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Technical Paper

Why Liquid Phase LPG Port Injection has Superior Power and Efficiency to Gas Phase Port Injection

This paper reports comparative results for liquid phase versus gaseous phase port injection in a single cylinder engine. It follows previous research in a multi-cylinder engine where liquid phase was found to have advantages over gas phase at most operating conditions. Significant variations in cylinder to cylinder mixture distribution were found for both phases and leading to uncertainty in the findings. The uncertainty was avoided in this paper as in the engine used, a high speed Waukesha ASTM CFR, identical manifold conditions could be assured and MBT spark found for each fuel supply system over a wide range of mixtures. These were extended to lean burn conditions where gaseous fuelling in the multi-cylinder engine had been reported to be at least an equal performer to liquid phase. The experimental data confirm the power and efficiency advantages of liquid phase injection over gas phase injection and carburetion in multi-cylinder engine tests.
Technical Paper

Top Land Crevice and Piston Deflection Effects on Combustion in a High Speed Rotary Valve Engine

The Bishop Rotary Valve (BRV) has the opportunity for greater breathing capacity than conventional poppet valve engines. However the combustion chamber shape is different from conventional engine with no opportunity for a central spark plug. This paper reports the development of a combustion analysis and design model using KIVA-3V code to locate the ignition centers and to perform sensitivity analysis to several design variables. Central to the use of the model was the tuning of the laminar Arrhenius model constants to match the experimental pressure data over the speed range 13000-20000 rpm. Piston ring crevices lands and valve crevices is shown to be an important development area and connecting rod piston stretch has also been accommodated in the modeling. For the proposed comparison, a conventional 4 valve per cylinder poppet valve engine of nearly equal IMEP has been simulated with GT-POWER.
Technical Paper

The Systematic Evaluation of Twelve LP Gas Fuels for Emissions and Fuel Consumption

The effects on bi-fuel car exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and acceleration performance of a range of LPG fuels has been determined. The LPGs tested included those representing natural gas condensate and oil refineries' products to include a spectrum of C3:C4 and paraffiinic:olefinic mixtures. The overall conclusions are that exhaust emissions from the gaseous fuels for the three-way catalyst equipped cars tested were lower than for gasoline. For all the LPGs, CO2 equivalent emissions are reduced by 7% to 10% or more compared with gasoline. The cars' acceleration performance indicates that there was no sacrifice in acceleration times to various speeds, with any gaseous fuel in these OEM developed cars.
Technical Paper

The Performance and Emissions of the Turbocharged Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (TC-ALSI) Engine

This paper extends previous development of the ALSI concept, by investigating the performance delivered with a turbocharged version of this engine. The research is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using hydrogen, LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used extensively for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is the wide ranging evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean limit mixture shift of more than one unit of lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The paper describes the capability of the ultra lean burn spark ignition engine with the mild boost needed provided by a Honeywell turbocharger.
Technical Paper

The Lean Limit and Emissions at Near-Idle for a Gasoline HAJI System with Alternative Pre-Chamber Fuels

Hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI) is a pre-chamber ignition system for otherwise standard gasoline fueled spark ignition engines that involves the use of a chemically active turbulent jet to initiate combustion in lean fuel mixtures. HAJI burns the lean main charge rapidly and with almost no combustion variability, which allows for low hydrocarbon emissions and almost zero NOx, due to lower peak temperatures. This paper focuses on the effects of different pre-chamber fuels on combustion stability, lean limit and emissions in a single cylinder, HAJI equipped, CFR engine under a worst case, light load condition. Results indicate that the choice of pre-chamber fuel affects the main chamber lean limit but that emissions are not largely affected before this lean limit is reached. The lean limit was extended furthest, to λ = 2.5 with hydrogen, followed by λ = 2.35 with LPG, λ = 2.25 with CNG and λ = 2.15 with carbon monoxide.
Technical Paper

