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Technical Paper

The Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Residual Gas on Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy

Three exhaust emissions, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen, from the automotive spark-ignition engines are presently subject to regulatory control. Of these harmful pollutants, NOx emissions are the hardest to control under current status of emission control technology. Accordingly, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been receiving continued efforts as one of promising NOx control. This paper reports the effects of EGR on the mechanism of NOx reduction and engine fuel economy, on the basis of research made in the following areas: (1). NOx formation in a combustion vessel. (2). Studies on EGR effects in a single-cylinder engine. (3). Effects of EGR on NOx and HC emissions and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Practical Use of Two Piston Ring Set for Gasoline Engine

To obtain low friction engine through piston ring design, a set of two piston rings (two-ring set), one compression ring and one oil ring, has been recently developed. To reduce the number of compression rings from two to one, double angle step joint was employed for the shape of top ring gap, and taper face was introduced to O.D. surface shape. Major subjects of two-ring set were to reduce the oil consumption, to increase the durability, and to get the reliability of double angle step joint. The authors obtained the two piston ring design and the reliability of double angle step joint by rig tests and engine tests.
Technical Paper

Method to improve scuffing resistance of nitrided rings

Surface scuffing related to gas nitrided piston rings is attracting more attention as the effective cylinder pressure is increased in the recent years. However, the mechanism behind scuffing induced in long-term operations remained unknown. This study focuses on clarifying the mechanism behind scuffing related to gas nitrided piston rings. In addition, application of a thin composite plated surface film containing dispersed particles is proposed as an effective measure for preventing surface scuffing during long-term operations. Furthermore, factors enabling maintenance of high scuffing resistance on the ring surface after the thin plated composite film wears off and the underlying nitrided surface is exposed were analyzed. The dominant factor was discovered to be the difference in the resulting sliding surface profile, after initial wear, between a ring surface with composite plating and a ring surface with only gas nitriding treatment.
Technical Paper

Hino's Advanced Low-Emission Technologies Developed to Meet Stringent Emissions Standards

Japan's new 2005 long-term emissions regulation was implemented in October 2005. Both NOx and PM emissions standards were reduced to 2 g/kWh and 0.027 g/kWh, which were 40 and 85 percent lower than the 2003 new short-term emissions standards, respectively. These emissions standards are as stringent as the Euro5 standards that are scheduled for implementation in 2008. In addition, the transient-cycle test procedure for emissions compliance, labeled JE05, was introduced to replace the D13-mode steady-state test procedure. This paper describes exhaust emissions reduction technologies developed for Hino's 13-liter heavy-duty diesel engine so that it meets the above standards. A production catalyzed wall-flow DPF was employed to reduce PM emissions in both mass and small particles. NOx emissions were reduced by improving combustion with cooled EGR and without use of a NOx aftertreatment device.
Technical Paper

Efficient Heat Pump System for PHEV/BEV

As vehicle emission regulations become increasingly rigorous, the automotive industry is accelerating the development of electrified vehicle platforms such as Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). Since the available waste heat from these vehicles is limited, additional heat sources such as electric heaters are needed for cabin heating operation. The use of a heat pump system is one of the solutions to improve EV driving range at cold ambient conditions. In this study, an efficient gas-injection heat pump system has been developed, which achieves high cabin heating performance at low ambient temperature and dehumidification operation without the assistance of electric heaters in ’17 model year Prius Prime.
Technical Paper

Effects of High-Boost Turbocharging on Combustion Characteristics and Improving Its Low Engine Speed Torque

This paper describes the experimental studies of turbocharged and intercooled diesel engines with particular emphasis on combustion characteristics following increase of boost pressure. Through these studies, it has become possible to determine the optimum air quantity for minimizing fuel consumption at each engine speed range under the restrictive conditions of NOx emission, exhaust smoke and maximum cylinder pressure. Discussed also is the lack of air quantity in the low engine speed range of high-boost turbocharged diesel engines. Various turbocharging systems to improve air quantity in this speed range are introduced herein. Practically the engine performance of conventional turbocharging, waste gate control turbocharging and variable geometry turbocharging are discussed from the viewpoint of torque recovery in the low engine speed range.
Technical Paper

