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Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emissions and High Performance Diesel Combustion with a Combination of High EGR, Three-Way Catalyst, and a Highly Oxygenated Fuel, Dimethoxy Methane (DMM)

Ultra low emissions and high performance combustion was achieved with a combination of high EGR, a three-way catalyst, and a highly oxygenated liquid fuel, neat dimethoxy methane (DMM), in an ordinary DI diesel engine. The smokeless nature of neat DMM effectively allowed stoichiometric diesel combustion by controlling BMEP with EGR. NOx, THC, and CO emissions were reduced with a three-way catalyst. At lower BMEP with excess air, the EGR effectively reduced NOx. High-speed video in a bottom view type engine revealed that luminous flame decreased with increased fuel oxygen content and almost disappeared with DMM.
Technical Paper

Mechanisms in Reducing Smoke and NOx from BDF Combustion by Ethanol Blending and EGR

Palm oil has the important advantage of productivity compared to other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil and soybean oil. However, the cold flow performance of palm oil methyl ester (PME) is poorer than other vegetable oil based biodiesel fuels. Previous research by the authors has shown that ethanol blending into PME improves the cold flow performance and considerably reduces smoke emission. The reduced smoke may be expected to allow an expansion in the EGR limit and lead to reduced NOx. This paper experimentally analyses the influence of EGR on smoke and NOx emissions from the diesel combustion with PME/ethanol blended fuel. The mechanisms in the smoke reduction are also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Influence of Carbon Dioxide on Combustion in an HCCI Engine with the Ignition-Control by Hydrogen

A homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engine system that was fuelled with dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol-reformed gas (MRG) has been proposed in the previous research. Adjusting the proportion of DME and MRG can effectively control the ignition timing of the engine. In the system, both fuels are to be produced from methanol in onboard reformers utilizing the engine exhaust gas heat. While hydrogen contained in MRG has the main role of the ignition control, hydrogen increases with carbon dioxide in the methanol reforming. This paper investigates the influence of carbon dioxide on HCCI combustion engine with the ignition control by hydrogen. Both thermal and chemical effects of carbon dioxide are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Improvements to Premixed Diesel Combustion with Ignition Inhibitor Effects of Premixed Ethanol by Intake Port Injection

Premixed diesel combustion modes including low temperature combustion and MK combustion are expected to realize smokeless and low NOx emissions. As ignition must be delayed until after the end of fuel injection to establish these combustion modes, methods for active ignition control are being actively pursued. It is reported that alcohols including methanol and ethanol strongly inhibit low temperature oxidation in HCCI combustion offering the possibility to control ignition with alcohol induction. In this research improvement of diesel combustion and emissions by ethanol intake port injection for the promotion of premixing of the in-cylinder injected diesel fuel, and by increased EGR for the reduction of combustion temperature.
Journal Article

Improvement in DME-HCCI Combustion with Ethanol as a Low-Temperature Oxidation Inhibitor

Port injection of ethanol addition as an ignition inhibitor was implemented to control ignition timing and expand the operating range in DME fueled HCCI combustion. The ethanol reduced the rate of low-temperature oxidation and consequently delayed the onset of the high-temperature reaction with ultra-low NOx over a wide operating range. Along with the ethanol addition, changes in intake temperature, overall equivalence ratio, and engine speed are investigated and shown to be effective in HCCI combustion control and to enable an extension of operation range. A chemical reaction analysis was performed to elucidate details of the ignition inhibition on low-temperature oxidation of DME-HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Control by DME-Ethanol Binary Fuel and EGR

The HCCI engine offers the potential of low NOx emissions combined with diesel engine like high efficiency, however HCCI operation is restricted to low engine speeds and torques constrained by narrow noise (HCCI knocking) and misfiring limits. Gasoline like fuel vaporizes and mixes with air, but the mixture may auto-ignite at the same time, leading to heavy HCCI knocking. Retarding the CA50 (the crank angle of the 50% burn) is well known as a method to slow the maximum pressure rise rate and reduce HCCI knocking. The CA50 can be controlled by the fuel composition, for example, di-methyl ether (DME), which is easily synthesized from natural gas, has strong low temperature heat release (LTHR) characteristics and ethanol generates strong LTHR inhibitor effects. The utilization of DME-ethanol binary blended fuels has the potential to broaden the HCCI engine load-speed range.
Technical Paper

Elimination of Combustion Difficulties in a Glow Plug-Assisted Diesel Engine Operated with Pure Ethanol and Water-Ethanol Mixtures

Forced ignition with glow plugs has great potential for the utilization of alcohol fuels in diesel engines. However, the installation of glow plugs may cause misfiring or knocking in parts of the operating range. This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the ignition characteristics of ethanol in a glow plug-assisted diesel engine; these factors may be classified into two categories: the factors related to the temperature history of the drop lets before contact with the glow plug, and those related to the probability of contact. By optimizing these factors, the combustion difficulties were successfully eliminated over the whole operating range, and engine performance comparable with conventional diesel operation was achieved.
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Diesel Combustion with Premixed Ethanol as the Main Fuel

