft Concepts (HSRC): Reaction Driven Stopped Rotor/Wing Versus Variable Diameter Tiltrotor

The objective of this paper is to illustrate the methods and tools developed to size and synthesize a stopped rotor/wing vehicle using a reaction drive system, including how this design capability is incorporated into a sizing and synthesis tool, VASCOMP II. This new capability is used to design a vehicle capable of performing a V-22 escort mission, and a sized vehicle description with performance characteristics is presented. The resulting vehicle is then compared side-by-side to a variable diameter tiltrotor designed for the same mission. Results of this analysis indicate that the reaction-driven rotor concept holds promise relative to alternative concepts, but that the variable diameter tiltrotor has several inherent performance advantages. Additionally, the stopped rotor/wing needs considerably more development to reach maturity.