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Technical Paper

VP-SIM: A Unified Approach to Energy and Power Flow Modeling Simulation and Analysis of Hybrid Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1565
The aim of this paper is to describe a unified approach to modeling the energy efficiency and power flow characteristics of energy storage and energy conversion elements used in hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicle analysis and design is concerned with the storage of energy in three domains - chemical, mechanical, and electrical - and on energy conversions between these domains. The paper presents the physical and mathematical basis of this modeling approach, as well as a modular simulator that embodies the same basic principles. The use of the simulator as an analysis tool is demonstrated through the conceptual design of a sport-utility hybrid drivetrain.
Technical Paper

Two Motor Electric Axle

2002-06-03
2002-01-1919
The paper presents a possible concept design for integration of individual wheel AC motors into Oshkosh Truck Corporation's InDependent Suspension. A new axle concept design (including drive line and CV-joint) is presented with a new AC induction motor concept. Both concepts are able to match 100% the sever-heavy duty requirements in a large area of advanced on and off road traction applications. Concepts are suitable for modularity in a multi-axle (2-6) All-Wheel Drive, All Steer configuration vehicle.
Technical Paper

Refinement of a Parallel-Series PHEV for Year 3 of the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2014-10-13
2014-01-2908
The EcoCAR 2 team at the Ohio State University has designed an extended-range electric vehicle capable of 44 miles all-electric range, which features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and a 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report documents the team's refinement work on the vehicle during Year 3 of the competition, including vehicle improvements, control strategy calibration and dynamic vehicle testing, culminating in a 99% buy off vehicle that meets the goals set forth by the team. This effort was made possible through support from the U.S. Department of Energy, General Motors, The Ohio State University, and numerous competition and local sponsors.
Technical Paper

Reducing Fuel Consumption by Using Information from Connected and Automated Vehicle Modules to Optimize Propulsion System Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1213
Global regulatory targets and customer demand are driving the automotive industry to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. Methods for achieving increased efficiency include improvements in the internal combustion engine and an accelerating shift toward electrification. A key enabler to maximizing the benefit from these new powertrain technologies is proper systems integration work - including developing optimized controls for the propulsion system as a whole. The next step in the evolution of improving the propulsion management system is to make use of available information not typically associated with the powertrain. Advanced driver assistance systems, vehicle connectivity systems and cloud applications can provide information to the propulsion management system that allows a shift from instantaneous optimization of fuel consumption, to optimization over a route. In the current paper, we present initial work from a project being done as part of the DOE ARPA-E NEXTCAR program.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Control Strategy for Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicle

2002-03-04
2002-01-0102
This paper presents a general formulation of the instantaneous power split between a fuel cell and an electrical accumulator in a charge-sustaining fuel cell hybrid vehicle. The approach proposed in this paper is based on the ECMS (Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy) control strategy previously developed for parallel hybrid vehicle applications suitable for real time application and allowing the overall minimization of hydrogen consumption while meeting the driver demand. This control strategy has been applied to a representative hybrid PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell mid-size vehicle. Using a Hybrid Fuel Cell vehicle simulator, the vehicle performance and energy requirements are estimated. The results provided by the ECMS control strategy approach are also compared to a more basic approach.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Battery Cooling System for a Range Extended Electric Truck

2019-04-02
2019-01-0158
Battery packs used in electrified automotive powertrains support heavy electrical loads resulting in significant heat generation within them. Cooling systems are used to regulate the battery pack temperatures, helping to slow down battery aging. Vehicle-level energy consumption simulations serve as a first step for determining the specifications of a battery cooling system based on the duty cycle and interactions with the rest of the powertrain. This paper presents the development of a battery model that takes into account the energy impact of heating in the battery and demonstrates its use in a vehicle-level energy consumption simulator to set the specifications of a suitable cooling system for a vehicle application. The vehicle application used in this paper is a Class 6 Pickup and Delivery commercial vehicle with a Range-Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV) powertrain configuration.
Technical Paper

Operation and Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Automobiles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1537
Currently Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are being considered as an alternative to conventional automobiles in order to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. A major concern of these vehicles is how to effectively operate the electric machine and the ICE. Towards this end two operation strategies, an best efficiency and a least fuel use strategy, are presented in this paper. To demonstrate the potential of an advanced operation strategy for HEV's, a fuzzy logic controller has been developed and implemented in simulation in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's simulator Advisor (version 2.0.2). Results have also been gathered from chassis dynamometer tests in order to verify the effectiveness of Advisor. The Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) utilizes the electric motor in a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to force the ICE (66KW Volkswagen TDI) to operate at or near its peak point of efficiency or at or near its best fuel economy.
Technical Paper

