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Technical Paper

Supercharged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is the third alternative for combustion in the reciprocating engine. Here, a homogeneous charge is used as in a spark ignited engine, but the charge is compressed to auto-ignition as in a diesel. The main difference compared with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is the lack of flame propagation and hence the independence from turbulence. Compared with the diesel engine, HCCI has a homogeneous charge and hence no problems associated with soot and NOX formation. Earlier research on HCCI showed high efficiency and very low amounts of NOX, but HC and CO were higher than in SI mode. It was not possible to achieve high IMEP values with HCCI, the limit being 5 bar. Supercharging is one way to dramatically increase IMEP. The influence of supercharging on HCCI was therefore experimentally investigated. Three different fuels were used during the experiments: iso-octane, ethanol and natural gas.
Technical Paper

Studying HCCI Combustion and its Cyclic Variations Versus Heat Transfer, Mixing and Discretization using a PDF Based Approach

The ability to predict cyclic variations is certainly useful in studying engine operating regimes, especially under unstable operating conditions where one single cycle may differ from another substantially and a single simulation may give rather misleading results. PDF based models such as Stochastic Reactor Models (SRM) are able to model cyclic variations, but these may be overpredicted if discretization is too coarse. The range of cyclic variations and the dependence of the ability to correctly assess their mean values on the number of cycles simulated were investigated. In most cases, the average values were assessed correctly on the basis of as few as 10 cycles, but assessing the complete range of cyclic variations could require a greater number of cycles. In studying average values, variations due too coarse discretization being employed are smaller than variations originating from changes in physical parameters, such as heat transfer and mixing parameters.
Technical Paper

Soot Source Term Tabulation Strategy for Diesel Engine Simulations with SRM

In this work a soot source term tabulation strategy for soot predictions under Diesel engine conditions within the zero-dimensional Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DI-SRM) framework is presented. The DI-SRM accounts for detailed chemistry, in-homogeneities in the combustion chamber and turbulence-chemistry interactions. The existing implementation [1] was extended with a framework facilitating the use of tabulated soot source terms. The implementation allows now for using soot source terms provided by an online chemistry calculation, and for the use of a pre-calculated flamelet soot source term library. Diesel engine calculations were performed using the same detailed kinetic soot model in both configurations. The chemical mechanism for n-heptane used in this work is taken from Zeuch et al. [2] and consists of 121 species and 973 reactions including PAH and thermal NO chemistry. The engine case presented in [1] is used also for this work.
Journal Article

Soot Simulation under Diesel Engine Conditions Using a Flamelet Approach

The subject of this work is 3D numerical simulations of combustion and soot emissions for a passenger car diesel engine. The CFD code STAR-CD version 3.26 [1] is used to resolve the flowfield. Soot is modeled using a detailed kinetic soot model described by Mauss [2]. The model includes a detailed description of the formation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The coupling between the turbulent flowfield and the soot model is achieved through a flamelet library approach, with transport of the moments of the soot particle size distribution function as outlined by Wenzel et al. [3]. In this work we extended this approach by considering acetylene feedback between the soot model and the combustion model. The model was further improved by using new gas-phase kinetics and new fitting procedures for the flamelet soot library.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Three-Way Catalyst Using Transient Single and Multi-Channel Models

The three-way catalytic converter (TWC) is the most common catalyst for gasoline engine exhaust gas after treatment. The reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) is achieved via oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and reduction of nitrogen oxides. These conversion effects were simulated in previous works using single-channel approaches and detailed kinetic models. In addition to the single-channel model multiple representative catalyst channels are used in this work to take heat transfer between the channels into account. Furthermore, inlet temperature distribution is considered. Each channel is split into a user given number of cells and each cell is treated like a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR). The simulation is validated against an experimental four-stroke engine setup with emission outputs fed into a TWC.
Technical Paper

Simulation of HCCI – Addressing Compression Ratio and Turbo Charging

This paper focuses on the performance and efficiency of an HCCI (Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition) engine system running on natural gas or landfill gas for stationary applications. Zero dimensional modeling and simulation of the engine, turbo, inlet and exhaust manifolds and inlet air conditioner (intercooler/heater) are used to study the effect of compression ratio and exhaust turbine size on maximum mean effective pressure and efficiency. The extended Zeldovich mechanism is used to estimate NO-formation in order to determine operation limits. Detailed chemical kinetics is used to predict ignition timing. Simulation of the in-cylinder process gives a minimum λ-value of 2.4 for natural gas, regardless of compression ratio. This is restricted by the NO formation for richer mixtures. Lower compression ratios allow higher inlet pressure and hence higher load, but it also reduces indicated efficiency.
Technical Paper

Simulating a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with a DEE/EtOH Blend

We numerically simulate a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine fuelled with a blend of ethanol and diethyl ether by means of a stochastic reactor model (SRM). A 1D CFD code is employed to calculate gas flow through the engine, whilst the SRM accounts for combustion and convective heat transfer. The results of our simulations are compared to experimental measurements obtained using a Caterpillar CAT3401 single-cylinder Diesel engine modified for HCCI operation. We consider emissions of CO, CO2 and unburnt hydrocarbons as functions of the crank angle at 50% heat release. In addition, we establish the dependence of ignition timing, combustion duration, and emissions on the mixture ratio of the two fuel components. Good qualitative agreement is found between our computations and the available experimental data.
Technical Paper