Dual fuel combustion with premixed ethanol as the main fuel and direct injection of diesel fuel as an ignition source poses problems including large unburned emissions and excessively rapid combustion. In this report the influence of compression ratios, injection timings of diesel fuel, and intake oxygen concentrations was systematically investigated in a modern diesel engine. The combustion process was classified into three stages: the first rapid combustion of diesel fuel and the ethanol mixture entrained into the diesel fuel spray; the second mild combustion with flame propagation of the ethanol mixture; and the third rapid combustion with auto-ignition of the unburned ethanol mixture without knocking. The third stage combustion occurs occasionally at several operating conditions and has been termed as PREMIER (premixed mixture ignition in the end-gas region) combustion.
Technical Paper

Combustion Control and Operating Range Expansion in an HCCI Engine with Selective Use of Fuels with Different Low-Temperature Oxidation Characteristics

Light naphtha, which exhibits two-stage ignition, was induced from the intake manifold for ignition enhancement and a low ignitability fuel or water, which does not exhibit low temperature oxidation, was directly injected early in the compression stroke for ignition suppression in an HCCI engine. Their quantitative balance was flexibly controlled to optimize ignition timing according to operating condition. Ultra-low NOx and smokeless combustion without knocking or misfiring was realized over a wide operating range. Alcohols inhibit low temperature oxidation more strongly than other oxygenated or unoxygenated hydrocarbons, water, and hydrogen. Chemical kinetic modeling for methanol showed a reduction of OH radical concentration before the onset of low temperature oxidation, and this may be the main mechanism by which alcohols inhibit low temperature oxidation.
Technical Paper

Combustion Control and Operating Range Expansion With Direct Injection of Reaction Suppressors in a Premixed DME HCCI Engine

Direct injection of various ignition suppressors, including water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, hydrogen, and methane, was implemented to control ignition timing and expand the operating range in an HCCI engine with induced DME as the main fuel. Ultra-low NOx and smoke-less combustion was realized over a wide operating range. The reaction suppressors reduced the rate of low-temperature oxidation and consequently delayed the onset of high-temperature oxidation. Analysis of the chemical kinetics showed a reduction of OH radical in the premixed charge with the suppressors. Among the ignition suppressors, alcohols had a greater impact on OH radical reduction resulting in stronger ignition suppression. Although water injection caused a greater lowering of the temperature, which also suppressed ignition, the strong chemical effect of radical reduction with methanol injection resulted in the larger impact on suppression of oxidation reaction rates.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Emulsified Blends of Aqueous Ethanol and Diesel Fuel in a Diesel Engine with High Rates of EGR and Split Fuel Injections

Silent, clean, and efficient combustion was realized with emulsified blends of aqueous ethanol and diesel fuel in a DI diesel with pilot injection and cooled EGR. The pilot injection sufficiently suppressed the rapid combustion to acceptable levels. The thermal efficiency with the emulsified fuel improved as the heat release with the pilot injection was retarded to near top dead center, due to poor ignitability and also due to a reduction in afterburning. With the emulsified fuel containing 40 vol% ethanol and 10 vol% water (E40W10), the smokeless operation range can be considerably extended even under low fuel injection pressure or low intake oxygen content conditions.
Technical Paper

Chemical-Kinetic Analysis on PAH Formation Mechanisms of Oxygenated Fuels

The thermal cracking and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation processes of dimethyl ether (DME), ethanol, and ethane were investigated with chemical kinetics to determine the soot formation mechanism of oxygenated fuels. The modeling analyzed three processes, an isothermal constant pressure condition, a temperature rising condition under a constant pressure, and an unsteady condition approximating diesel combustion. With the same mole number of oxygen atoms, the DME rich mixtures form much carbon monoxide and methane and very little non-methane HC and PAH, in comparison with ethanol or ethane mixtures. This suggests that the existence of the C-C bond promotes the formation of PAH and soot.
Technical Paper

Achievement of Stable and Clean Combustion Over a Wide Operating Range in a Spark-Assisted IDI Diesel Engine with Neat Ethanol

Spark-assisted diesel engines operated with alcohol fuels usually display misfiring or knocking problems. This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the ignition characteristics of ethanol in a swirl chamber diesel engine with a multi-spark ignitor. In the experiments, cycle-to-cycle combustion variations and the degree of knocking were investigated by changing engine parameters over a wide operating range. The results of the investigations showed that stable ignition and smooth combustion is achieved when a flammable mixture is formed in the vicinity of the spark plug when only a small amount of the injected fuel has evaporated. By optimizing the design factors, operation with high efficiency and low exhaust emissions was achieved.