New Model for Simulating the Dynamics of Pneumatic Heavy Truck Brakes with Integrated Anti-Lock Control

2003-03-03
2003-01-1322
This paper introduces a new nonlinear model for simulating the dynamics of pneumatic-over-mechanical commercial vehicle braking systems. The model employs an effective systems approach to accurately reproduce forcing functions experienced at the hubs of heavy commercial vehicles under braking. The model, which includes an on-off type ABS controller, was developed to accurately simulate the steer, drive, and trailer axle drum (or disc) brakes on modern heavy commercial vehicles. This model includes parameters for the pneumatic brake control and operating systems, a 4s/4m (four sensor, four modulator) ABS controller for the tractor, and a 2s/2m ABS controller for the trailer. The dynamics of the pneumatic control (treadle system) are also modeled. Finally, simulation results are compared to experimental data for a variety of conditions.
Technical Paper

Motor Resolver Fault Diagnosis for AWD EV based on Structural Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-1354
Electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are getting more attention in the automotive industry with the technology improvement and increasing focus on fuel economy. For EVs and HEVs, especially all-wheel drive (AWD) EVs with two electric motors powering front and rear axles separately, an accurate motor speed measurement through resolver is significant for vehicle performance and drivability requirement, subject to resolver faults including amplitude imbalance, quadrature imperfection and reference phase shift. This paper proposes a diagnostic scheme for the specific type of resolver fault, amplitude imbalance, in AWD EVs. Based on structural analysis, the vehicle structure is analyzed considering the vehicle architecture and the sensor setup. Different vehicle drive scenarios are studied for designing diagnostic decision logic. The residuals are designed in accordance with the results of structural analysis and the diagnostic decision logic.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Simulation and Design Space Exploration of a MTV 5.0 Ton Cargo Truck in MSC-ADAMS

2005-04-11
2005-01-0938
This paper presents the results of a design space exploration based on the simulations of the MTV (Medium Tactical Vehicle) 5.0 Ton Cargo Truck using MSC-ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical System). Design space study is conducted using ADAMS/Car and ADAMS/Insight to consider parametric design changes in suspension and the tires of the cargo truck. The methodology uses an industry acknowledged multibody dynamics simulation software (ADAMS) for the modeling of the cargo truck and a flexible optimization architecture to explore the design space. This research is a part of the work done for the U.S. Army TACOM (Tank Automotive and Armaments Command) at the Center for Automotive Research, The Ohio State University.
Journal Article

Model Based Engine Control Development and Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing for the EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Competition

2011-04-12
2011-01-1297
When developing a new engine control strategy, some of the important issues are cost, resource minimization, and quality improvement. This paper outlines how a model based approach was used to develop an engine control strategy for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). The outlined approach allowed the development team to minimize the required number of experiments and to complete much of the control development and calibration before implementing the control strategy in the vehicle. It will be shown how models of different fidelity, from map-based models, to mean value models, to 1-D gas dynamics models were generated and used to develop the engine control system. The application of real time capable models for Hardware-in-the-Loop testing will also be shown.
Technical Paper

Mission-based Design Space Exploration for Powertrain Electrification of Series Plugin Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck

2018-04-03
2018-01-1027
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are essential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions. However, when analyzing different segments of the transportation industry, for example, public transportation or different sizes of delivery trucks and how the HEV are used, it is clear that one powertrain may not be optimal in all situations. Choosing a hybrid powertrain architecture and proper component sizes for different applications is an important task to find the optimal trade-off between fuel economy, drivability, and vehicle cost. However, exploring and evaluating all possible architectures and component sizes is a time-consuming task. A search algorithm, using Gaussian Processes, is proposed that simultaneously explores multiple architecture options, to identify the Pareto-optimal solutions.
Technical Paper

Island Concept EVT

2006-10-16
2006-01-3260
This paper presents an all-wheel-drive (AWD) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design approach for extreme off-road applications. The paper focuses on the powertrain design, modeling, simulation, and performance analysis. Since this project focuses on a military-type application, the powertrain is designed to enhance crew survivability and provide several different modes of limp-home operation by utilizing a new vehicle topology -herein referred to as the island topology. This topology consists of designing the vehicle such that the powertrain and other equipment and subsystems surround the crew compartment to provide a high level of protection against munitions and other harmful ordnance. Thus, in the event of an external shield penetration, the crew compartment remains protected by the surrounding equipment - which serves as a secondary shield.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Control of Hybrid Vehicles Using Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic

