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Technical Paper

Visualization and Heat Release Analysis of Premixed Diesel Combustion with Various Fuel Ignitabilities and Oxygen Concentrations in a Constant Volume Combustion Vessel

Low NOx and soot free premixed diesel combustion can be realized by increasing ignition delays in low oxygen atmospheres, as well as the combustion here also depends on fuel ignitability. In this report single intermittent spray combustion with primary reference fuels and a normal heptane-toluene blend fuel under several oxygen concentrations in a constant volume combustion vessel was analyzed with high-speed color video and pressure data. Temperature and KL factor distributions are displayed with a 2-D two-color method. The results show that premixing is promoted with a decrease in oxygen concentration, and the local high temperature regions, above 2200 K, as well as the duration of their appearance decreases with the oxygen concentration. With normal heptane, mild premixed diesel combustion can be realized at 15 vol% oxygen and there is little luminous flame.
Technical Paper

Visualization Analysis of Diesel Combustion with Water and Diesel Fuel Emulsified Blend in a Constant Volume Chamber Vessel

Diesel-like combustion of an emulsified blend of water and diesel fuel in a constant volume chamber vessel was visualized with high speed color video, further analyzing with a 2-D two color method and shadowgraph images. When the temperature at the fuel injection is 900 K, here while the combustion with unblended diesel fuel in the vessel is similar to ordinary diesel combustion with diffusive combustion, combustion with the emulsified fuel is similar to premixed diesel combustion with a large premixed combustion and very little diffusive combustion. With the emulsified fuel the flame luminosity and temperature are lower, the luminous flame and high temperature regions are smaller, and the duration of the luminous flame is shorter than with diesel fuel. This is due to promotion of premixing with increases in the ignition delay and decreases in the combustion temperature with the water vaporization.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emissions and High Performance Diesel Combustion with a Combination of High EGR, Three-Way Catalyst, and a Highly Oxygenated Fuel, Dimethoxy Methane (DMM)

Ultra low emissions and high performance combustion was achieved with a combination of high EGR, a three-way catalyst, and a highly oxygenated liquid fuel, neat dimethoxy methane (DMM), in an ordinary DI diesel engine. The smokeless nature of neat DMM effectively allowed stoichiometric diesel combustion by controlling BMEP with EGR. NOx, THC, and CO emissions were reduced with a three-way catalyst. At lower BMEP with excess air, the EGR effectively reduced NOx. High-speed video in a bottom view type engine revealed that luminous flame decreased with increased fuel oxygen content and almost disappeared with DMM.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emission and High Performance Diesel Combustion with Highly Oxygenated Fuel

Significant improvements in exhaust emissions and engine performance in an ordinary DI diesel engine were realized with highly oxygenated fuels. The smoke emissions decreased sharply and linearly with increases in oxygen content and entirely disappeared at an oxygen content of 38 wt-% even at stoichiometric conditions. The NOx, THC, and CO were almost all removed with a three-way catalyst under stoichiometric diesel combustion at both the higher and lower BMEP with the combination of EGR and a three-way catalyst. The engine output for the highly oxygenated fuels was significantly higher than that with the conventional diesel fuel due to the higher air utilization.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Fuel Properties on Diesel-Soot Suppression with Soluble Fuel Additives

Diesel soot suppression effects of catalytic fuel additives for a range of fuels with different properties were investigated with calcium naphthenate. A single cylinder DI diesel engine and a thermobalance were used to determine the soot reduction and its mechanism for seven kinds of fuels. Experimental results showed that the catalytic effect of the fuel additive was different for the different fuels, and could be described by a parameter considering cetane number and kinematic viscosity. The fuel additives reduced soot more effectively for fuels with higher cetane number and lower kinematic viscosity. This result was explained by soot oxidation characteristics for the different fuels. Oxidation of soot with the metallic additive proceeds in two stages: stage I, a very rapid oxidation stage; and stage II, a following slow or ordinary oxidation stage.
Technical Paper