Self-Calibrating Model for Diesel Engine Simulations

A self-calibrating model for Diesel engine simulations is presented. The overall model consists of a zero-dimensional direct injection stochastic reactor model (DI-SRM) for engine in-cylinder processes simulations and a package of optimization algorithms (OPAL) suitable for solving various optimization, automatization and search problems. In the DI-SRM, based on an extensive model parameters study, the mixing time history that affects the level of in-cylinder turbulence was selected as a main calibration parameter. As targets during calibration against the experimental data, in-cylinder pressure history and engine-out emissions, including nitrogen oxides and unburned hydrocarbons were chosen. The calibration task was solved using DI-SRM and OPAL working as an integrated tool. Within OPAL, genetic algorithms (GA) were used to determine model constants necessary for calibrating. Engine-out emissions in DI-SRM were calculated based on the reduced mechanism of n-heptane.
Technical Paper

Potential Levels of Soot, NOx, HC and CO for Methanol Combustion

Methanol is today considered a viable green fuel for combustion engines because of its low soot emissions and the possibility of it being produced in a CO2-neutral manner. Methanol as a fuel for combustion engines have attracted interest throughout history and much research was conducted during the oil crisis in the seventies. In the beginning of the eighties the oil prices began to decrease and interest in methanol declined. This paper presents the emission potential of methanol. T-Φ maps were constructed using a 0-D reactor with constant pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio to show the emission characteristics of methanol. These maps were compared with equivalent maps for diesel fuel. The maps were then complemented with engine simulations using a stochastic reactor model (SRM), which predicts end-gas emissions. The SRM was validated using experimental results from a truck engine running in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode at medium loads.
Technical Paper

Phase Optimized Skeletal Mechanisms in a Stochastic Reactor Model for Engine Simulation

By dividing the combustion process into several phases with phase optimized skeletal mechanisms (POSM), gains in calculation speed were realized with virtually no loss in accuracy. A skeletal mechanism is a reduced mechanism where only the significant species, determined through a set of parameters (one for each species), remain with respect to a detailed mechanism. The parameter is based on a combination of sensitivity and flow analysis. Within the POSM method machine learning algorithms are used to automatically determine and recognize the major phases. Reduction is achieved by keeping only the significant species with respect to each phase. Each phase has a different mechanism, derived from the original and each is smaller than the original.
Technical Paper

On the Performance of Biodiesel Blends - Experimental Data and Simulations Using a Stochastic Fuel Test Bench

In this work are presented experimental and simulated data from a one-cylinder direct injected Diesel engine fuelled with Diesel, two different biodiesel blends and pure biodiesel at one engine operating point. The modeling approach focuses on testing and rating biodiesel surrogate fuel blends by means of combustion and emission behavior. Detailed kinetic mechanisms are adopted to evaluate the fuel-blends performances under both reactor and diesel engine conditions. In the first part of the paper, the experimental engine setup is presented. Thereafter the choice of the surrogate fuel blends, consisting of n-decane, α-methyl-naphtalene and methyl-decanoate, are verified by the help of experiments from the literature. The direct injection stochastic reactor model (DI-SRM) is employed to simulate combustion and engine exhaust emissions (NOx, HC, CO and CO2), which are compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

NOx and N2O formation in HCCI engines

Calculations using homogeneous and stochastic reactor models were performed in order to find an explanation to observed properties of NOx HCCI engines. It was found that for moderate NOx levels, N2O reactions play an important role in the NOx formation. Further, the high proportions of NO2 found in from some HCCI engines is due to high temperature inhomogeneities, poor mixing and slow overall combustion. N2O is often emitted from HCCI combustion. The levels of NOx in the exhausts are highly sensitive to temperature; however N2O has a weak negative dependence on temperature. While fuel rich operation naturally leads to high temperatures and thus high NOx levels; once the temperature effects are decoupled the fuel rich conditions themselves has a favorable effect on low-NOx engine operation.
Technical Paper

Modelling a Dual-Fuelled Multi-Cylinder HCCI Engine Using a PDF Based Engine Cycle Simulator

Operating the HCCI engine with dual fuels with a large difference in auto-ignition characteristics (octane number) is one way to control the HCCI operation. The effect of octane number on combustion, emissions and engine performance in a 6 cylinder SCANIA truck engine, fuelled with n-heptane and isooctane, and running in HCCI mode, are investigated numerically and compared with measurements taken from Olsson et al. [SAE 2000-01-2867]. To correctly simulate the HCCI engine operation, we implement a probability density function (PDF) based stochastic reactor model (including detailed chemical kinetics and accounting for inhomogeneities in composition and temperature) coupled with GT-POWER, a 1-D fluid dynamics based engine cycle simulator. Such a coupling proves to be ideal for the understanding of the combustion phenomenon as well as the gas dynamics processes intrinsic to the engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Modeling of HCCI Combustion Using Adaptive Chemical Kinetics