1998-02-23
981061
This paper discusses the use of intelligent control techniques for the control of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle powertrain. Artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic are used to implement a load leveling strategy. The resulting vehicle control unit, a supervisory controller, coordinates the powertrain components. The presented controller has the ability to adapt to different drivers and driving cycles. This allows a control strategy which includes both fuel-economy and performance modes. The strategy was implemented on the Ohio State University FutureCar.
Technical Paper

In-Depth Analysis of the Influence of High Torque Brakes on the Jackknife Stability of Heavy Trucks

2003-11-10
2003-01-3398
Published NHTSA rulemaking plans propose significant reduction in the maximum stopping distance for loaded Class-VIII commercial vehicles. To attain that goal, higher torque brakes, such as air disc brakes, will appear on prime movers long before the trailer market sees significant penetration. Electronic control of the brakes on prime movers should also be expected due to their ability to significantly shorten stopping distances. The influence upon jackknife stability of having higher performance brakes on the prime mover, while keeping traditional pneumatically controlled s-cam drum brakes on the trailer, is discussed in this paper. A hybrid vehicle dynamics model was applied to investigate the jackknife stability of tractor-semitrailer rigs under several combinations of load, speed, surface coefficient, and ABS functionality.
Technical Paper

Implementation of an Electric All-Wheel Drive (eAWD) System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0599
This paper presents the implementation and performance of an electric all-wheel drive system on a series-parallel, through-the-road hybrid electric vehicle. Conventional methods of all-wheel drive do not provide a suitable solution for this type of vehicle as the powertrain lacks a mechanical link between the front and rear axles. Moreover, this unique architecture allows the vehicle to be propelled solely by the front, or the rear, wheels during typical operation. Thus, the algorithm presented here manages wheel slip by either the front, or rear wheels when engaging to provide all-wheel drive capability. necessary testing validates the robustness of this Extensive system.
Technical Paper

High-power High-speed Road Train System

2003-11-10
2003-01-3380
This paper presents the design and development of a high-power, high-speed “road train” (with both on- and off-road applications). The system looks to optimize both high-speed operation and low-speed, close-quarters driving with the introduction of autonomous power modules. Each trailer in the road train has it own electric traction system. When driving on open roads or in open areas, each traction system receives electric energy from the high-powered tractor. However, the individual traction systems allow for distributed tractive effort, improving upon the classic road train. Further, each module has its own independent steering system, allowing for practical implementation of longer trains. Use of longer trains in open areas allows for reduced operational costs, and increased efficiency. When mobility becomes a primary concern or zero emissions operation is needed, small power supplies can allow independent trailer operation.
Technical Paper

High Performance Fuel Cell Sedan

2004-03-08
2004-01-1003
New vehicle technologies open up a vast number of new options for the designer, removing traditional constraints. Some recent conceptual designs, such as GM's Hy-wire, have recognized this and offered innovative new architectures. Unfortunately, many other new technology concept cars do not exploit the freedoms of the new technologies, hampering themselves with traditional design cues developed for conventional powertrains. This paper will present the conceptual design of a high-power, high-speed fuel cell luxury sedan. One of the main motivations of this case study was to explore what could happen when a vehicle was designed from the ground up as a fuel cell vehicle, optimized at the overall system level as well as at the individual component level. The paper will discuss innovations in vehicle architecture and novel concepts for the electrical transmission, fuel cell system and electromagnetic suspension.
Journal Article

Energy, Economical and Environmental Analysis of Plug-In Hybrids Electric Vehicles Based on Common Driving Cycles

2009-09-13
2009-24-0062
The objective draw by this project is to develop tools for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) design, energy analysis and energy management, with the aim of analyzing the effect of design, driving cycles, charging frequency and energy management on performance, fuel economy, range and battery life. A Chevrolet Equinox fueled by bio diesel B20 has been hybridized at the Center for Automotive Research (CAR), at The Ohio State University. The vehicle model has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment, and validated based on laboratory and test. The PHEV battery pack has been modeled starting from Li-Ion batteries experimental data and then implemented into the simulator. In order to simulate “real world” scenarios, custom driving cycles/typical days were identified starting from average driving statistics and well-known cycles.
Technical Paper

Empirical Models for Commercial Vehicle Brake Torque from Experimental Data

2003-03-03
2003-01-1325
This paper introduces a new series of empirical mathematical models developed to characterize brake torque generation of pneumatically actuated Class-8 vehicle brakes. The brake torque models, presented as functions of brake chamber pressure and application speed, accurately simulate steer axle, drive axle, and trailer tandem brakes, as well as air disc brakes (ADB). The contemporary data that support this research were collected using an industry standard inertia-type brake dynamometer, routinely used for verification of FMVSS 121 commercial vehicle brake standards.
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