Smokeless, Low NOx, High Thermal Efficiency, and Low Noise Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Agents as Main Fuel

Diesel combustion and emissions with four kinds of oxygenated agents as main fuels were investigated. Significant improvements in smoke, particulate matter, NOx, THC, and thermal efficiency were simultaneously realized with the oxygenates, and engine noise was also remarkably reduced for the oxygenates with higher ignitability. The improvements in the exhaust emissions and the thermal efficiency depended almost entirely on the oxygen content in the fuels regardless of the oxygenate to diesel fuel blend ratios and type of oxygenate. The unburned THC emission and odor intensity under starting condition with an oxygenate were also much lower than with conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reductions in Diesel NOx and Smoke Emissions with Aqueous Metal-Salt Solutions Directly Injected into the Combustion Chamber

The effect of several aqueous metal-salt solutions on NOx and smoke lowering in an IDI diesel engine were examined. The solutions were directly injected into a divided chamber independent of the fuel injection. The results showed that significant lowering in NOx and smoke over a wide operation range could be achieved simultaneously with alkali metal solutions which were injected just prior to the fuel injection. With sodium-salt solutions, for instance, NOx decreased by more than 60 % and smoke decreased 50 % below conventional operation. The sodium-salt solution reduced dry soot significantly, while total particulate matter increased with increases in the water soluble fractions.
Technical Paper

Performance Improvements in a Natural Gas Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine with 250 MPa Pilot Injection of Diesel Fuel as an Ignition Source

The engine performance and the exhaust gas emissions in a dual fuel compression ignition engine with natural gas as the main fuel and a small quantity of pilot injection of diesel fuel with the ultra-high injection pressure of 250 MPa as an ignition source were investigated at 0.3 MPa and 0.8 MPa IMEP. With increasing injection pressure the unburned loss decreases and the thermal efficiency improves at both IMEP conditions. At the 0.3 MPa IMEP the THC and CO emissions are significantly reduced when maintaining the equivalence ratio of natural gas with decreasing the volumetric efficiency by intake gas throttling, but the NOx emissions increase and excessive intake gas throttling results in a decrease in the indicated thermal efficiency. Under the 250 MPa pilot injection condition simultaneous reductions in the NOx, THC, and CO emissions can be established with maintaining the equivalence ratio of natural gas by intake gas throttling.
Technical Paper

Mechanisms in Reducing Smoke and NOx from BDF Combustion by Ethanol Blending and EGR

Palm oil has the important advantage of productivity compared to other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil and soybean oil. However, the cold flow performance of palm oil methyl ester (PME) is poorer than other vegetable oil based biodiesel fuels. Previous research by the authors has shown that ethanol blending into PME improves the cold flow performance and considerably reduces smoke emission. The reduced smoke may be expected to allow an expansion in the EGR limit and lead to reduced NOx. This paper experimentally analyses the influence of EGR on smoke and NOx emissions from the diesel combustion with PME/ethanol blended fuel. The mechanisms in the smoke reduction are also analyzed.
Journal Article

Low Temperature Premixed Diesel Combustion with Blends of Ordinary Diesel Fuel and Normal Heptane

Premixed diesel combustion blending high volatility fuels into diesel fuel were investigated in a modern diesel engine. First, various fractions of normal heptane and diesel fuel were examined to determine the influence of the blending of a highly ignitable and volatile fuel into diesel fuel. The indicated thermal efficiency improves almost linearly with increasing normal heptane fraction, particularly at advanced injection timings when the fuel is not injected directly into the piston cavity. This improvement is mainly due to decreases in the other losses, ϕother which are calculated with the following equation based on the energy balance. ηu: The combustion efficiency calculated from the exhaust gas compositions ηi: The indicated thermal efficiency ϕex: The exhaust loss calculated from the enthalpy difference between intake and exhaust gas The decreases in the other losses with normal heptane blends are due to a reduction in the unburned fuel which does not reach the gas analyzer.
Technical Paper

