Refine Your Search

Author

Search Results

Journal Article

Visualization and Spectroscopic Measurement of Knocking Combustion Accompanied by Cylinder Pressure Oscillations in an HCCI Engine

2013-10-15
2013-32-9166
Combustion experiments were conducted with an optically accessible engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized for the purpose of making clear the characteristics that induce extremely rapid HCCI combustion and knocking accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations. The HCCI combustion regime was investigated in detail by high-speed in-cylinder visualization of autoignition and combustion and emission spectroscopic measurements. The results revealed that increasing the equivalence ratio and advancing the ignition timing caused the maximum pressure rise rate and knocking intensity to increase. In moderate HCCI combustion, the autoignited flame was initially dispersed temporally and spatially in the cylinder and then gradually spread throughout the entire cylinder.
Technical Paper

The Effects of the Compression Ratio, Equivalence Ratio, and Intake Air Temperature on Ignition Timing in an HCCI Engine Using DME Fuel

2005-10-12
2005-32-0002
Attention has recently been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion (HCCI) as an effective combustion process for resolving the essential nature of combustion. Meanwhile, dimethylether (DME) has attracted interest as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines. Authors measured the combustion process of DME HCCI by using a spectroscopic method. A diesel engine was used as the test engine. The results of these analyses showed that changes in the compression ratio, intake air temperature and equivalence ratio influenced the ignition timing in the HCCI combustion process. This paper discusses these effects in reference to the experimental and calculated results.
Technical Paper

The Application of Coconut-oil Methyl Ester for Diesel Engine

2007-10-30
2007-32-0065
The coconut-oil methyl ester is made from coconut oil and methanol, and both cold start performance and ignition characteristics of coconut-oil methyl ester are experimentally investigated by using a diesel engine. In experiments, diesel fuel and coconut-oil methyl ester are used and the blended ratio of coconut-oil methyl ester to diesel fuel is changed. The test is conducted at full load and 3000 rpm. The diesel engine can be run stably with any mixing ratio of coconut-oil methyl ester, however the power is slightly reduced with increasing the mixing ratio of coconut-oil methyl ester. In the cold start condition, when the mixing ratio of coconut-oil methyl ester increases, the combustion chamber wall temperature rises early and the ignition timing is improved. Therefore, the coconut-oil methyl ester has superior compression ignition characteristics and reduces exhaust gas emissions, so that the coconut-oil methyl ester is good alternative fuel for diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Study on Performance of Diesel Engine Applied with Emulsified Diesel Fuel: The Influence of Fuel Injection Timing and Water Contents

2011-11-08
2011-32-0606
The application of emulsified fuel for diesel engines is expected to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of water content in emulsified fuel and fuel injection timing on diesel engine performance. The engine performance of emulsified fuel was compared with the water injection method. In the water injection test, water was injected to intake manifold and diesel fuel was directly injected into combustion chamber. Two emulsified fuels of which mixing ratio of water and emulsifier to diesel fuel were 15 and 30 vol.% were tested. Engine performance and exhaust gas emission of water injection method were almost similar to those of diesel fuel, so that water presented in combustion chamber had almost no influence on engine performance. Therefore, it can be considered that the micro explosion of fuel droplet enhanced the fuel atomization and mixing of fuel and air.
Technical Paper

Study on Combustion and Exhaust Gas Emission Characteristics of Lean Gasoline-Air Mixture Ignited by Diesel Fuel Direct Injection

1998-10-19
982482
The uniform lean gasoline-air mixture was provided to diesel engine and was ignited by direct diesel fuel injection. The mixing region that is formed by diesel fuel penetration and entrainment of ambient mixture is regarded as combustible turbulent jet. The ignition occurs in this region and the ambient lean mixture is burned by flame propagation. The lean mixture of air-fuel ratio between 150 and 35 could be ignited and burned by this ignition method. An increase of diesel fuel injection is effective to ensure combustion and ignition. As diesel fuel injection increases, HC concentration decreases, and NOx and CO concentration increases.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Study of Two-Stage High Temperature Heat Release Behavior in a Supercharged HCCI Engine using Blended Fuels

2011-08-30
2011-01-1788
This study examined the effects of fuel composition and intake pressure on two-stage high temperature heat release characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurement techniques were used to investigate the combustion behavior in detail. Chemical kinetic simulations were also conducted to analyze the reaction mechanisms in detail. Blended fuels of dimethyl ether (DME) and methane were used in the experiments. It was found that the use of such fuel blends together with a suitable intake air flow rate corresponding to the total injected heat value gave rise to two-stage heat release behavior of the hot flame, which had the effect of moderating combustion. The results of the spectroscopic measurements and the chemical kinetic simulations revealed that the main reaction of the first stage of the hot flame heat release was one that produced CO from HCHO.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Measurement of Radical Behavior Under Knocking Operation, 1996

