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Technical Paper

Supercharged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

1998-02-23
980787
The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is the third alternative for combustion in the reciprocating engine. Here, a homogeneous charge is used as in a spark ignited engine, but the charge is compressed to auto-ignition as in a diesel. The main difference compared with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is the lack of flame propagation and hence the independence from turbulence. Compared with the diesel engine, HCCI has a homogeneous charge and hence no problems associated with soot and NOX formation. Earlier research on HCCI showed high efficiency and very low amounts of NOX, but HC and CO were higher than in SI mode. It was not possible to achieve high IMEP values with HCCI, the limit being 5 bar. Supercharging is one way to dramatically increase IMEP. The influence of supercharging on HCCI was therefore experimentally investigated. Three different fuels were used during the experiments: iso-octane, ethanol and natural gas.
Technical Paper

Soot Source Term Tabulation Strategy for Diesel Engine Simulations with SRM

2015-09-06
2015-24-2400
In this work a soot source term tabulation strategy for soot predictions under Diesel engine conditions within the zero-dimensional Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DI-SRM) framework is presented. The DI-SRM accounts for detailed chemistry, in-homogeneities in the combustion chamber and turbulence-chemistry interactions. The existing implementation [1] was extended with a framework facilitating the use of tabulated soot source terms. The implementation allows now for using soot source terms provided by an online chemistry calculation, and for the use of a pre-calculated flamelet soot source term library. Diesel engine calculations were performed using the same detailed kinetic soot model in both configurations. The chemical mechanism for n-heptane used in this work is taken from Zeuch et al. [2] and consists of 121 species and 973 reactions including PAH and thermal NO chemistry. The engine case presented in [1] is used also for this work.
Journal Article

Soot Simulation under Diesel Engine Conditions Using a Flamelet Approach

2009-11-02
2009-01-2679
The subject of this work is 3D numerical simulations of combustion and soot emissions for a passenger car diesel engine. The CFD code STAR-CD version 3.26 [1] is used to resolve the flowfield. Soot is modeled using a detailed kinetic soot model described by Mauss [2]. The model includes a detailed description of the formation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The coupling between the turbulent flowfield and the soot model is achieved through a flamelet library approach, with transport of the moments of the soot particle size distribution function as outlined by Wenzel et al. [3]. In this work we extended this approach by considering acetylene feedback between the soot model and the combustion model. The model was further improved by using new gas-phase kinetics and new fitting procedures for the flamelet soot library.
Technical Paper

Simulating a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with a DEE/EtOH Blend

2006-04-03
2006-01-1362
We numerically simulate a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine fuelled with a blend of ethanol and diethyl ether by means of a stochastic reactor model (SRM). A 1D CFD code is employed to calculate gas flow through the engine, whilst the SRM accounts for combustion and convective heat transfer. The results of our simulations are compared to experimental measurements obtained using a Caterpillar CAT3401 single-cylinder Diesel engine modified for HCCI operation. We consider emissions of CO, CO2 and unburnt hydrocarbons as functions of the crank angle at 50% heat release. In addition, we establish the dependence of ignition timing, combustion duration, and emissions on the mixture ratio of the two fuel components. Good qualitative agreement is found between our computations and the available experimental data.
Technical Paper

Self-Calibrating Model for Diesel Engine Simulations

2012-04-16
2012-01-1072
A self-calibrating model for Diesel engine simulations is presented. The overall model consists of a zero-dimensional direct injection stochastic reactor model (DI-SRM) for engine in-cylinder processes simulations and a package of optimization algorithms (OPAL) suitable for solving various optimization, automatization and search problems. In the DI-SRM, based on an extensive model parameters study, the mixing time history that affects the level of in-cylinder turbulence was selected as a main calibration parameter. As targets during calibration against the experimental data, in-cylinder pressure history and engine-out emissions, including nitrogen oxides and unburned hydrocarbons were chosen. The calibration task was solved using DI-SRM and OPAL working as an integrated tool. Within OPAL, genetic algorithms (GA) were used to determine model constants necessary for calibrating. Engine-out emissions in DI-SRM were calculated based on the reduced mechanism of n-heptane.
Technical Paper

On the Performance of Biodiesel Blends - Experimental Data and Simulations Using a Stochastic Fuel Test Bench

2014-04-01
2014-01-1115
In this work are presented experimental and simulated data from a one-cylinder direct injected Diesel engine fuelled with Diesel, two different biodiesel blends and pure biodiesel at one engine operating point. The modeling approach focuses on testing and rating biodiesel surrogate fuel blends by means of combustion and emission behavior. Detailed kinetic mechanisms are adopted to evaluate the fuel-blends performances under both reactor and diesel engine conditions. In the first part of the paper, the experimental engine setup is presented. Thereafter the choice of the surrogate fuel blends, consisting of n-decane, α-methyl-naphtalene and methyl-decanoate, are verified by the help of experiments from the literature. The direct injection stochastic reactor model (DI-SRM) is employed to simulate combustion and engine exhaust emissions (NOx, HC, CO and CO2), which are compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Modeling Diesel Engine Combustion With Detailed Chemistry Using a Progress Variable Approach

