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Technical Paper

Study of the Effect of Boiling Point on Combustion and PM Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine Using Two-Component n-Paraffin Fuels

2002-03-04
2002-01-0871
Fuel composition is investigated as a parameter influencing fuel/air mixing of direct injected fuel and the subsequent consequences for particulate emissions. Presumably, enhanced mixing prior to ignition results in a larger portion of fuel burning as a premixture and a smaller portion of diffusion burning around fuel-rich regions. This would potentially lower particulate emissions without overly compromising hydrocarbon emissions or high load operation. Using mixtures of n-paraffin fuels, particulate emissions were measured and the results were compared with in-cylinder visualization of the injection process and two-color method calculations of flame temperature. In general, lower boiling point fuels exhibited higher flame temperatures, less visible flame, and lower particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Search for Optimizing Control Method of Homogeneous Charge Diesel Combustion

1999-03-01
1999-01-0184
As a method for reducing exhaust emissions from diesel engines, we have experimented on a homogeneous charge diesel combustion technique (HCDC) whereby a portion of fuel is supplied into the intake port to form a homogeneous premixture, this is then fed into the cylinder from the intake port before ignition of the diesel fuel, which is injected directly into the cylinder. Our results have indicated possibilities of substantially reducing both NOx and smoke emissions. If diesel fuel is premixed with air, the premixture under-goes excessively early self-ignition, making it difficult to maintain ignition timing near top dead center and hence limiting the engine operating conditions. While an important target in emission reduction is to realize stable low-emission combustion during a high-load operation, the actual operation of diesel engines mostly involves partial-load conditions.
Technical Paper

SOF Component of Lubricant Oil on Diesel PM in a High Boosted and Cooled EGR Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0123
The engine in the research is a single cylinder DI diesel using the emission reduction techniques such as high boost, high injection pressure and broad range and high quantity of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The study especially focuses on the reduction of particulate matter (PM) under the engine operating conditions. In the experiment the authors measured engine performance, exhaust gases and mass of PM by low sulfur fuel such as 3 ppm and low sulfur lubricant oil such as 0.26%. Then the PM components were divided into soluble organic fraction (SOF) and insoluble organic fraction (ISOF) and they were measured at each engine condition. The mass of SOF was measured from the fuel fraction and lubricant oil fraction by gas chromatography. Also each mass of soot fraction and sulfate fraction was measured as components of ISOF. The experiment was conducted at BMEP = 2.0 MPa as full load condition of the engine and changing EGR rate from 0% to 40 %.
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx and PM for a Heavy Duty Diesel Using 50% EGR Rate in Single Cylinder Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1120
For reducing NOx emissions, EGR is effective, but an excessive EGR rate causes the deterioration of smoke emission. Here, we have defined the EGR rate before the smoke emission deterioration while the EGR rate is increasing as the limiting EGR rate. In this study, the high rate of EGR is demonstrated to reduce BSNOx. The adapted methods are a high fuel injection pressure such as 200 MPa, a high boost pressure as 451.3 kPa at 2 MPa BMEP, and the air intake port that maintains a high air flow rate so as to achieve low exhaust emissions. Furthermore, for withstanding 2 MPa BMEP of engine load and high boosting, a ductile cast iron (FCD) piston was used. As the final effect, the installations of the new air intake port increased the limiting EGR rate by 5%, and fuel injection pressure of 200 MPa raised the limiting EGR rate by an additional 5%. By the demonstration of increasing boost pressure to 450 kPa from 400 kPa, the limiting EGR rate was achieved to 50%.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Reduction Rate of Urea-SCR System by NH3 Adsorption Quantity Control

2008-10-06
2008-01-2498
A urea SCR system was combined with a DPF system to reduce NOx and PM in a four liters turbocharged with intercooler diesel engine. Significant reduction in NOx was observed at low exhaust gas temperatures by increasing NH3 adsorption quantity in the SCR catalyst. Control logic of the NH3 adsorption quantity for transient operation was developed based on the NH3 adsorption characteristics on the SCR catalyst. It has been shown that NOx can be reduced by 75% at the average SCR inlet gas temperature of 158 deg.C by adopting the NH3 adsorption quantity control in the JE05 Mode.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Combustion Control of Diesel HCCI