1996-10-01
962104
Emission intensity was measured at a wavelength of 395 2 nm (corresponding to the characteristic spectrum of the HCHO radical) and absorbance was measured at 306 4 nm (corresponding to that of the OH radical). The emission intensity and absorbance waveforms recorded during engine operation on n-heptane show behavior indicative of the passage and degeneracy of cool flame in the preflame reaction interval. As the combustion chamber wall temperature approached an overheated state in the transition from normal combustion to knocking operation different preflame reaction behavior was observed which is thought to correspond to the presence of a negative temperature coefficient region related to the ignition delay time.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Measurement of Radical Behavior Under Knocking Operation, 1995

1995-10-01
952407
The purpose of this research was to obtain a better understanding of engine knocking phenomena. Measurements were made of the behavior of formaldehyde (HCHO), an important intermediate product of cool flame reactions, and of the HCO radical, characterized by distinctive light emission during blue flame reactions. The test engine was operated on a blended fuel (50 RON) of n-heptane and iso-octane. Simultaneous measurements were made of the behavior of HCHO and the OH radical using absorption spectroscopy and of the behavior of HCO and OH radicals using emission spectroscopy. Absorbance spectroscopic measurements revealed behavior thought to correspond to the passage of a cool flame and emission spectroscopic measurements showed behavior thought to correspond to the passage of a blue flame.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous measurements of absorption and emission in preflame reaction under knocking operation

2000-06-12
2000-05-0159
There is an urgent need today to improve the thermal efficiency of spark- ignition (SI) engines in order to reduce carbon dioxide emission and conserve energy in an effort to prevent global warming. However, a major obstacle to improving thermal efficiency by raising the compression ratio of SI engine is the easily occurrence of engine knocking. The result of studies done by numerous researchers have shown that knocking is an abnormal combustion in which the unburned gas in the end zone of the combustion chamber autoignites. However, the combustion reaction mechanism from autoignition to the occurrence of knocking is still not fully understood. The study deals with the light absorption and emission behavior in the preflame reaction interval before hot flame reactions.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurement of Light Emission and Absorption Behavior of Unburned Gas During Knocking Operation

1993-10-01
932754
With the aim of elucidating the mechanism generating knock, an examination was made of the preflame reaction behavior of end gas in the combustion chamber in the transition from normal combustion to abnormal combustion characterized by the occurrence of knocking. Simultaneous measurements were made in the same cycle of the light absorption and emission behavior of the OH (characteristic spectrum of 306.4 nm), CH (431.5 nm) and C2 (516.5 nm) radicals in the end-gas region using spectroscopic methods. The absorbance behavior of a blue flame prior to autoignition is believed to be an important factor in the mechanism causing knock.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Analysis of Light Absorption and Emission in Preflame Reactions under Knocking Operation

2000-01-15
2000-01-1416
The study deals with the light absorption and emission behavior in the preflame reaction interval before hot flame reactions.(1-3) Absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the behavior of HCHO and OH radicals during a progression from normal combustion to knocking operation. Emission spectroscopic measurements were obtained in the same way that radical added HCO. Radical behavior in preflame reactions was thus examined on the basis of simultaneous measurements, which combined each absorption wavelength with three emission wavelength by using a monochromator and a newly developed polychromator.(4-5) When n-heptane (0 RON) and blended fuel (50 RON) were used as test fuel, it was observed that radical behavior differed between normal combustion and knocking operation and a duration of the preflame reaction was shorter during the progression from normal combustion to a condition of knocking.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Radical Behavior in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Using Dimethyl Ether

2003-09-16
2003-32-0006
Attention has recently been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as an effective combustion process for resolving issues inherent to the nature of combustion. Dimethyl ether (DME; CH3OCH3) has attracted interest as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines. We measured the HCCI process of DME in a test diesel engine by using a spectroscopic method. Simultaneous measurements were also done on exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Based on the experimental data, this paper discusses the relationship between the equivalence ratio and the observed tendencies.
Technical Paper

Light Emission Behavior of Radicals during Preflame Reactions under Knocking Operation

2002-10-29
2002-32-1775
Knocking is one phenomenon that can be cited as a factor impeding efforts to improve the efficiency of spark-ignition engines. With the aim of understanding knocking better, light emission spectroscopy was applied in this study to examine preflame reactions that can be observed prior to autoignition. Light emission intensity was measured at wavelengths of 306.4 nm (characteristic spectrum of OH), 329.8 nm (HCO), 395.2 nm (HCHO). A four-cycle, air-cooled, single-cylinder gasoline engine with a side valve arrangement was used as the test engine. Light emission behavior was simultaneously observed at two positions (the end zone and the center zone) in the combustion chamber. The test fuel used was n-heptane (0 RON). The test engine was operated at three speed levels (1400, 1800 and 2200 rpm). As a result, preflame reactions were observed. It was also observed that the tendencies seen for the preflame reaction interval varied depending on the engine speed.
Technical Paper