2005-10-24
2005-01-3855
In this work, we present an unsteady flamelet progress variable approach for diesel engine CFD combustion modeling. The progress variable is based on sensible enthalpy integrated over the flamelet and describes the transient flamelet ignition process. By using an unsteady flamelet library for the progress variable, the impact of local effects, for example variations in the turbulence field, effects of wall heat transfer etc. on the autoignition chemistry can be considered on a cell level. The coupling between the unsteady flamelet library and the transport equation for total enthalpy follows the ideas of the representative interactive flamelet approach. Since the progress variable gives a direct description of the state in the flamelet, the method can be compared to having a flamelet in each computational cell in the CFD grid.
Technical Paper

Influence of Nozzle Eccentricity on Spray Structures in Marine Diesel Sprays

2017-09-04
2017-24-0031
Large two-stroke marine Diesel engines have special injector geometries, which differ substantially from the configurations used in most other Diesel engine applications. One of the major differences is that injector orifices are distributed in a highly non-symmetric fashion affecting the spray characteristics. Earlier investigations demonstrated the dependency of the spray morphology on the location of the spray orifice and therefore on the resulting flow conditions at the nozzle tip. Thus, spray structure is directly influenced by the flow formation within the orifice. Following recent Large Eddy Simulation resolved spray primary breakup studies, the present paper focuses on spray secondary breakup modelling of asymmetric spray structures in Euler-Lagrangian framework based on previously obtained droplet distributions of primary breakup.
Technical Paper

Diesel-PPC engine: Predictive Full Cycle Modeling with Reduced and Detailed Chemistry

2011-08-30
2011-01-1781
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) engines have demonstrated a potential for high efficiency and low emissions operation. To be able to study the combustion in detail but also to perform parametric studies on the potential of the PPC concept a one dimensional (1D) engine simulation tool was used with 1; a prescribed burn rate 2; predictive combustion tool with reduced chemical model and 3; predictive combustion tool with detailed chemical models. Results indicate that fast executing reduced chemistry work reasonably well in predicting PPC performance and that n-decane is possibly a suitable diesel substitute in PPC modeling while n-heptane is not.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cycle Simulation with a Reduced Set of Modeling Parameters Based on Detailed Kinetics

2009-04-20
2009-01-0676
An investigation on reducing the set of modeling parameters for engine cycle simulation is presented. The investigation considers a detailed kinetic model for combustion and emissions predictions coupled to a complete cycle simulation tool applied to a modern Diesel engine. The analysis is based on a previously developed method that combines a 1-D gas dynamics model with a stochastic reactor model for direct injection engines (SRM-DI). Initially, the global and instantaneous performance parameters of a Diesel engine were simulated at different operating conditions. The model was validated and the simulated results were compared to experimental data to assess the quality of the model. Afterwards, the influence of the chosen modeling parameters on engine performance, such as in-cylinder pressure, emissions and global performances, were analyzed. The mixing time proved to be the most important modeling parameter for the stochastic reactor model.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computationally Efficient Progress Variable Approach for a Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0512
A novel 0-D Probability Density Function (PDF) based approach for the modelling of Diesel combustion using tabulated chemistry is presented. The Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DI-SRM) by Pasternak et al. has been extended with a progress variable based framework allowing the use of a pre-calculated auto-ignition table. Auto-ignition is tabulated through adiabatic constant pressure reactor calculations. The tabulated chemistry based implementation has been assessed against the previously presented DI-SRM version by Pasternak et al. where chemical reactions are solved online. The chemical mechanism used in this work for both, online chemistry run and table generation, is an extended version of the scheme presented by Nawdial et al. The main fuel species are n-decane, α-methylnaphthalene and methyl-decanoate giving a size of 463 species and 7600 reactions.
Technical Paper

Development of Methodology for Predictive Diesel Combustion Simulation Using 0D Stochastic Reactor Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0566
Stringent exhaust emission limits and new vehicle test cycles require sophisticated operating strategies for future diesel engines. Therefore, a methodology for predictive combustion simulation, focused on multiple injection operating points is proposed in this paper. The model is designated for engine performance map simulations, to improve prediction of NOx, CO and HC emissions. The combustion process is calculated using a zero dimensional direct injection stochastic reactor model based on a probability density function approach. Further, the formation of exhaust emissions is described using a detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane, which involves 56 Species and 206 reactions. The model includes the interaction between turbulence and chemistry effects by using a variable mixing time profile. Thus, one is able to capture the effects of mixture inhomogeneities on NOx, CO and HC emission formation.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemistry CFD Engine Combustion Solution with Ignition Progress Variable Library Approach