In this paper an online method for automatically reducing complex chemical mechanisms for simulations of combustion phenomena has been developed. The method is based on the Quasi Steady State Assumption (QSSA). In contrast to previous reduction schemes where chemical species are selected only when they are in steady state throughout the whole process, the present method allows for species to be selected at each operating point separately generating an adaptive chemical kinetics. The method is used for calculations of a natural gas fueled engine operating under Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) conditions. We discuss criteria for selecting steady state species and the influence of these criteria on the results such as concentration profiles and temperature.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Investigation of Exothermic Centers in HCCI Combustion

The formation of exothermic centers was modeled with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) to investigate their impact on HCCI combustion. By varying the exhaust valve temperature, and thus assigning more realistic wall temperatures, the formation of exothermic centers and the ignition timing was shifted in time. To be able to study the exothermic centers, their formation and their distribution, Scatter plots, standard deviation plots and Probability Density Function (PDF) plots were constructed on the basis of the data the SRM calculations provided. The standard deviation for the particle temperatures was found to be an useful indicator of the degree of homogeneity within the combustion chamber, and thus of how efficient the combustion process was. It was observed that when the standard deviation of the temperature was higher, the emissions of CO and of hydrocarbons present at the end of the closed cycle were higher.
Technical Paper

Modeling Diesel Engine Combustion With Detailed Chemistry Using a Progress Variable Approach

In this work, we present an unsteady flamelet progress variable approach for diesel engine CFD combustion modeling. The progress variable is based on sensible enthalpy integrated over the flamelet and describes the transient flamelet ignition process. By using an unsteady flamelet library for the progress variable, the impact of local effects, for example variations in the turbulence field, effects of wall heat transfer etc. on the autoignition chemistry can be considered on a cell level. The coupling between the unsteady flamelet library and the transport equation for total enthalpy follows the ideas of the representative interactive flamelet approach. Since the progress variable gives a direct description of the state in the flamelet, the method can be compared to having a flamelet in each computational cell in the CFD grid.
Technical Paper

Local Air-Fuel Ratio Measurements Using the Spark Plug as an Ionization Sensor

The influence of variable air-fuel ratio inside a spark ignition engine is examined by the use of an ionization sensor. The measured ion currents are used for predicting the local air-fuel ratio in the vicinity of the spark plug. In order to support the results, a theoretical analysis has been made. An instationary chemical kinetic model burning a mixture of iso-octane and n-heptane is used for the calculations. The results are used to reconstruct the crank angle resolved ion current that has been measured in an engine. This technique has been developed in order to offer a supplementary low-cost facility of controlling the air-fuel ratio within the combustion chamber of an engine.
Technical Paper

Knock in Spark-Ignition Engines: End-Gas Temperature Measurements Using Rotational CARS and Detailed Kinetic Calculations of the Autoignition Process

Cycle-resolved end-gas temperatures were measured using dual-broadband rotational CARS in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements were used as an indicator for knock and as input data to numerical calculations. The chemical processes in the end-gas have been analysed with a detailed kinetic mechanism for mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane at different Research Octane Numbers (RON'S). The end-gas is modelled as a homogeneous reactor that is compressed or expanded by the piston movement and the flame propagation in the cylinder. The calculated temperatures are in agreement with the temperatures evaluated from CARS measurements. It is found that calculations with different RON'S of the fuel lead to different levels of radical concentrations in the end-gas. The apperance of the first stage of the autoignition process is marginally influenced by the RON, while the ignition delay of the second stage is increased with increasing RON.
Technical Paper

Investigation of End-Gas Temperature and Pressure Increases in Gasoline Engines and Relevance for Knock Occurrence

A detailed analysis of the end-gas temperature and pressure in gasoline engines has been performed. This analysis leads to a simplified zero-dimensional model, that considers both, the compression and the expansion of the end-gas by the piston movement, and the compression by the flame front. If autoignition occurs in the end-gas the sudden rise of the pressure and the heat release is calculated. The rate form of the first law of thermodynamics for a control volume combined with the mass conservation equation for an unsteady and a uniform-flow process are applied. The heat of formation in the end-gas due to the chemical activity has been taken into account. In addition, a chemical kinetic model has been applied in order to study the occurrence of autoignition and prediction of knock.
Technical Paper

Influence of Nozzle Eccentricity on Spray Structures in Marine Diesel Sprays

Large two-stroke marine Diesel engines have special injector geometries, which differ substantially from the configurations used in most other Diesel engine applications. One of the major differences is that injector orifices are distributed in a highly non-symmetric fashion affecting the spray characteristics. Earlier investigations demonstrated the dependency of the spray morphology on the location of the spray orifice and therefore on the resulting flow conditions at the nozzle tip. Thus, spray structure is directly influenced by the flow formation within the orifice. Following recent Large Eddy Simulation resolved spray primary breakup studies, the present paper focuses on spray secondary breakup modelling of asymmetric spray structures in Euler-Lagrangian framework based on previously obtained droplet distributions of primary breakup.