Two-Step Variable Valve Actuation for Fuel Economy, Emissions, and Performance
Variable-Valve Actuation (VVA) provides improvements in engine efficiency, emissions, and performance by changing the valve lift and timing as a function of engine operating conditions. Two-Step VVA systems utilize two discrete valve-lift profiles and may be combined with continuously variable cam phasing. Two-Step VVA systems are relatively simple, low cost and easy to package on new and existing engines, and therefore, are attractive to engine manufacturers. The objective of this work was to optimize Two-Step system design and operation for maximum system benefits. An Early-Intake-Valve-Closing (EIVC) strategy was selected for warmed-up operating conditions, and a Late-Intake-Valve-Opening (LIVO) strategy was selected for the cold start. Engine modeling tools were used to fundamentally understand the thermodynamic and fluid mechanical processes involved.