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Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Visualization for Calculated Distributions of Diesel Spray and Flame in the Combustion Chamber of a D.I. Diesel Engine

Three-Dimensional visualization technique based on volume rendering method has been developed in order to translate a calculated result of diesel combustion simulation into an realistically spray and flame image. This paper presents an overview of diesel combustion model which has been developed at Hiroshima University, a description of the three-dimensional visualization technique, and some examples of spray and flame image generated by this visualization technique.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Concentration Measurement of Vapor and Liquid in an Evaporating Diesel Spray

A new technique was proposed for the simultaneous measurement of the concentration of fuel vapor and liquid in an evaporating diesel spray injected into a high temperature and high pressure environment. This technique was based on the principle of the absorption of ultraviolet laser light by fuel vapor and the scattering of visible laser light by fuel droplets in the diesel spray. For this principle, α-methylnaphthalene was used as a test fuel. Measuring the transmissivity of ultraviolet and visible laser lights absorbed and scattered by β-methylnaphthalene spray made it possible to analyze the fuel vapor concentration, droplets density and the mixture temperature in the diesel spray. A computerized tomographic transfer technique was also adopted to analyze three-dimensional fuel concentration distribution in the spray.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Imaging of the Fuel Concentration in a SI Engine with Laser Rayleigh Scattering

Quantitative imaging of the fuel concentration distribution was made in the combustion chamber of a propane-fueled spark ignition (SI) engine with the employment of laser-sheet-induced Rayleigh scattering technique for realizing the remote, nonintrusive and highly space- and time-resolved measurement. The original engine was modified to introduce YAG laser-induced sheet light into the combustion chamber and the scattered light was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated double-micro- channel plate image intensifier. The measurements were done at the crank angle of 270°ATDC in the combustion chamber of the engine motored at 200rpm with an air fuel ratio of 13 for various injection timing, injection direction and intake flow. The results show that with an appropriate matching of fuel injection timing, injection direction and intake flow, a stratified distribution of the fuel concentration can be realized.
Technical Paper

PLIF Measurements of the Cyclic Variation of Mixture Concentration in a SI Engine

Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was employed to perform the quantitative measurements of the cyclic variation of mixture concentration in the combustion chamber of a spark ignition (SI) engine. Nitrogen dioxide was used as the fluorescence tracer to simulate the fuel vapor. A Nd:YAG laser operated at its second harmonic wavelength was employed as the light source. The original engine was modified to introduce laser sheet light into the combustion chamber and the induced fluorescence was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated image intensifier. The measurements were done at the engine crank angles of 180° ∼ 300° ATDC with the engine speeds of 200 ∼ 400 rpm and the injection timings of -70 °, 50° and 100° ATDC. A theoretical analysis was made to describe the cyclically varying characteristics of the mixture concentration.
Technical Paper

Empirical Equations for the Sauter Mean Diameter of a Diesel Spray

New empirical equations to represent the Sauter mean diameter of a spray injected by a diesel nozzle are presented in this paper. In order to determine the new equations, drop sizes of a diesel spray were analyzed by a laser diffraction technique. Liquids with different viscosities and different surface tensions were tested to obtain the generalized empirical equations. The maximum injection and maximum ambient pressures were 90 MPa and 3.0 MPa respectively. Both the minimum value of the injection pressure to produce a fine spray and the Sauter mean diameter increase the greater the viscosity and the surface tension of the liquid. At a high injection velocity, the Sauter mean diameter increases with an increase in ambient pressure, but it decreases when ambient pressure is increased at a low injection velocity.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Optical Technique for Measuring Diesel Spray Penetration

A new optical measuring technique of tip penetration of a diesel fuel spray was developed by detecting the arrival times of the spray tip at several light sheets which were preset at various axial locations downstream. Verified by the instantaneous photographic technique, it was confirmed that this technique is effective, with sufficient accuracy, for measuring the spray tip penetration much more easily than the conventional photographic technique. The tip penetrations of diesel sprays injected through single-hole nozzles with various orifice lengths and diameters has been investigated over a wide range of the operating conditions by this technique. The spray injected through two multihole nozzles, either with or without a sac volume, has also been characterized. The results showed that the spray tip penetration is affected somewhat by the operating conditions. Eventually it is affected by the injected fuel momentum flowrate, nozzle geometry and ambient gas density.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mixture Formation Processes in DI Gasoline Engine Sprays with Split Injection Strategy via Laser Absorption and Scattering (LAS) Technique

In order to investigate the effect of split injections on mixture formation processes in Direct Injection (DI) gasoline engine sprays, an experimental study was conducted applying the laser absorption and scattering (LAS) technique to the sprays using double pulse injections with various dwells and mass ratios. The effects of various dwells and mass ratios between the pulsed injections on the spatial concentration distributions in the spray, the penetration of vapor and liquid phases, and the mean equivalence ratios of the vapor phase and overall spray, were clarified. It was found that the phenomenon of high concentration liquid spray piling up at the leading edge of the spray is avoided by the double injections with enough dwell or appropriate mass ratio. The maximum penetration length of the spray significantly decreases, especially for the liquid phase with high concentration.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mixture Formation Processes in D.I. Gasoline Sprays by the Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) Technique - Effect of Injection Conditions

Mixture formation processes play a vital role on the performance of a D.I. Gasoline engine. Quantitative measurement of liquid and vapor phase concentration distribution in a D.I. gasoline spray is very important in understanding the mixture formation processes. In this paper, an unique laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was employed to investigate the mixture formation processes of a fuel spray injected by a D.I. gasoline injector into a high pressure and temperature constant volume vessel. P-xylene, which is quite suitable for the application of the LAS technique, was selected as the test fuel. The temporal variations of the concentration distribution of both the liquid and vapor phases in the spray were quantitatively clarified. Then the effects of injection pressure and quantity on the concentration distributions of both the liquid and vapor phases in the spray were analyzed.
Technical Paper

An Insight Into Effect of Split Injection on Mixture Formation and Combustion of DI Gasoline Engines

In the previous study of the authors, it was found that some benefits for the mixture preparation of DI gasoline engines can be offered by splitting the fuel injection, such as the phenomenon of high density liquid phase fuel piling up at the leading edge of the spray can be circumvented. In a further analysis, the vapor quantity in the “stable operating” range (equivalence ratio of vapor ϕv in a range of 0.7≤ϕv≤1.3) was significantly increased by the split injection compared to the single injection. In this work, the mechanism of the effect of the split injection on the mixture formation process was studied by combining the laser-sheet imaging, LIF-PIV and the LAS (Laser Absorption Scattering) technique. As a result, it is found that the spray-induced ambient air motion can help the formation of the more combustible mixture of the split injection whereas it played a minus role of diluting the spray by the single injection.