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Technical Paper

The Key Role of Advanced, Flexible Fuel Injection Systems to Match the Future CO2 Targets in an Ultra-Light Mid-Size Diesel Engine

2018-05-30
2018-37-0005
The paper describes the results achieved in developing a new diesel combustion system for passenger car application that, while capable of high power density, delivers excellent fuel economy through a combination of mechanical and thermodynamic efficiencies improvement. The project stemmed from the idea that, by leveraging the high fuel injection pressure of last generation common rail systems, it is possible to reduce the engine peak firing pressure (pfp) with great benefits on reciprocating and rotating components light-weighting and friction for high-speed light-duty engines, while keeping the power density at competitive levels. To this aim, an advanced injection system concept capable of injection pressure greater than 2500 bar was coupled to a prototype engine featuring newly developed combustion system. Then, the matching among these features have been thoroughly experimentally examined.
Journal Article

Study of the Effect of the Engine Parameters Calibration to Optimize the Use of Bio-Ethanol/RME/Diesel Blend in a Euro5 Light Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1695
In the global scenario of encouraging the use of renewable sources, the bioethanol as fuel supply in the automotive sector is receiving increasing interest. In the present paper the results of a research activity aimed to study the impact of a bioethanol/biodiesel/mineral diesel blend on performance and emissions of an automotive diesel engine are reassumed. An experimental campaign has been devoted to characterize the engine fuelled by the ethanol based blend highlighting the advantages and issues related to the bioethanol use. Moreover, the effects of the most important injection settings on the engine performance have been detailed, applying a Design of Experiment (DoE) method, to identify the potentiality offered by a proper engine calibration to optimize the ethanol blend use.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis of the Effect of Pilot Quantity, Combustion Phasing and EGR on Efficiencies of a Gasoline PPC Light-Duty Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0084
In this paper, a parametric analysis on the main engine calibration parameters applied on gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is performed. Theoretically, the PPC concept permits to improve both the engine efficiencies and the NOx-soot trade-off simultaneously compared to the conventional diesel combustion. This work is based on the design of experiments (DoE), statistical approach, and investigates on the engine calibration parameters that might affect the efficiencies and the emissions of a gasoline PPC. The full factorial DoE analysis based on three levels and three factors (33 factorial design) is performed at three engine operating conditions of the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycles (WLTC). The pilot quantity (Qpil), the crank angle position when 50% of the total heat is released (CA50), and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) factors are considered. The goal is to identify an engine calibration with high efficiency and low emissions.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis of Compression Ratio Variation Effects on Thermodynamic, Gaseous Pollutant and Particle Emissions of a Dual-Fuel CH4-Diesel Light Duty Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0764
The paper reports the results of an experimental campaign aimed to assess the impact of the compression ratio (CR) variation on the performance and pollutant emissions, including the particle size spectrum, of a single cylinder research engine (SCE), representatives of the engine architectures for automotive application, operated in dual-fuel methane-diesel mode. Three pistons with different bowl volumes corresponding to CR values of 16.5, 15.5 and 14.5 were adopted for the whole test campaign. The injection strategy was based on two injection pulses per cycle, as conventionally employed for diesel engines. The test methodology per each CR included the optimization of both 1st injection pulse quantity and intake air mass flow rate in order to lower as much as possible the unburned methane emissions (MHC).
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Simulations of Combustion in Methane-Diesel Dual-Fuel Light-Duty Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0568
The adoption of gaseous fuels for Light Duty (LD) engines is considered a promising solution to efficiently reduce greenhouse gases emissions and diversify fuels supplies, while keeping pollutants production within the limits. In this respect, the Dual Fuel (DF) concept has already proven to be, generally speaking, a viable solution, industrially implemented for several applications in the Heavy-Duty (HD) engines category. Despite this, some issues still require a technological solution, preventing the commercialization of DF engines in wider automotive fields, including the release of high amounts of unburned species, possibility of engine knock, chance of thermal efficiency reduction. In this framework, numerical simulation can be a useful tool, not only to better understand specific characteristics of DF combustion, but also to explore specific geometrical modifications and engine calibrations capable to adapt current LD architectures to this concept.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Combustion in Compression Ignition Engines Operating with Variable Charge Premixing Levels