Low Emission and Knock-Free Combustion with Rich and Lean Biform Mixture in a Dual-Fuel CI Engine with Induced LPG as the Main Fuel

Smokeless and ultra low NOx combustion without knocking in a dual-fuel diesel engine with induced LPG as the main fuel was established with a uniquely developed piston cavity divided by a lip in the sidewall. A small quantity of diesel fuel was directly injected at early compression stroke into the lower part of the cavity as an ignition source for this confined area, and this suppressed explosively rapid combustion just after ignition and spark-knock like combustion at later stage. A combination of the divided cavity, EGR, and intake air throttling was effective to simultaneously eliminate knocking, and reduce THC and NOx significantly.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Molecular Structure of Hydrocarbon Fuels on Diesel Exhaust Emissions

The influence of the molecular structure of hydrocarbon fuels on soot, SOF, and NOx emissions from a diesel engine was analyzed while ignition delay and other physical fuel properties were kept constant. Mixtures of normal paraffin (n-tetradecane) and iso-paraffin (heptamethylnonane) were used as a base fuel and one of 5 kinds of hydrocarbons including mono-aromatic, di-aromatic, and non-aromatic was added. The aromatic content varied in the range of 0-60 vol % for the mono-aromatic fuels and 0-40 vol % for the di-aromatic fuels. The experimental results showed that regardless of the molecular structure of the fuel, both particulate and NOx emissions increased linearly with the C/H atomic ratio of the fuels under constant ignition lag. The increase in particulate emissions with C/H atomic ratio was caused by increases in dry soot. The SOF, THC, and BSEC were little affected by the C/H atomic ratio and molecular structure of the fuels.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Volatility on Evaporation Characteristics of Diesel Sprays in Various Low Temperature and Low Density Surrounding Conditions Like at Early Pilot or Late Post Injections

The diesel spray characteristics in early pilot and late post fuel injections in a constant volume chamber which can create the in-cylinder conditions of a diesel engine were visualized with high speed video. At the early pilot and late post fuel injection, there was a longer penetration of the liquid phase fuel spray as well as slower evaporation. With normal heptane the impingement of liquid spray with early pilot and post fuel injections can be avoided due to a faster evaporation. The penetration of liquid phase fuel spray increases significantly at low IMEP and late post injection conditions with diesel fuel.
Journal Article

Influence of Fuel Properties on Operational Range and Thermal Efficiency of Premixed Diesel Combustion

The influence of fuel properties on the operational range and the thermal efficiency of premixed diesel combustion was evaluated with an ordinary diesel fuel, a primary reference fuel for cetane numbers, three primary reference fuels for octane numbers, and two normal heptane-toluene blend fuels in a single-cylinder DI diesel engine. The fuel injection timing was set at 25°CA BTDC and the maximum rate of pressure rise was maintained below 1.0 MPa/°CA when lowering the intake oxygen concentration by cooled EGR. With increasing octane numbers, the higher intake oxygen concentration can be used, resulting in higher indicated thermal efficiency due to a higher combustion efficiency. The best thermal efficiency at the optimum intake oxygen concentration with the ordinary diesel fuel is lower than with the primary reference fuels with the similar ignitability but higher volatility.
Technical Paper

Influence of Carbon Dioxide on Combustion in an HCCI Engine with the Ignition-Control by Hydrogen

A homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engine system that was fuelled with dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol-reformed gas (MRG) has been proposed in the previous research. Adjusting the proportion of DME and MRG can effectively control the ignition timing of the engine. In the system, both fuels are to be produced from methanol in onboard reformers utilizing the engine exhaust gas heat. While hydrogen contained in MRG has the main role of the ignition control, hydrogen increases with carbon dioxide in the methanol reforming. This paper investigates the influence of carbon dioxide on HCCI combustion engine with the ignition control by hydrogen. Both thermal and chemical effects of carbon dioxide are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Improvements to Premixed Diesel Combustion with Ignition Inhibitor Effects of Premixed Ethanol by Intake Port Injection