2005-05-11
2005-01-2132
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions in diesel engine. In general, high octane number fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because these fuels briefly form lean homogeneous mixture because of long ignition delay and high volatility. However, it is necessary to improve injection systems, when these high octane number fuels are used in diesel engine. In addition, the difficulty of controlling auto-ignition timing must be resolved. On the other hand, HCCI using diesel fuel (diesel HCCI) also needs ignition control, because diesel fuel which has a low octane number causes the early ignition before TDC. The purpose of this study is the ignition and combustion control of diesel HCCI. The effects of parameters (injection timing, injection pressure, internal/external EGR, boost pressure, and variable valve timing (VVT)) on the ignition timing of diesel HCCI were investigated.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Purification of Diesel Engines by Homogeneous Charge with Compression Ignition Part 2: Analysis of Combustion Phenomena and NOx Formation by Numerical Simulation with Experiment

1997-02-24
970315
An experimental and a numerical analysis wereconducted based on the concept of homogeneous charge diesel combustion (HCDC), in which most of the fuel is supplied for pre-mixed homogeneous charge which is compressed in the cylinder and then ignited by small amount of diesel fuel directly injected into a cylinder. At the previous report, It was indicated that simultaneous improvement of NOx and smoke were possible. Especially under a certain condition, NOx was extremely reduced. This report describes the preliminary analysis for the cause of this emission improvement with HCDC method. As result, direct optical observation of the combustion phenomena and numerical analysis using KIVA2 code suggested that low NOx combustion may be caused by lowered combustion temperature and reduced combustion period due to the uniform lean combustion.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Purification of Diesel Engines by Homogeneous Charge with Compression Ignition Part 1: Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Exhaust Emission Behavior Under Pre-Mixed Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Method

1997-02-24
970313
A homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Diesel Combustion (HCDC) system has been experimentally studied for it's effect on exhaust purification of diesel engines. In this system, most fuel is injected into the intake manifold to form homogeneous pre-mixture in the combustion chamber beforehand and the pre-mixture is ignited with a small amount of fuel directly injected into the cylinder by a conventional injection system. Because this system performs homogeneous lean-burn, it can realize low emission which cannot be realized by conventional diesel engines without impairing ignition controllability in the operations ranging from idle to full load. In particular, although the operating regions were strictly limited, extremely low Nox emission levels of as low as 10 to 40 ppm were realized with maintaining low smoke emissions, when the ratio of pre-mixed fuel was increased up to approx. 98%.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Behavior of Mixed Fuels having Different Component Cetane Number and Boiling Point

2003-05-19
2003-01-1868
To clarify the effect of fuel properties on diesel exhaust emissions, direct injection of two component fuels with approximately zero aromatic content and sulfur were attempted in a diesel engine. Fuels were prepared using paraffins having different cetane numbers and boiling points. Parameters considered are the Average Boiling Point (ABP) by volume and the difference of component characteristics for the same ABP. The results indicate that the trade off relation between NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions depends significantly on ABP or density and is independent of the fuel component. On the other hand, components of the mixed fuels have significant influence on SOF and THC emissions. Fuels having higher amount of low boiling point components emit higher THC. Mixtures of low boiling point-high cetane number fuel and high boiling point-low cetane number fuel or fuel that contains normal paraffins only emit higher SOF.
Technical Paper

Emission Characteristics of a Urea SCR System under the NOx Level of Japanese 2009 Emission Regulation

2007-10-29
2007-01-3996
In order to discuss future technical issues for urea SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system, it is necessary to assess various technical possibilities that would be applied to urea SCR systems which is capable of complying with future emission level requirements, for example Japanese 2009 emission regulation. In this paper, three measures (enhanced insulation on a DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst), aggressive urea solution injection and idling stop) are installed on a urea SCR system of a commercial engine system in order to achieve further NOx (nitrogen oxide) reductions. With combination of these three measures, NOx is drastically reduced to the levels lower than 0.7 g/kWh, which is a NOx limit value of the Japanese 2009 emission regulation. NH3 (ammonia) and HCN (hydro cyanide) are also measured as unregulated harmful components.
Technical Paper

Emission Characteristics of a Urea SCR System under Catalysts Activated and De-Activated Conditions