2011-09-11
2011-24-0027
Premixed combustion modes in compression ignition engines are studied as a promising solution to meet fuel economy and increasingly stringent emissions regulations. Nevertheless, PCCI combustion systems are not yet consolidated enough for practical applications. The high complexity of such combustion systems in terms of both air-fuel charge preparation and combustion process control requires the employment of robust and reliable numerical tools to provide adequate comprehension of the phenomena. Object of this work is the development and validation of suitable models to evaluate the effects of charge premixing levels in diesel combustion. This activity was performed using the Lib-ICE code, which is a set of applications and libraries for IC engine simulations developed using the OpenFOAM® technology.
Technical Paper

Low Cetane Number Renewable Oxy-fuels for Premixed Combustion Concept Application: Experimental Investigation on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1310
This paper illustrates the results of an experimental study on the impact of a low cetane number (CN) oxygenated fuel on the combustion process and emissions of a light-duty (LD) single-cylinder research engine. In an earlier study, it was concluded that cyclic oxygenates consistently outperformed their straight and branched counterparts at equal oxygen content and with respect to lowering soot emissions. A clear correlation was reported linking soot and CN, with lower CN fuels leading to more favorable soot levels. It was concluded that a lower CN fuel, when realized by adding low reactive cyclic oxygenates to commercial diesel fuel, manifests in longer ignition delays and thus more premixing. Ultimately, a higher degree of premixing, in turn, was thought to suppress soot formation rates.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effect of Compression Ratio on the Combustion Behavior and Emission Performance of HVO Blended Diesel Fuels in a Single-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0898
Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) is a renewable high quality paraffinic diesel that can be obtained by the hydrotreating of a wide range of biomass feedstocks, including vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils, greases and algal oils. HVO can be used as a drop-in fuel with beneficial effects for the engine and the environment. The main objective of this study was to explore the potential of HVO as a candidate bio blendstock for new experimental formulations of diesel fuel to be used in advanced combustion systems at different compression ratios and at high EGR rates in order to conform to the Euro 6 NOx emission standard. The experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder research engine at three steady-state operating conditions and at three compression ratios (CR) by changing the piston.
Journal Article

Functional Requirements to Exceed the 100 kW/l Milestone for High Power Density Automotive Diesel Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0072
The paper describes the challenges and results achieved in developing a new high-speed Diesel combustion system capable of exceeding the imaginative threshold of 100 kW/l. High-performance, state-of-art prototype components from automotive diesel technology were provided in order to set-up a single-cylinder research engine demonstrator. Key design parameters were identified in terms boost, engine speed, fuel injection pressure and injector nozzle flow rates. In this regard, an advanced piezo injection system capable of 3000 bar of maximum injection pressure was selected, coupled to a robust base engine featuring ω-shaped combustion bowl and low swirl intake ports. The matching among the above-described elements has been thoroughly examined and experimentally parameterized.
Journal Article

Experimental Evaluation of Compression Ratio Influence on the Performance of a Dual-Fuel Methane-Diesel Light-Duty Engine

2015-09-06
2015-24-2460
The paper reports an experimental study on the effect of compression ratio variation on the performance and pollutant emissions of a single-cylinder light-duty research diesel engine operating in DF mode. The architecture of the combustion system as well as the injection system represents the state-of-the-art of the automotive diesel technology. Two pistons with different bowl volume were selected for the experimental campaign, corresponding to two CR values: 16.5 and 14.5. The designs of the piston bowls were carefully performed with the 3D simulation in order to maintain the same air flow structure at the piston top dead center, thus keeping the same in-cylinder flow characteristics versus CR. The engine tests choice was performed to be representative of actual working conditions of an automotive light-duty diesel engine.
Journal Article

Experimental Characterization of Diesel Combustion Using Glycerol Derived Ethers Mixtures