Premixed diesel combustion modes including low temperature combustion and MK combustion are expected to realize smokeless and low NOx emissions. As ignition must be delayed until after the end of fuel injection to establish these combustion modes, methods for active ignition control are being actively pursued. It is reported that alcohols including methanol and ethanol strongly inhibit low temperature oxidation in HCCI combustion offering the possibility to control ignition with alcohol induction. In this research improvement of diesel combustion and emissions by ethanol intake port injection for the promotion of premixing of the in-cylinder injected diesel fuel, and by increased EGR for the reduction of combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

Improvements in Thermal Efficiency of Premixed Diesel Combustion with Low Distillation Temperature Fuels

The influence of fuel volatility on the thermal efficiency of premixed diesel combustion was evaluated with three ordinary diesel fuels with different distillation temperature distributions and also with a primary reference fuel with an octane number of 20 (PRF20) as a high volatility fuel. The experiments were conducted on a single-cylinder DI diesel engine for the premixed diesel combustion with a single injection at 11% intake oxygen concentration and conventional diesel combustion with a pilot fuel injection at 21% intake oxygen concentration. With the premixed diesel combustion, the indicated thermal efficiencies with the ordinary diesel fuels were lower than with PRF20 although the shapes of the rate of heat release and the combustion efficiencies calculated from the exhaust gas components were almost unchanged. With the conventional diesel combustion, the indicated thermal efficiencies with the ordinary diesel fuels and PRF20 were similar.
Technical Paper

Improvements in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Blending ETBE to Diesel Fuel

The effects of blending ETBE to diesel fuel on the characteristics of low temperature diesel combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated in a naturally-aspirated DI diesel engine with large rates of cooled EGR. Low temperature smokeless diesel combustion in a wide EGR range was established with ETBE blended diesel fuel as mixture homogeneity is promoted with increased premixed duration due to decreases in ignitability as well as with improvement in fuel vaporization due to the lower boiling point of ETBE. Increasing the ETBE content in the fuel helps to suppress smoke emissions and maintain efficient smokeless operation when increasing EGR, however a too high ETBE content causes misfiring at larger rates of EGR. While the NOx emissions increase with increases in ETBE content at high intake oxygen concentrations, NOx almost completely disappears when reducing the intake oxygen content below 14 % with cooled EGR.
Technical Paper

Improvements in Diesel Combustion with After-Injection

The effect of after-injection on exhaust gas emissions from a DI diesel engine with a common rail injection system was experimentally investigated for a range of operating conditions. The results showed that over the whole of the operating range, some reduction in smoke emissions can be achieved with after-injection, without deterioration in thermal efficiency and other emission characteristics. The optimum quantity of after-injection for smoke reduction is 20% of the total fuel supply, and the optimum timing is just after the main injection. Visualization in a bottom view type engine showed that with after-injection, soot formation in the main-injection decrease more due to a smaller quantity of fuel than without after-injection, and soot formation with after-injection is insignificant.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Diesel Combustion and Emissions with Addition of Various Oxygenated Agents to Diesel Fuels

The effect of eight kinds of oxygenated agents added to diesel fuels on the combustion and emissions was investigated in a DI diesel engine. The results showed significant smoke and particulate suppression without increases in NOx with every oxygenated agent. The emissions decreased linearly with increasing oxygen content in the fuels, almost regardless of the kind of oxygenated agent. The improvement in smoke and particulate emissions with the oxygenated agent addition was more significant for lower volatility fuels. Combustion analysis with the two-dimensional two color method showed that soot concentration in the flame during the combustion process decreased with the addition of the oxygenated agent while the flame temperature distribution was almost unchanged.