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Technical Paper

VP-SIM: A Unified Approach to Energy and Power Flow Modeling Simulation and Analysis of Hybrid Vehicles

The aim of this paper is to describe a unified approach to modeling the energy efficiency and power flow characteristics of energy storage and energy conversion elements used in hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicle analysis and design is concerned with the storage of energy in three domains - chemical, mechanical, and electrical - and on energy conversions between these domains. The paper presents the physical and mathematical basis of this modeling approach, as well as a modular simulator that embodies the same basic principles. The use of the simulator as an analysis tool is demonstrated through the conceptual design of a sport-utility hybrid drivetrain.
Technical Paper

The 2002 Ohio State University FutureTruck - The BuckHybrid002

This year, in the third year of FutureTruck competition, the Ohio State University team has taken the challenge to convert a 2002 Ford Explorer into a more fuel efficient and environmentally friendly SUV. This goal was achieved by use of a post-transmission, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid diesel-electric drivetrain. The main power source is a 2.5-liter, 103 kW advanced CIDI engine manufactured by VM Motori. A 55 kW Ecostar AC induction electric motor provides the supplemental power. The powertrain is managed by a state of the art supervisory control system which optimizes powertrain characteristics using advanced energy management and emission control algorithms. A unique driver interface implementing advanced telematics, and an interior designed specifically to reduce weight and be more environmentally friendly add to the utility of the vehicle as well as the consumer appeal.
Technical Paper

Refinement of a Parallel-Series PHEV for Year 3 of the EcoCAR 2 Competition

The EcoCAR 2 team at the Ohio State University has designed an extended-range electric vehicle capable of 44 miles all-electric range, which features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and a 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report documents the team's refinement work on the vehicle during Year 3 of the competition, including vehicle improvements, control strategy calibration and dynamic vehicle testing, culminating in a 99% buy off vehicle that meets the goals set forth by the team. This effort was made possible through support from the U.S. Department of Energy, General Motors, The Ohio State University, and numerous competition and local sponsors.
Technical Paper

Reducing Fuel Consumption by Using Information from Connected and Automated Vehicle Modules to Optimize Propulsion System Control

Global regulatory targets and customer demand are driving the automotive industry to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. Methods for achieving increased efficiency include improvements in the internal combustion engine and an accelerating shift toward electrification. A key enabler to maximizing the benefit from these new powertrain technologies is proper systems integration work - including developing optimized controls for the propulsion system as a whole. The next step in the evolution of improving the propulsion management system is to make use of available information not typically associated with the powertrain. Advanced driver assistance systems, vehicle connectivity systems and cloud applications can provide information to the propulsion management system that allows a shift from instantaneous optimization of fuel consumption, to optimization over a route. In the current paper, we present initial work from a project being done as part of the DOE ARPA-E NEXTCAR program.
Technical Paper

Plant Modeling and Software Verification for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the EcoCAR 2 Competition

The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at The Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 44 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features an 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This paper details three years of modeling and simulation development for the OSU EcoCAR 2 vehicle. Included in this paper are the processes for developing simulation platform and model requirements, plant model and soft ECU development, test development and validation, automated regression testing, and controls and calibration optimization.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Control Strategy for Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicle

This paper presents a general formulation of the instantaneous power split between a fuel cell and an electrical accumulator in a charge-sustaining fuel cell hybrid vehicle. The approach proposed in this paper is based on the ECMS (Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy) control strategy previously developed for parallel hybrid vehicle applications suitable for real time application and allowing the overall minimization of hydrogen consumption while meeting the driver demand. This control strategy has been applied to a representative hybrid PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell mid-size vehicle. Using a Hybrid Fuel Cell vehicle simulator, the vehicle performance and energy requirements are estimated. The results provided by the ECMS control strategy approach are also compared to a more basic approach.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Battery Cooling System for a Range Extended Electric Truck

Battery packs used in electrified automotive powertrains support heavy electrical loads resulting in significant heat generation within them. Cooling systems are used to regulate the battery pack temperatures, helping to slow down battery aging. Vehicle-level energy consumption simulations serve as a first step for determining the specifications of a battery cooling system based on the duty cycle and interactions with the rest of the powertrain. This paper presents the development of a battery model that takes into account the energy impact of heating in the battery and demonstrates its use in a vehicle-level energy consumption simulator to set the specifications of a suitable cooling system for a vehicle application. The vehicle application used in this paper is a Class 6 Pickup and Delivery commercial vehicle with a Range-Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV) powertrain configuration.
Technical Paper