2013-09-08
2013-24-0104
In this paper the characteristics of a mixture of glycerol-based ethers usable in a compression ignition engine are investigated, in terms of efficiency and emissions. Alternative pathways for the energetic exploitation of biodiesel derived glycerol became of increasing interest as the biodiesel production was increased worldwide. Because of its detrimental physical and chemical properties, raw glycerol is hardly usable in conventional internal combustion engines (ICE). However, etherification of glycerol with tert-butyl alcohol and isobutylene allows obtaining a mixture mainly composed of higher glycerol ethers (GEM) suitable for compression ignition engines. Thus, the aim of this research study was to test a mixture of mono-, di- and tri-tert-butyl ethers of glycerol in blend with a commercial diesel fuel in a compression ignition engine, evaluating the fuel efficiency and the impact on the pollutant emissions.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction Technologies for the Future Low Emission Rail Diesel Engines: EGR vs SCR

2013-09-08
2013-24-0087
The EU emission standards for new rail Diesel engines are becoming even more stringent. EGR and SCR technologies can both be used to reduce NOx emissions; however, the use of EGR is usually accompanied by an increase in PM emissions and may require a DPF. On the other hand, the use of SCR requires on-board storage of urea. Thus, it is necessary to study these trade-offs in order to understand how these technologies can best be used in rail applications to meet new emission standards. The present study assesses the application of these technologies in Diesel railcars on a quantitative basis using one and three dimensional numerical simulation tools. In particular, the study considers a 560 kW railcar engine with the use of either EGR or SCR based solutions for NOx reduction. The NOx and PM emissions performances are evaluated over the C1 homologation cycle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Port Injected Ethanol on Combustion Characteristics in a Dual-Fuel Light Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1692
Nowadays, alcoholic fuels gain increased interest as alternative transportation biofuel even in compression ignition engines due to the fact that they contain oxygen and can be produced in a sustainable way. Furthermore, due to their lower CN (Cetane Number) they suit better for premixed combustion applications. Experimental research was conducted on a single cylinder engine provided with modern engine architecture modified for DF (Dual-Fuel) purposes. The authors have investigated the use of ethanol in a DF engine in order to exploit its well-known advantages in premixed combustion mode. The DF approach appears to be a promising solution because it permits flexible control of the premixed fuel fraction regardless from the operating conditions. This improves the exploitation of the ethanol potential according the engine working conditions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Combustion and Emissions in Light-Duty Diesel Engines Using High-Glycerol-Ethers/Diesel Blends

2015-09-06
2015-24-2445
In this paper, a detailed analysis of combustion and emissions is carried out on both metal and optical light duty diesel engines equipped with up-to-date combustion architecture. Both engines were fed with glycerol ethers mixture (GEM) in blend (10% and 20% v/v) within a commercial diesel fuel. The engines ran in significant operating points in the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) emission homologation area. The results of the experimental campaign on the metal engine show comparable performances between the diesel/GEM blends and the diesel fuel and demonstrate benefits mainly in terms of soot production. The exhaust particles diameters of diesel/GEM blends shift toward smaller dimensions and the total number decreases. Moreover, at lower load conditions, the outputs show a worsening of the unburnt mainly ascribable to the fuel characteristics.
Technical Paper

Balancing Hydraulic Flow and Fuel Injection Parameters for Low-Emission and High-Efficiency Automotive Diesel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0111
The introduction of new light-duty vehicle emission limits to comply under real driving conditions (RDE) is pushing the diesel engine manufacturers to identify and improve the technologies and strategies for further emission reduction. The latest technology advancements on the after-treatment systems have permitted to achieve very low emission conformity factors over the RDE, and therefore, the biggest challenge of the diesel engine development is maintaining its competitiveness in the trade-off “CO2-system cost” in comparison to other propulsion systems. In this regard, diesel engines can continue to play an important role, in the short-medium term, to enable cost-effective compliance of CO2-fleet emission targets, either in conventional or hybrid propulsion systems configuration. This is especially true for large-size cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the New Features of a Prototype High-Pressure “Hollow Cone Spray” Diesel Injector by Means of Engine Performance Characterization and Spray Visualization