Effect of Top Rings on Piston Slap Noise

A recent increase in detergent additives to gasoline has resulted in an increase in the accumulation of deposits inside the engine's combustion chamber (this type of deposit will be hereinafter referred to as “CCD”;Combustion Chamber Deposit). Along with this tendency, authors have observed an engine noise generated during warm up, which may be attributable to the CCD accumulation. It was reported that the engine noise was identified as carbon knocking caused when the piston and cylinder head physically come in contact because of these CCDs(1X2) This paper deals with another noise generated by the CCD trapped between the piston ring and piston ring groove.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Oil Consumption Depending on Piston Ring Motion and Design

To reduce the oil consumption in diesel engines, the combination of top ring gap clearance (C1) and second ring gap clearance (C2) (ring gap balance) was applied. The effect of the ring gap balance on piston ring axial motion and second land pressure was observed and factors to control oil consumption were analyzed. The authors obtained a technique to reduce oil consumption by decreasing second land pressure and thus making second ring liable to lift off. Blow up gas was significantly concerned about oil consumption of blow-by gas.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Oil Consumption Depending on Piston Ring Design

Today preservation of the global environment is an international challenge, and air pollution has attracted more concern than ever. Especially, pollution due to exhaust emission from automobiles is a serious matter, and among others, the improvement of exhaust emission is urgent. For this purpose, regulations have been tightened on exhaust emission such as particulate control and NOx control. Thus, it is essential for oil consumption of diesel engines to reduce oil consumption and employ Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), and piston rings are the important key to solve these problems. This paper clarifies the effect of top rings, among piston rings, on oil consumption through engine tests and theoretical calculation of oil film thickness, and suggests techniques to reduce oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Development of the New K13C Engine with Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

Hino Motors has developed the new K13C, a 12.9 liter six cylinder in-line, heavy duty diesel engine that provides superior fuel consumption, extra low noise and excellent driveability together with a lower exhaust emissions. The initial K13C engine, whose production began in 1986 and about 30,000 units have been produced, is recognized all over the world for its good reliability and fuel economy. The new K13C is using the basic design and manufacturing/assembly processes of the previous one but includes a common-rail type fuel injection system with enhanced electronic controls to meet future regulation and customer requirements. Major design changes consist of a new cylinder head, a new front gear train, a new air intake system, a new turbocharger, a new compression brake system and electronic control module. The optimization of the intake system includes a new intake port and an electronically controlled inertia charging system.
Technical Paper

Development of a Technique to Predict Oil Consumption with Consideration for Cylinder Deformation - Prediction of Ring Oil Film Thickness and Amount of Oil Passing Across Running Surface under Cylinder Deformation -

Although various factors affecting oil consumption of an internal combustion engine can be considered, a technique to predict the amount of oil consumed within a cylinder that passes across a running surface of a ring was developed in this study. In order to predict the effect of cylinder deformation on oil consumption, a simple and easy technique to calculate the oil film thickness in deformed cylinder was proposed. For this technique, the piston ring was assumed to be a straight beam, and the beam bends with ring tension, gas pressure, and oil film pressure. From the calculated oil film thickness, amount of oil passing across the running surface of the TOP ring and into the combustion chamber was calculated. The calculated results were then compared to the oil film thickness of the ring and oil consumption measured during engine operation, and their validity was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Highly Efficient and Reliable Multi-Tube EGR Cooler

A multi-tube EGR cooler was developed to have high heat exchanger efficiency with high reliability for heavy-duty diesel engine application. Using three-dimensional numerical analyses as well as several laboratory experiments on both a test rig and a diesel engine, the authors determined the most critical factors for developing such an EGR cooler with low production costs. Technology development focused on achieving a high heat transfer coefficient on the gas side in a tube for increased heat exchanger efficiency and uniform coolant flow distribution in the shell for effective cooling of all tubes in the shell. The tube's inside wall was designed with a spiral configuration both for improved gas flow and heat transfer characteristics. Both the layout of the coolant inlet and outlet on the shell and the arrangement of tubes in the shell were optimized for the best results.