The Lean Burn Direct-Injection Jet-Ignition Flexi Gas Fuel LPG/CNG Engine

This paper explores through engine simulations the use of LPG and CNG gas fuels in a 1.5 liter Spark Ignition (SI) four cylinder gasoline engine with double over head camshafts, four valves per cylinder equipped with a novel mixture preparation and ignition system comprising centrally located Direct Injection (DI) injector and Jet Ignition (JI) nozzles. With DI technology, the fuel may be introduced within the cylinder after completion of the valve events. DI of fuel reduces the embedded air displacement effects of gaseous fuels and lowers the charge temperature. DI also allows lean stratified bulk combustion with enhanced rate of combustion and reduced heat transfer to the cylinder walls creating a bulk lean stratified mixture.
Technical Paper

The Feasibility of Downsizing a 1.25 Liter Normally Aspirated Engine to a 0.43 Liter Highly Turbocharged Engine

In this paper, performance, efficiency and emission experimental results are presented from a prototype 434 cm3, highly turbocharged (TC), two cylinder engine with brake power limited to approximately 60 kW. These results are compared to current small engines found in today's automobile marketplace. A normally aspirated (NA) 1.25 liter, four cylinder, modern production engine with similar brake power output is used for comparison. Results illustrate the potential for downsized engines to significantly reduce fuel consumption while still maintaining engine performance. This has advantages in reducing vehicle running costs together with meeting tighter carbon dioxide (CO2) emission standards. Experimental results highlight the performance potential of smaller engines with intake boosting. This is demonstrated with the test engine achieving 25 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP).
Technical Paper

The Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (ALSI) Engine – Its Performance and Emissions

This paper is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is an evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean mixture shift of more than one unit in lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The capability of an ultra lean burn spark ignition engine is described. The concept is operation at air-fuel ratios similar to the diesel engine but with essentially homogenous charge, although some stratification may be desirable. To achieve high thermal efficiency this engine has optimized compression ratio but with variable valve timing which enables reduction in the effective compression ratio when desirable.
Technical Paper

Spatial and Temporal Temperature Distributions in a Spark Ignition Engine Piston at WOT

Two coupled finite element analysis (FEA) programs were written to determine the transient and steady state temperature distribution in a spark ignition engine piston. The programs estimated the temperatures at each crank angle degree (CAD) through warm-up to thermal steady state. A commercial FEA code was used to combine the steady state temperature distribution with the mechanical loads to find the stress response at each CAD for one complete cycle. The first FEA program was a very fast and robust non-linear thermal code to estimate spatial and time resolved heat flux from the combustion chamber to the aluminum alloy piston crown. This model applied the energy conservation equation to the near wall gas and includes the effects of turbulence, a propagating heat source, and a quench layer allowing estimates of local, instantaneous near-wall temperature gradients and the resulting heat fluxes.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Port Fuel Injected, Spark Ignition Engine Optimised for Hydrogen Fuel

This paper presents a study of the performance of a 6-cylinder, spark-ignited, port-fuel-injected, production engine modified for hydrogen fueling. The engine modifications include turbo-charging, multiple fuel injectors per port and charge-dilution control techniques. Pumping losses are reduced through ultra-lean burn and throttle-less operation alongside high charge dilution ratio control achieved by twin independent variable cam timing without external EGR. Lean-burn combustion, engine-out emissions and brake thermal efficiency results are examined in detail. In particular, low NO emissions and brake thermal efficiencies near 38% are observed experimentally at the same operating conditions. The former is explained in terms of the usual thermal NOx pathway. Usage of throttle position, injection timings and cam timings for avoiding preignition and knock over the entire engine map are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Performance Comparison of Engine Down-Sized to High Efficieincy ICEs in Optimized Hybrid Vehicles