2018-09-10
2018-01-1697
The application of more efficient compression ignition combustion concepts requires advancement in terms of fuel injection technologies. The injector nozzle is the most critical component of the whole injection system for its impact on the combustion process. It is characterized by the number of holes, diameter, internal shape, and opening angle. The reduction of the nozzle hole diameter seems the simplest way to promote the atomization process but the number of holes must be increased to keep constant the injected fuel mass. This logic has been applied to the development of a new generation of injectors. First, the tendency to increase the nozzle number and to reduce the diameter has led to the replacement of the nozzle with a circular plate. The vertical movement of the needle generates an annulus area for the fuel delivery on 360 degrees, so controlling the atomization as a function of the vertical plate position.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Effect of Low Cetane Number Fuels on a Light Duty CI Engine: Preliminary Experimental Characterization in PCCI Operating Condition

2011-09-11
2011-24-0053
The goal of this paper is to acquire insight into the influence of cetane number (CN) and fuel oxygen on overall engine performance in the Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. From literature, it is known that low reactive (i.e., low CN) fuels increase the ignition delay (ID) and therefore the degree of mixing prior to auto-ignition. With respect to fuel oxygen, it is known that this has a favorable impact on soot emissions by means of carbon sequestration. This makes the use of low CN oxygen fuels an interesting route to improve the applicability of PCCI combustion in diesel engines. In earlier studies, performed on a heavy-duty engine, cyclic oxygenates were found to consistently outperform their straight and branched counterparts with respect to curbing soot. This was attributed to a considerably lower CN.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Closed-Loop Combustion Control Capability for Biodiesel Blending Detection and Combustion Impact Mitigation for an Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1193
The present paper describes the results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori - CNR aimed at studying the impact of both fresh and highly oxidized Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) at different levels of blending on performance, emissions and fuel consumption of modern automotive diesel engines featuring Closed-Loop Combustion Control (CLCC). In parallel, the capability of this system to detect the level of biodiesel blending through the use of specific detection algorithms was assessed. The tests were performed on the recently released 2.0L Euro5 GM diesel engine for passenger car application equipped with embedded pressure sensors in the glow plugs. Various blends of fresh and aged RME with reference diesel fuel were tested, notably 20% RME by volume (B20), 50% (B50) and pure RME (B100).
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Impact of the Dual-Fuel Ethanol-Diesel System on the Size, Morphology, and Chemical Characteristics of the Soot Particles Emitted from a LD Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1613
Nowadays, alcohol fuels are of increasing interest as alternative transportation biofuels even in compression ignition engines because they are oxygenated and producible in a sustainable way. In this paper, the experimental research activity was conducted on a single cylinder research engine provided with a modern architecture and properly modified in a dual-fuel (DF) configuration. Looking at ethanol the as one of the future environmental friendly biofuels experimental campaign was aimed to evaluate in detail the effect of the use of the ethanol as port injected fuel in diesel engine on the size, morphology, reactivity and chemical features of the exhaust emitted soot particles. The engine tests were chosen properly in order to represent actual working conditions of an automotive light-duty diesel engine. A proper engine Dual-Fuel calibration was set-up respecting prefixed limits on in-cylinder peak firing pressure, cylinder pressure rise, fuel efficiency and gaseous emissions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Prototype High-Pressure “Hollow Cone Spray” Diesel Injector Performance in Optical and Metal Research Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0073
Technologies for direct injection of fuel in compression ignition engines are in continuous development. One of the most investigated components of this system is the injector; in particular, main attention is given to the nozzle characteristics as hole diameter, number, internal shape, and opening angle. The reduction of nozzle hole diameter seems the simplest way to increase the average fuel velocity and to promote the atomization process. On the other hand, the number of holes must increase to keep the desired mass flow rate. On this basis, a new logic has been applied for the development of the next generation of injectors. The tendency to increase the nozzle number and to reduce the diameter has led to the replacement of the nozzle with a circular plate that moves vertically. The plate motion allows to obtain an annulus area for the delivery of the fuel on 360 degrees; while the plate lift permits to vary the atomization level of the spray.
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