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Technical Paper

Turbulence Length Scale Measurements by Two-Probe-Volume LDA Technique in a Diesel Engine

Cycle resolved LDA measurements of the tangential velocity component, made along a diameter of two combustion chambers (toroidal and square) during the compression stroke of a diesel engine operating at 600 and 1000 rpm, are discussed. Indirect measurements of lateral integral length scales determined by single point autocorrelation technique are presented. Finally direct measurements of lateral integral length scales made by a new laser doppler velocimeter system based on two probe volume technique are reported.
Technical Paper

LDV Measurements of Integral Length Scales in an IC Engine

Tangential component of velocity and turbulence were measured in three locations in the re-entrant combustion chamber of a motored single-cylinder d.i. Diesel engine (0.435 liter, 21:1 compression ratio) using a Laser Doppler Velocimetry system. Moreover, a modified LDV system with two-probe volume was used to measure directly lateral integral length scales of the velocity tangential component at two engine speeds. The measurements were made on a horizontal plane at 5 mm below the engine head from 100 degrees before TDC to 60 degrees after TDC of both the compression and expansion strokes. The engine was motored at 1,000 and 1,500 rpm respectively. An ensemble-averaging technique was performed to analyze the instantaneous velocity information supplied by two Burst Spectrum Analyzers. The lateral integral length scale was obtained from the integral of the spatial correlation coefficient of the velocity fluctuation for different separation.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow Measurements by LDA and Numerical Simulation by KIVA-II Code

The fluid-mechanic behaviour of straight-sided and re-entrant chamber geometries has been studied using laser doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. Measurements have been carried out during the compression stroke in a direct injection diesel engine, representative of medium size family, operating at 1000 rpm under motored conditions. The mean motion and turbulence intensity have been computed using a filtering procedure on the LDA data. Using the second version of KIVA code, the air flow field evolution during the same crank angle period has been also computed. To perform proper comparisons between measured and computed values of mean velocity and turbulence intensity, a careful choice of the initial conditions for computations has been performed. Reasonable agreement has been found between computed and measured mean swirl velocities for both combustion chamber geometries tested. On the contrary, the computed turbulence intensities underestimate those measured.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Air Flow Field in an Open Chamber Diesel Engine

Comparisons are presented of computed and measured air flow fields in an open chamber diesel engine running at 1,000 and 2,000 rpm without combustion. Both Conchas spray and KIVA codes were tested. The effect of turbulence is represented using both K-ε and SGSD (Sub-grid Scale Differential) submodels. A Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) was used to make velocity and turbulence measurements during the compression stroke. Reasonable agreement between numerical and experimental results for the engine examined was observed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Combustion Chamber Shape on Air Flow Field in a D.I. Diesel Engine

The behaviour of two combustion chambers, a toroidal and a turbulent one, has been compared. The engine performance in terms of imep and exhaust emissions were measured. Laser Doppler Anemometry technique was used to characterize the fluids dynamic aspect of combustion system. The axial asymmetry introduced in combustion chamber shape causes strong differences in the air flow field at the end of compression stroke. The tangential velocity profile is flattened to that obtained with toroidal chamber. Moreover the rms values of tangential velocity measured in turbulent combustion chamber are about three times higher than that measured in the toroidal chamber. At low engine speed the turbulent chamber allows to operate with low NOx levels without penalties of smoke emissions and fuel consumption as happens by using conventional toroidal chamber.
Technical Paper

Assessment of k-ε Turbulence Model in KIVA-II by In-Cylinder LDV Measurements

In-cylinder measurements of turbulent integral length scales, carried out during the last 60 degrees of the compression stroke at 600 and 1,000 rpm by a two-probe volume LDV system, were used to assess the capability of the k-ε model used in KIVA-II code. The objective of the paper is to address the following question: what is the most reasonable definition of turbulent length scale in the k-ε model for engine applications? The answer derived from the comparison between KIVA predictions and experiments that showed a fair agreement between the computed turbulent length scale and the measured lateral integral length scale. The agreement is a result of proper choice of the initial swirl ratio and turbulent kinetic energy at inlet valve closure (IVC) by taking into account the LDV measurements and the value of the constant Cμε in the k-ε model equations that relates the turbulent length scale to k and ε.
Technical Paper

A Study of Physical and Chemical Delay in a High Swirl Diesel System via Multiwavelength Extinction Measurements

The characterization of a turbulent diesel spray combustion process has been carried out in a divided chamber diesel system with optical accesses. Laser Doppler Anemometry, spectral extinction and flame intensity measurements have been performed from U.V., to visible from the start of injection to the end of combustion, at fixed air/fuel ratio and different engine speeds. Spatial distribution of fuel and vapor as well as the ignition location and soot distribution have been derived in order to study the mechanism of the air-fuel interaction and the combustion process. The analysis of results has shown that the high swirling motion transports the fuel towards the left part of the chamber and breaks up the jet into small droplets of different sizes and accelerates the fuel vaporization. Then, chemical and physical overlapped phases were observed during the ignition delay, contributing both to autoignition.