Influences of Compression Ratio and Methane Additive on Combustion Characteristics in a DME-HCCI Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3745
In this study, a spectroscopic method was used to measure the combustion characteristics of a test diesel engine when operated on dimethyl ether (DME) under a homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. A numerical analysis was made of the elementary reactions using Chemkin 4.0 to perform the calculations. The results of the analysis showed that compression ratio changes and the methane additive influenced the autoignition timing in the DME-HCCI combustion process. In the experiments, reducing the compression ratio delayed the time of the peak cylinder pressure until after top dead center, thereby increasing the crankshaft output and thermal efficiency. The addition of methane enabled the DME-HCCI engine to provide crankshaft output equivalent to that seen for diesel engine operation at a low equivalence ratio. This paper discusses these effects in reference to the experimental and calculated results.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Characteristic Length on Performance of Plasma Jet Igniters

1994-10-01
942051
The investigation regarding performance of plasma jet igniters was explored by using a constant volume vessel. This study focused on investigating the relationship between the jet effect, the hot gas jet issued from the igniter, and combustion enhancement. The hot gas penetration was visualized by the schlieren system with CCD camera and image intensifier. In the cases of small energies, 0.63 and 0.90 J, the combustion enhancement effect is similar to that of combustion jet igniter. In cases of supplied energies, 2.45 and 5.00 J, the jet effect influences on the combustion enhancement effect for small characteristic length of the igniter.
Technical Paper

Influence of Various Biodiesel Fuels on Diesel Engine Performance

2009-11-03
2009-32-0100
The composition ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) is depended on feedstock. Three FAMEs: soybean (SME), palm (PME) and coconut oil (CME) methyl esters were mixed to make fuels which have different composition ratio. The ignitability of fuel which mainly consisted of unsaturated FAME was inferior. Power was slightly reduced with increasing of mixing ratio of CME; however exhaust gas emissions were improved because CME contained a lot of oxygen atoms. Fuel which was equal mixture SME and CME indicated almost the same ignition characteristic as that of PME because they have same composition ratio.
Technical Paper

Influence of Supercharging and EGR on Multi-stage Heat Release in an HCCI Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0009
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest as a combustion system that offers the advantages of high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in an HCCI combustion system owing to the lack of a physical means of initiating ignition like the spark plug in a gasoline engine or fuel injection in a diesel engine. Moreover, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the cylinder, it produces an enormous amount of heat in a short period of time, which causes greater engine noise, abnormal combustion and other problems in the high load region. The purpose of this study was to expand the region of stable HCCI engine operation by finding a solution to these issues of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Influence of Internal EGR on Knocking in an HCCI Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0807
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines have attracted much attention and are being widely researched as engines characterized by low emissions and high efficiency. However, one issue of HCCI engines is their limited operating range because of the occurrence of rapid combustion at high loads and misfiring at low loads. It is known that knocking accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations also occurs in HCCI engines at high loads, similar to knocking seen in spark-ignition engines. In this study, HCCI combustion accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations was visualized by taking high-speed photographs of the entire bore area. In addition, the influence of internal exhaust gas circulation (EGR) on HCCI knocking was also investigated. The visualized combustion images revealed that rapid autoignition occurred in the end-gas region during the latter half of the HCCI combustion process when accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations.
Technical Paper

Influence of Calcium-Based Additives with Different Properties on Abnormal Combustion in an SI Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0007
Technologies for further improving vehicle fuel economy have attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, one problem with some approaches is the occurrence of abnormal combustion such as low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) that occurs under low-speed, high-load operating conditions. One proposed cause of LSPI is that oil droplets diluted by the fuel enter the combustion chamber and become a source of ignition. Another proposed cause is that deposits peel off and become a source of ignition. A four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine was used in this study to investigate the influence of Ca-based additives having different properties on abnormal combustion by means of in-cylinder visualization and absorption spectroscopic measurements. The results obtained for neutral and basic Ca-based additives revealed that the former had an effect on advancing the time of autoignition.
Journal Article

Influence of Ca-, Mg- and Na-Based Engine Oil Additives on Abnormal Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0771
One issue of downsized and supercharged engines is low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) that occurs in the low-speed and high-load operating region. One proposed cause of LSPI is the influence of the engine oil and its additives. However, the effect of engine oil additives on pre-ignition and the mechanism involved are still not fully understood. This study investigated the influence of engine oil additives on abnormal combustion in a spark-ignition engine. A four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine with a side valve arrangement was used in conducting combustion experiments. The research methods used were in-cylinder pressure analysis, in-cylinder visualization and absorption spectroscopic analysis. Engine oil additives were mixed individually at a fixed concentration into a primary reference fuel with an octane number of 50 and their effect on knocking was investigated.
X