A real time energy management (EMS) optimizing algorithm is introduced that performs similar to offline dynamic programming (DP) for parallel HEVs. The EMS and the DP are compared, especially with the addition of a local hill climbing technique, to the example performance prediction of the fuel consumption of a 1.67 tonne large car using a 50 kW Honda Insight engine (representing 65% power reduction from standard) as reference. Then the performance of the vehicle in HEV mode, with a parallel 30 kW motor/generator is examined. The average improvement of this vehicle over five drive cycles from around the world is about 50% reduction in fuel consumption. Next the engine is replaced with an advanced SI turbocharged engine with assisted ignition which returns the performance to that expected of this class of car i.e. 0-100 km/h acceleration time of 7 s. This results in a 14% average reduction in fuel consumption across the five cycles compared with the base Honda engine.
Technical Paper

Optimum Control of an S.I. Engine with a λ=5 Capability

HAJI (Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition) is an advanced combustion initiation system for otherwise standard S.I engines. It utilises the fluid mechanics of a turbulent, chemically active jet, combined with the reliability of spark igniting rich hydrogen mixtures. The result is an extremely robust ignition system, capable of developing power from an engine charged with air-fuel mixtures as lean as λ = 5. Experiments have been performed using a single cylinder engine operating on gasoline in the speed range of 600-1800 r/min. Data are presented in the form of maps which describe fuel efficiency, combustion stability and emissions with respect to load, speed, air-fuel ratio and throttle. The results are incorporated into a model of a known engine and vehicle and this is used to estimate performance over the Federal drive-cycle.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Design of the Air Flow Orifice or Restrictor for Race Car Applications

Several race car competitions seek to limit engine power through a rule that requires all of the engine combustion air passes through a hole of prescribed diameter. As the approach and departure wall shapes to this hole, usually termed orifice or restrictor are not prescribed, there is opportunity for innovation in these shapes to obtain maximum flow and therefore power. This paper reports measurements made for a range of restrictor types including venturis with conical inlets and outlets of various angles and the application of slotted throats of the ‘Dall tube’ type. Although normal venturis have been optimized as subsonic flow measuring devices with minimum pressure losses, at the limit the flow in the throat is sonic and the down stream shocks associated with flow transition from sub-sonic to sonic are best handled with sudden angular changes and the boundary layer minimized by the corner slots between the convergent and divergent cones.
Technical Paper

Optimized Design of a Cyclic Variability Constrained Lean Limit SI Engine at Optimum NOx and Efficiency Using a PSO Algorithm

In recent times new tools have emerged to aid the optimization of engine design. The particle swarm optimizer, used here is one of these tools. However, applying it to the optimization of the S.I. engine for high efficiency and low NOx emission has shown the preference of ultra lean burn strategy combined with high compression ratios. For combined power, efficiency and emissions benefits, there are two restricting factors, limiting the applicability of this strategy, knocking and cyclic variability. In the ultra lean region, knocking is not an important issue but the variability is a major concern. This paper demonstrates the application of a variability model to limit the search domain for the optimization program. The results show that variability constrains the possible gains in fuel consumption and emission reduction, through optimizing cam phasing, mixture and spark timing. The fuel consumption gain is reduced by about 11% relative.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of a Turbocharged, Jet Ignited, Cryogenic, Port Injected, Hydrogen Engine

Favorable and unfavorable properties of hydrogen as a combustion engine fuel have been accommodated in a design of a fuel efficient and clean engine providing similar to gasoline maximum torque and power. The advanced H2ICE being developed is a turbocharged engine fitted with cryogenic port hydrogen fuel injection and the hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI). The combustion chamber is designed to produce a high compression ratio and therefore high thermal efficiency. A waste gated turbocharger provides pressure boosting for an increased power density running ultra lean for SULEV operation without after treatment. Thanks to the combustion properties of hydrogen further enhanced by the HAJI system, the engine load is mainly controlled throttle-less decreasing the fuel-to-air equivalence ratio from ultra lean ϕ=0.43 to ultra-ultra lean ϕ=0.18. The computational model developed for addressing the major design issues and the predicted engine performance and efficiency maps are included.
Technical Paper

