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Technical Paper

Semi-Active Suspension Design for Enhancing Vehicle Ride, Road-Friendliness and Braking Performance

This study proposes a novel semi-active hydro-pneumatic suspension design and investigates its performance potentials. The proposed new semi-active suspension design involves pneumatic interconnection between the front and rear suspension struts of the vehicle. The analytical formulations of suspension forces due to two suspension configurations, a passive unconnected and the proposed semi-active interconnected, are derived to analyze suspension properties. Based on a validated pitch-plane vehicle braking model, vehicle dynamic responses are conducted under a range of measured road roughness excitations and driving speeds, as well as braking inputs.
Technical Paper

Recognizing Driver Braking Intention with Vehicle Data Using Unsupervised Learning Methods

Recently, the development of braking assistance system has largely benefit the safety of both driver and pedestrians. A robust prediction and detection of driver braking intention will enable driving assistance system response to traffic situation correctly and improve the driving experience of intelligent vehicles. In this paper, two types unsupervised clustering methods are used to build a driver braking intention predictor. Unsupervised machine learning algorithms has been widely used in clustering and pattern mining in previous researches. The proposed unsupervised learning algorithms can accurately recognize the braking maneuver based on vehicle data captured with CAN bus. The braking maneuver along with other driving maneuvers such as normal driving will be clustered and the results from different algorithms which are K-means and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) will be compared.
Journal Article

Property Analysis of an X-Coupled Suspension for Sport Utility Vehicles

The influences of fluidic X-coupling of hydro-pneumatic suspension struts on the various suspension properties are investigated for a sport utility vehicle (SUV). The stiffness and damping properties in the bounce, pitch, roll and warp modes are particularly addressed together with the couplings between the roll, pitch, bounce and warp modes of the vehicle. The proposed X-coupled suspension configuration involves diagonal hydraulic couplings among the different chambers of the four hydro-pneumatic struts. The static and dynamic forces developed by the struts of the unconnected and X-coupled suspensions are formulated using a simple generalized model, which are subsequently used to derive the stiffness and damping properties. The properties of the X-coupled suspension are compared with those of the unconnected suspension configuration, in terms of four fundamental vibration modes, namely bounce, roll, pitch and warp, to illustrate the significant effects of fluidic couplings.
Journal Article

Power Consumption Analysis of a Flexible-Wheel Suspension Planetary Rover Operating upon Deformable Terrain

This study analyzes the power consumption of a specific Planetary Exploration Vehicle (PEV) subsystem known as Flexible-Wheel (FW) suspension, more specifically the interaction between a FW and the deformable terrain upon which it traverses. To achieve this a systematic and analytical calculation procedure has been developed, which culminates in the definition of three dimensionless properties to capture the FW-soil interaction. Aimed towards the design engineer participating in concept evaluation, and the control engineer conducting initial analyses, this study has found that the resistance coefficient for the interaction between a FW and the deformable terrain can, in general, be several orders of magnitude higher than the rolling resistance of a pneumatic tire operating upon rigid terrain.
Technical Paper

Pitch Attitude Control and Braking Performance Analysis of Heavy Vehicle with Interconnected Suspensions

This study investigates the performance potentials of hydro-pneumatic suspensions interconnected in the pitch plane of a heavy vehicle. Different configurations of interconnected suspensions comprising pneumatic, hydraulic or hybrid fluidic couplings between the front-and rear-suspension struts are proposed and analyzed. A 7-DOF pitch plane vehicle model is formulated to explore the relative vertical and pitch properties of different suspension configurations, as well as the dynamic responses of the vehicle under braking and road inputs. The mathematical formulations of strut forces due to both the unconnected and pitch-connected suspensions are derived. Relative performance potentials of different configurations are evaluated in terms of sprung mass pitch angle, suspension travel and stopping distance characteristics under different braking inputs and road conditions. The vertical ride quality is further assessed under a range of road roughness excitations and vehicle speeds.
Technical Paper

Optimal Damping Design of Heavy Vehicle with Interconnected Hydro-Pneumatic Suspension

The optimal damping design of roll plane interconnected hydro-pneumatic suspension is investigated, in order to improve vertical ride and road-friendliness of heavy vehicles, while maintaining enhanced roll stability. A nonlinear roll plane vehicle model is developed to study vertical as well as roll dynamics of heavy vehicles. The damping valves and gas chamber are integrated within the same suspension strut unit to realize compact design. The influence of variations in damping valve threshold velocity on relative roll stability is explored, under centrifugal acceleration excitations arising from steady turning and lane change maneuvers, as well as crosswind. The effects of damping valve design parameters on the vertical ride vibration and vehicle-road interaction characteristics are also investigated under a medium rough road input and two different vehicle speeds.
Technical Paper