Operation and Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Automobiles

Currently Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are being considered as an alternative to conventional automobiles in order to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. A major concern of these vehicles is how to effectively operate the electric machine and the ICE. Towards this end two operation strategies, an best efficiency and a least fuel use strategy, are presented in this paper. To demonstrate the potential of an advanced operation strategy for HEV's, a fuzzy logic controller has been developed and implemented in simulation in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's simulator Advisor (version 2.0.2). Results have also been gathered from chassis dynamometer tests in order to verify the effectiveness of Advisor. The Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) utilizes the electric motor in a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to force the ICE (66KW Volkswagen TDI) to operate at or near its peak point of efficiency or at or near its best fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Objective Metrics of Fuel Economy, Performance and Driveability - A Review

Fuel economy, performance and driveability are three important subjects for evaluating vehicle performance. Evaluations in both simulations and real vehicles prefer objective and quantitative measures. Subjective and descriptive metrics cannot be easily implemented in simulations, and these evaluations vary with changing time or evaluators. Fuel economy is usually estimated under various city, highway and some other user-defined driving cycles. Performance criteria consist of acceleration/deceleration performance, gradeability and towing capability. Driveability measures deal with pedal responsiveness, operating smoothness and driving comfort. This includes interior noise level, jerk and acceleration parameters. Numerical references and some interpretations of the above metrics are presented in this paper, as well as how these metrics can be used to evaluate vehicle powertrain design and control strategy development.
Technical Paper

Motor Resolver Fault Diagnosis for AWD EV based on Structural Analysis

Electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are getting more attention in the automotive industry with the technology improvement and increasing focus on fuel economy. For EVs and HEVs, especially all-wheel drive (AWD) EVs with two electric motors powering front and rear axles separately, an accurate motor speed measurement through resolver is significant for vehicle performance and drivability requirement, subject to resolver faults including amplitude imbalance, quadrature imperfection and reference phase shift. This paper proposes a diagnostic scheme for the specific type of resolver fault, amplitude imbalance, in AWD EVs. Based on structural analysis, the vehicle structure is analyzed considering the vehicle architecture and the sensor setup. Different vehicle drive scenarios are studied for designing diagnostic decision logic. The residuals are designed in accordance with the results of structural analysis and the diagnostic decision logic.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Fault Diagnosis of Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine Using Nonlinear Estimations

In this paper, the detection and isolation of actuator faults (both measured and commanded) occurring in the engine breathing and the fueling systems of a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine are described. The breathing system in an SIDI engine usually consists of a fresh air induction path via an electronically controlled throttle (ECT) and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) path via an EGR valve. They are dynamically coupled through the intake manifold to form a gas mixture, which eventually enters the engine cylinders for a subsequent combustion process. Meanwhile, the fueling system is equipped with a high-pressure common-rail injection for a precise control of the fuel quantity directly injected into the engine cylinders. Since the coupled system is highly nonlinear in nature, the fault diagnosis will be performed by generating residuals based on multiple nonlinear observers.
Technical Paper

Mission-based Design Space Exploration for Powertrain Electrification of Series Plugin Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are essential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions. However, when analyzing different segments of the transportation industry, for example, public transportation or different sizes of delivery trucks and how the HEV are used, it is clear that one powertrain may not be optimal in all situations. Choosing a hybrid powertrain architecture and proper component sizes for different applications is an important task to find the optimal trade-off between fuel economy, drivability, and vehicle cost. However, exploring and evaluating all possible architectures and component sizes is a time-consuming task. A search algorithm, using Gaussian Processes, is proposed that simultaneously explores multiple architecture options, to identify the Pareto-optimal solutions.
Technical Paper

Island Concept EVT

This paper presents an all-wheel-drive (AWD) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design approach for extreme off-road applications. The paper focuses on the powertrain design, modeling, simulation, and performance analysis. Since this project focuses on a military-type application, the powertrain is designed to enhance crew survivability and provide several different modes of limp-home operation by utilizing a new vehicle topology -herein referred to as the island topology. This topology consists of designing the vehicle such that the powertrain and other equipment and subsystems surround the crew compartment to provide a high level of protection against munitions and other harmful ordnance. Thus, in the event of an external shield penetration, the crew compartment remains protected by the surrounding equipment - which serves as a secondary shield.
Technical Paper