Modeling Alternative Prechamber Fuels in Jet Assisted Ignition of Gasoline and LPG

Gas assisted jet ignition is a prechamber combustion initiation system for conventional spark ignition engines. With the system, a chemically active turbulent jet is used to initiate combustion in lean fuel mixtures enabling reliable combustion over a much broader range of air-fuel ratios. The extended range is due to the distributed ignition source provided by the jet, which can overcome the problems of poorly mixed main chamber charges and slower burning fuels. In addition, the ability to reliably ignite lean mixtures improves the thermal efficiency and enables ultra low emission levels. Experiments together with flame propagation modeling completed using STAR-CD with CHEMKIN Kinetics were done in order to examine the effects of numerous prechamber fuels on the ignition of the main fuel, which consisted of either liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or gasoline.
Journal Article

Mixture Preparation Effects on Gaseous Fuel Combustion in SI Engines

This paper presents a comparison of the influence of different mixture preparation strategies on gaseous fuel combustion in SI engines. Three mixture preparation strategies are presented for a dedicated LPG fuelled engine, showing varying results - gaseous phase port injection (PFI-G), liquid-phase port injection (PFI-L) and gaseous-phase throttle-body injection (TBI-G). Previous work by the authors has shown considerable differences in emissions and thermal efficiency between different fuelling strategies. This paper extends this work to the area of combustion characteristics and lean limit operation and closer analyses the differences between these systems. A dedicated LPG in-line six cylinder engine with compression ratio increased to 11.7:1 (up from the standard 9.65:1) was tested over a range of speed/torque conditions representing most of the steady-state parts of the Euro drive-cycle for light duty-vehicles. The air-fuel ratio was varied from lambda 1.0 to the lean limit.
Technical Paper

Lean Mixture Ignition Systems for CNG in Diesel Applications

A high compression ratio, single cylinder, open chamber diesel engine was converted to operate on homogenously charged compressed natural gas (CNG) with the aim of minimising pollutant emissions such as oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and carbon dioxide. Three ignition systems were tested including spark ignition (SI), diesel pilot ignition (DPI) and hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI). Irrespective of ignition system used, the efficiency of the engine operating on CNG was significantly reduced at part load compared to diesel. This was predominantly due to a greater amount of unburnt hydrocarbons, higher cycle-by-cycle variability, slow and partial burns and increased heat transfer to the walls. DPI and HAJI systems were able to extend the lean limit to lambda 2.7 and 3.3 respectively, however this did not result in efficiency gains.
Technical Paper

Lean Burn Performance of a Natural Gas Fuelled, Port Injected, Spark Ignition Engine

This paper presents a study of the performance of a lean burn, natural gas-fuelled, naturally aspirated, spark ignition engine for an E class vehicle. Engine performance and exhaust emissions (NO, CO, and UHC) data are first discussed. An energy balance of the engine operating at different loads and air-fuel ratios is then presented, and used to explain why engine efficiency varies with air-fuel ratio. Finally, the hot start drive cycle CO2e (CO2 equivalent) emissions are estimated for a vehicle with this engine. This shows a potential for significant reduction in vehicle greenhouse gas emissions compared to an equivalent gasoline-fuelled vehicle.
Technical Paper

Joint Efficiency and NOx Optimization Using a PSO Algorithm

The challenge of tough fuel consumption reduction targets and near zero NOx emission standards can be met by optimization of the full range of engine design variables. Here these are explored through an engine simulation model and the application of an optimizing algorithm that can work in discontinuous data space. The combustion model has main features that include flame propagation, the effects of turbulence, chamber shape interaction and NOx formation. Two engine configurations are used to illustrate the application of the model and optimizer. Both allow the adoption of extra lean burn possible with LPG as fuel and EGR through an external route or cam phasing. In the first the compression ratio and cam profiles are fixed, in the second study they are also optimized.