Influence of Oil Compressibility of Fluidic Suspensions on Vehicle Roll Stability and Ride Dynamics

This study investigates influence of compressible hydraulic fluid and suspension floating piston dynamics of fluidic suspensions on heavy vehicle roll stability and ride dynamics. Two fluidic suspension designs, including a single-gas-chamber strut and a novel twin-gas-chamber strut, are analyzed to develop the mathematical formulations of dynamic forces, upon considerations of hydraulic fluid compressibility and floating piston dynamics. Dynamic responses of the heavy vehicle with the different suspension configurations are then performed using a nonlinear roll plane vehicle model. The excitations arise from vehicle-road interactions as well as a steady steering maneuver. The results demonstrate that the compressibility characteristic of hydraulic fluid within a hydro-pneumatic suspension could affect the vehicle roll stability and ride dynamics, while the influence of suspension floating piston dynamics on vehicle dynamic responses is negligible.
Journal Article

Experimental and Analytical Evaluations of a Torsio-Elastic Suspension for Off-Road Vehicles

The ride performance potentials of a prototype torsio-elastic axle suspension for an off-road vehicle were investigated analytically and experimentally. A forestry vehicle was fitted with the prototype suspension at its rear axle to assess its ride performance benefits. Field measurements of ride vibration along the vertical, lateral, fore-aft, roll and pitch axes were performed for the suspended and an unsuspended vehicle, while traversing a forestry terrain. The measured vibration responses of both vehicles were evaluated in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted rms accelerations and the acceleration spectra, and compared to assess the potential performance benefits of the proposed suspension. The results revealed that the proposed suspension could yield significant reductions in the vibration magnitudes transmitted to the operator's station.
Journal Article

Effect of Terrain Roughness on the Roll and Yaw Directional Stability of an Articulated Frame Steer Vehicle

Compared to the vehicles with conventional steering, the articulated frame steer vehicles (ASV) are known to exhibit lower directional and roll stability limits. Furthermore, the tire interactions with relatively rough terrains could adversely affect the directional and roll stability limits of an ASV due to terrain-induced variations in the vertical and lateral tire forces. It may thus be desirable to assess the dynamic safety of ASVs in terms of their directional control and stability limits while operating on different terrains. The effects of terrain roughness on the directional stability limits of an ASV are investigated through simulations of a comprehensive three-dimensional model of the vehicle with and without a rear axle suspension. The model incorporates a torsio-elastic rear axle suspension, a kineto-dynamic model of the frame steering struts and equivalent random profiles of different undeformable terrains together with coherence between the two tracks profiles.
Journal Article

Cyber-Physical System Based Optimization Framework for Intelligent Powertrain Control

The interactions between automatic controls, physics, and driver is an important step towards highly automated driving. This study investigates the dynamical interactions between human-selected driving modes, vehicle controller and physical plant parameters, to determine how to optimally adapt powertrain control to different human-like driving requirements. A cyber-physical system (CPS) based framework is proposed for co-design optimization of the physical plant parameters and controller variables for an electric powertrain, in view of vehicle’s dynamic performance, ride comfort, and energy efficiency under different driving modes. System structure, performance requirements and constraints, optimization goals and methodology are investigated. Intelligent powertrain control algorithms are synthesized for three driving modes, namely sport, eco, and normal modes, with appropriate protocol selections. The performance exploration methodology is presented.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Roll Properties of Hydraulically and Pneumatically Interconnected Suspensions for Heavy Vehicles

Two different concepts in hydro-pneumatic suspension struts are formulated to conveniently realize either hydraulic or pneumatic interconnections between the struts within different wheel suspensions. The formulation employs a compact strut design that integrates a gas chamber and damping valves within the same unit, and provides considerably enhanced working area to appreciably reduce the operating pressure. A transverse interconnection between the hydro-pneumatic struts in the roll plane is analyzed to investigate its static and dynamic heave and roll properties, and relative potential benefits in enhancing the roll properties, while retaining the soft heave ride. Different hydraulically and pneumatically interconnected strut configurations are analyzed for a heavy vehicle, with appropriate considerations of the fluid compressibility, while the feedback effects associated with the interconnections are emphasized.