Improved Knock Detection by Advanced Signal Processing

Engine knock has been recognized as a major problem limiting the development of fuel efficient spark-ignition engines. Detection methods employed in current knock control systems for spark ignition engines use a measurement of engine block vibration tuned to one or more resonance frequencies to extract knock-related information from the engine structural vibration. A major problem in the detection of knock (especially at higher engine speed) in commercial engines is the isolation of the desired signal from the contributions of the components other than those associated with the phenomenon under investigation. This is generally referred to as background noise. It is known that the engine knock resonance frequencies vary due to changes in combustion chamber volume and temperature during the expansion phase. Therefore, we propose an improved knock detection method using joint time-frequency analysis of engine block vibration and pressure signals.
Technical Paper

High Performance Fuel Cell Sedan

New vehicle technologies open up a vast number of new options for the designer, removing traditional constraints. Some recent conceptual designs, such as GM's Hy-wire, have recognized this and offered innovative new architectures. Unfortunately, many other new technology concept cars do not exploit the freedoms of the new technologies, hampering themselves with traditional design cues developed for conventional powertrains. This paper will present the conceptual design of a high-power, high-speed fuel cell luxury sedan. One of the main motivations of this case study was to explore what could happen when a vehicle was designed from the ground up as a fuel cell vehicle, optimized at the overall system level as well as at the individual component level. The paper will discuss innovations in vehicle architecture and novel concepts for the electrical transmission, fuel cell system and electromagnetic suspension.
Technical Paper

Fabrication of a Parallel-Series PHEV for the EcoCAR 2 Competition

The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at the Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 50 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 51 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report details the fabrication and control implementation process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 2 of the competition. The fabrication process includes finalizing designs based on identified requirements, building and assembling components, and performing extensive validation testing on the mechanical, electrical and control systems.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of Mixed-Mode HCCI/DI Combustion on a Common Rail Diesel Engine

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is considered a very promising concept to achieve low NOx and Particulate Matter emissions in traditional spark ignition and Diesel engines. However, controlling the complex mechanisms which govern the combustion process and finding a proper method for the fuel introduction for Diesel HCCI engines have proven to still be a challenge. In addition, the well known IMEP limitations of HCCI combustion restrict the benefits on emissions to low engine load conditions. The current work attempts to extend the benefits of HCCI combustion to a broader range of engine operating conditions by blending the conventional Direct Injection (DI) with the external fuel atomization. A dual combustion system could potentially overcome the limits of low-load operations and allow for a gradual transition between the conventional DI mode at high load and the HCCI external mixture formation at idle and low load.
Technical Paper

Engine Knock Analysis and Detection Using Time-Frequency Analysis

We have performed an extensive study of cycle-to-cycle variation of engine knock and its occurrence in order to have a better understanding of engine knock. Experimental studies show the randomness of knock as well as its frequency varying nature. We propose using time-frequency based signal detection method to improve knock detection since this method can track frequency variations in the measured signals. The fundamental idea behind time-frequency analysis is to be able to understand and describe how the spectral content of a signal is changing in time. Classical signal analysis has traditionally dealt with time and frequency separately. Such individual descriptions are good in situation where spectral content of signals do not change with time; however, there are often signals that have time-varying spectral content such as engine knock. It is shown that one gains more information about knock signals using time-frequency analysis method.
Journal Article

Energy, Economical and Environmental Analysis of Plug-In Hybrids Electric Vehicles Based on Common Driving Cycles

The objective draw by this project is to develop tools for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) design, energy analysis and energy management, with the aim of analyzing the effect of design, driving cycles, charging frequency and energy management on performance, fuel economy, range and battery life. A Chevrolet Equinox fueled by bio diesel B20 has been hybridized at the Center for Automotive Research (CAR), at The Ohio State University. The vehicle model has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment, and validated based on laboratory and test. The PHEV battery pack has been modeled starting from Li-Ion batteries experimental data and then implemented into the simulator. In order to simulate “real world” scenarios, custom driving cycles/typical days were identified starting from average driving statistics and well-known cycles.
Technical Paper

Effect of Traffic, Road and Weather Information on PHEV Energy Management

Energy management plays a key role in achieving higher fuel economy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology; the state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining the fuel consumed. The energy management algorithm should be designed to meet all driving scenarios while achieving the best possible fuel economy. The knowledge of the power requirement during a driving trip is necessary to achieve the best fuel economy results; performance of the energy management algorithm is closely related to the amount of information available in the form of road grade, velocity profiles, trip distance, weather characteristics and other exogenous factors. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) allow vehicles to communicate with one another and the infrastructure to collect data about surrounding, and forecast the expected events, e.g., traffic condition, turns, road grade, and weather forecast.