2009-06-15
2009-01-1898
This paper explains the principle and advantages of the Ignition Progress Variable Library (IPV-Library) approach and its use in predicting engine related premixed, non-premixed and compression ignited combustion events. The implementation of IPV-Library model in the engine-focused CFD code VECTIS is described. To demonstrate the application of the model in predicting various types of combustion, computational results from a 2-stroke HCCI engine, a premixed spark ignition engine and an HSDI diesel engine are presented, together with some comparisons with engine test data.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling of Diesel Sprays

2016-04-05
2016-01-0592
Several models for ignition, combustion and emission formation under diesel engine conditions for multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics have been proposed in the past. It has been recognized that the use of a reasonably detailed chemistry model improves the combustion and emission prediction especially under low temperature and high exhaust gas recirculation conditions. The coupling of the combustion chemistry and the turbulent flow can be achieved with different assumptions. In this paper we investigate a selection of n-heptane spray experiments published by the Engine Combustion Network (ECN spray H) with three different combustion models: well-stirred reactor model, transient interactive flamelet model and progress variable based conditional moment closure. All models cater for the use of detailed chemistry, while the turbulence-chemistry interaction modeling and the ability to consider local effects differ.
Technical Paper

Advanced Predictive Diesel Combustion Simulation Using Turbulence Model and Stochastic Reactor Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0516
Today numerical models are a major part of the diesel engine development. They are applied during several stages of the development process to perform extensive parameter studies and to investigate flow and combustion phenomena in detail. The models are divided by complexity and computational costs since one has to decide what the best choice for the task is. 0D models are suitable for problems with large parameter spaces and multiple operating points, e.g. engine map simulation and parameter sweeps. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate physical models to improve the predictive capability of these models. This work focuses on turbulence and mixing modeling within a 0D direct injection stochastic reactor model. The model is based on a probability density function approach and incorporates submodels for direct fuel injection, vaporization, heat transfer, turbulent mixing and detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Polynomial Tabulation (APT): A computationally economical strategy for the HCCI engine simulation of complex fuels

2010-04-12
2010-01-1085
The solution mapping method Adaptive Polynomial Tabulation (APT) for complex chemistry is presented. The method has the potential of reducing the computational time required for stochastic reactor model simulations of the HCCI combustion process. In this method the solution of the initial value chemical rate equation system is approximated in real-time with zero, first and second order polynomial expressions. These polynomials are algebraic functions of a progress variable, pressure and total enthalpy. The chemical composition space is divided a priori into block-shaped regions (hypercubes) of the same size. Each hypercube may be divided in real-time into adaptive hypercubes of different sizes. During computations, initial conditions are stored in the adaptive hypercubes. Two concentric Ellipsoids of Accuracy (EOA) are drawn around each stored initial condition.
Technical Paper

A Fast Tool for Predictive IC Engine In-Cylinder Modelling with Detailed Chemistry

2012-04-16
2012-01-1074
This paper reports on a fast predictive combustion tool employing detailed chemistry. The model is a stochastic reactor based, discretised probability density function model, without spatial resolution. Employing detailed chemistry has the potential of predicting emissions, but generally results in very high CPU costs. Here it is shown that CPU times of a couple of minutes per cycle can be reached when applying detailed chemistry, and CPU times below 10 seconds per cycle can be reached when using reduced chemistry while still catching in-cylinder in-homogeneities. This makes the tool usable for efficient engine performance mapping and optimisation. To meet CPU time requirements, automatically load balancing parallelisation was included in the model. This allowed for an almost linear CPU speed-up with number of cores available.
Technical Paper

A Computationally Efficient Progress Variable Approach for In-Cylinder Combustion and Emissions Simulations

2019-09-09
2019-24-0011
The use of complex reaction schemes is accompanied by high computational cost in 3D CFD simulations but is particularly important to predict pollutant emissions in internal combustion engine simulations. One solution to tackle this problem is to solve the chemistry prior the CFD run and store the chemistry information in look-up tables. The approach presented combines pre-tabulated progress variable-based source terms for auto-ignition as well as soot and NOx source terms for emission predictions. The method is coupled to the 3D CFD code CONVERGE v2.4 via user-coding and tested over various speed and load passenger-car Diesel engine conditions. This work includes the comparison between the combustion progress variable (CPV) model and the online chemistry solver in CONVERGE 2.4. Both models are compared by means of combustion and emission parameters. A detailed n-decane/α-methyl-naphthalene mechanism, comprising 189 species, is used for both online and tabulated chemistry simulations.
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