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Technical Paper

Wake Related Wind Tunnel Corrections for Closed Wall Test Sections

In closed wall test sections the total correction to the measured drag usually consists of several parts: solid blockage corrections related to the displacement of the model, horizontal buoyancy corrections due to empty tunnel gradients and the wake blockage corrections, which are necessary to handle effects created by the displacement effect of the wake. The latter will be investigated in more detail in the paper. The wake blockage correction usually consists of two parts: a correction to the measured dynamic pressure (q-correction) and a gradient correction, the so-called wake induced drag increment. Both corrections are directly dependent on the source strength which is equivalent to the displacement effect of the wake. Therefore the displacement of the wake is analyzed in more detail.
Journal Article

The New Audi A6/A7 Family - Aerodynamic Development of Different Body Types on One Platform

The paper describes the aerodynamic development and optimization process of the three different new models of the Audi A6/A7 family. The body types of these three models represent the three classic aerodynamic body types squareback, notchback and fastback. A short introduction of the flow structures of these different body types is given and their effect on the vehicle aerodynamic is described. In order to achieve good aerodynamic performance, the integration into the development process of the knowledge about these flow phenomena and the breakdown of the aerodynamic resistance into its components friction- and pressure drag as well as the induced drag is very important. The paper illustrates how this is realized within the aerodynamic development process at Audi. It describes how the results of CFD simulations are combined with wind tunnel measurements and how the information about the different flow phenomena were used to achieve an aerodynamic improvement.
Technical Paper

The Audi Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel: Final Design and First Operational Experience

Audi's new full scale aeroacoustic wind tunnel is under full operation now. The new facility is designed for full scale automotive testing of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics for vehicles up to 3 m2 frontal area at wind speeds up to 300 kph. The highlights are the unique ground simulation system with boundary layer suction and a 5-belt-system, and the extremely low background noise of only 60 dB(A) at 160 kph. First the background of the project is illustrated and the need for the special features of the tunnel is deduced form the industrial requirements. Then an overview of the facility design is given with a detailed description of the key technical components. The calibration of the self-correcting test section will be discussed and the physical background for it will be examined more closely. For the calibrated wind tunnel the results of two correlation tests including open jet as well as closed wall wind tunnels show a reasonable conformity.
Technical Paper

Induced Drag of Ground Vehicles and Its Interaction with Ground Simulation

For the aerodynamic development of an aircraft the induced drag is an important quantity and it has a significant impact on the design of the wing. The induced drag corresponds to the power requirement of the wing to generate the necessary lift. In many cases this is the dominant source of drag for aircraft. In ground vehicle aerodynamics the concept of induced drag up to now has attracted much less attention. This is partly due to the fact, that vehicle aerodynamicists usually optimize the vehicles to generate little or no lift. The second reason is that it is much more difficult for a ground vehicle to separate the total drag into the different contributions. During wind tunnel tests of vehicles with and without ground simulation some astonishing results were found, especially when comparing results for different rear end shapes.
Technical Paper

Helmholtz Resonators Acting as Sound Source in Automotive Aeroacoustics

Helmholtz-resonators are discussed in technical acoustics normally in conjunction with attenuation of sound, not with amplification or even production of sound. On the other hand everybody knows the sound produced by a bottle, when someone blows over the orifice. During the investigation of the sound produced in body gaps it was found that the underlying flow physics are closely related to the Helmholtz-resonator. But different from the typical Helmholtz-resonator generated noise – as for example the blown bottle or, from the automotive world, the sun roof buffeting – there is no fluid resonance involved in the process. For body gaps the random pressure fluctuation of the turbulent boundary layer is sufficient to excite the acoustic resonance in the cavity. The sound generation is characterized by a continuous rise in sound pressure level with increasing velocity, the rise is proportional to U with varying exponents.
Technical Paper

Gradient Effects on Drag Due to Boundary-Layer Suction in Automotive Wind Tunnels

A region with floor boundary-layer suction upstream of the vehicle to remove the oncoming boundary layer is often used in automotive wind tunnels. These suction systems inevitably change the empty-tunnel pressure gradient. In this paper, the empty-tunnel pressure gradient created by the use of boundary layer suction and its effect on measured drag are investigated. By using excess suction - more suction than necessary to remove the floor boundary layer – it was possible to show experimentally that the major part of the drag increase due to boundary layer suction is created by unintended gradient effects. Only a minor part of the drag increase is due to the increased flow velocities at the lower parts of the vehicle, or in other words, due to the improved ground simulation. A theoretical model, using the concept of horizontal buoyancy to predict the gradient effect, is proposed. The model is compared to the experimental results as well as to CFD calculations.
Technical Paper

Correction of Nozzle Gradient Effects in Open Jet Wind Tunnels

In open jet wind tunnels with high blockage ratios a sharp rise in drag is observed for models approaching the nozzle exit plane. The physical background for this rise in drag will be analyzed in the paper. Starting with a basic analysis of the dependencies of the effect on model and wind tunnel properties, the key parameters of the problem will be identified. It will be shown using a momentum balance and potential flow theory that interaction between model and nozzle exit can result in significant tunnel-induced gradients at the model position. In a second step, a CFD-based investigation is used to show the interaction between nozzle exit and a bluff body. The results cover the whole range between open jet and closed wall test section interaction. The model starts at a large distance from the nozzle, then moves towards the nozzle, enters the nozzle and is finally completely inside the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Cooling Drag of Ground Vehicles and Its Interaction with Ground Simulation

Cooling drag is the increase in the total drag due to the internal flow in the cooling system. Because of the high flow resistance in the heat exchanger the momentum of the fluid needed for engine cooling usually is dissipated nearly completely. The resulting drag penalty can be approximated by the so called ram drag. For ground vehicles the cooling drag is typically lower than this approximation due to positive interference of the cooling flow with the general flow around the vehicle. Different mechanisms for the positive interference have been described in the literature. Inlet interference as well as outlet interference can result in significant reduction of the share of the cooling drag. Positive outlet interference is obtained, when the remaining kinetic energy of the cooling flow contributes significant thrust to the overall momentum balance.
Technical Paper

Audi Aero-Acoustic Wind Tunnel

The present paper reveals the design concept as well as results of experimental investigations, which were conducted in the early design stage of the planned AUDI Aero-Acoustic Wind Tunnel. This low-noise open-jet facility, featuring a nozzle exit area of 11 m2 and a top speed of approximately 60 m/s, enables aerodynamic as well as acoustic testing of both, full-scale and model-scale ground vehicles. Ground simulation is provided by means of a moving-belt rig. The surrounding plenum is designed as a semi-anechoic chamber to simulate acoustic free-field conditions around the vehicle. Fan noise will be attenuated below the noise level of the open jet. The work reported herein, comprises 1/8-scale pilot-tunnel experiments of aerodynamic and acoustic configurations which were carried out at the University of Darmstadt.