2006-04-03
2006-01-0639
Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system has high potential of reducing NOx. But such as system durability and safety under deteriorated catalysts conditions have not been well enough clarified because it is new technology for vehicles. In this paper, current NOx emission level of an engine equipped with urea SCR system is discussed and then exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed when the SCR catalyst and/or oxidation catalyst lose their functions. When both SCR and oxidation catalyst were de-activated, not only NOx but also PM increased remarkably, which were much more than the engine-out emissions. Oxidation catalyst downstream of SCR catalyst was effective to suppress such deteriorations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1966
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions from diesel engine. In general, high octane number and volatility fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because very lean mixture must be formed during ignition delay of the fuel. However, it is necessary to improve fuel injection systems, when these fuels are used in diesel engine. The purpose of the present study is the achievement of HCCI combustion in DI diesel engine without the large-scale improvements of engine components. Various high octane number fuels are mixed with diesel fuel as a base fuel, and the mixed fuels are directly applied to DI diesel engine. At first, the cylinder pressure and heat release rate of each mixed fuel are analyzed. The ignition delay of HCCI operation decreases with an increase in the operation load, although that of conventional diesel operation does not almost varied.
Technical Paper

Effective Usage of LNT in High Boosted and High EGR Rate of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1066
Lean NOx trap (LNT) and Urea-SCR system are effective aftertreatment systems as NOx reduction device in diesel engines. On the other hand, DPF has already been developed as PM reduction device and it has been used in various vehicles. LNT can absorb and reduce NOx emission in wide range exhaust temperatures, from 150°C to 400°C, and the size of LNT component can be compact in comparison with Urea-SCR system because LNT uses the diesel fuel as a reducing agent and it is needless to install the reducing agent tank in the vehicle. In this study, authors have shown that the NOx conversion rate of LNT is high in the case of extremely low NOx concentration from the engine. Also, the effects of LNT and DPF were examined using the Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine, which has low NOx level before aftertreatment and has been finished as Japanese national project.
Technical Paper

Effective NOx Reduction in High Boost, Wide Range and High EGR Rate in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1438
The emission reduction from diesel engines is one of major issues in heavy duty diesel engines. Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine for heavy-duty trucks has also been researched and developed since 2002. The main specifications of the SCD Engine are six cylinders in-line and 10.5 l with a turbo-intercooled and cooled EGR system. The common rail system, of which the maximum injection pressure is 200 MPa, is adopted. The turbocharger is capable of increasing boost pressure up to 501.3 kPa. The EGR system consists of both a high-pressure loop (HP) EGR system and a low-pressure loop (LP) EGR system. The combination of these EGR systems reduces NOx and PM emissions effectively in both steady-state and transient conditions. The emissions of the SCD Engine reach NOx=0.2 g/kWh and PM=0.01 g/kWh with aftertreatment system. The adopted aftertreatment system includes a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

Effective BSFC and NOx Reduction on Super Clean Diesel of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine by High Boosting and High EGR Rate

2011-04-12
2011-01-0369
Reduction of exhaust emissions and BSFC was studied for high pressure, wide range, and high EGR rates in a Super-clean Diesel six-cylinder heavy duty engine. The GVW 25-ton vehicle has 10.52 L engine displacement, with maximum power of 300 kW and maximum torque of 1842 Nm. The engine is equipped with high-pressure fuel injection of a 200 MPa level common-rail system. A variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) was newly designed. The maximum pressure ratio of the compressor is about twice that of the previous design: 2.5. Additionally, wide range and a high EGR rate are achieved by high pressure-loop EGR (HP-EGR) and low pressure-loop EGR (LP-EGR) with described VGT and high-pressure fuel injection. The HP-EGR can reduce NOx concentrations in the exhaust pipe, but the high EGR rate worsens smoke. The HP-EGR system layout has an important shortcoming: it has great differences of the intake EGR gas amount into each cylinder, worsens smoke.
Technical Paper

Effect of Boiling Point Differences of Two-Component Normal Paraffin Fuels on Combustion and Emission in CI Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-0757
The effect of boiling point difference as well as the flash boiling of two-component normal paraffin fuels on combustion and exhaust emission has been examined under different test conditions. To obtain a wide variation in boiling point between components different high boiling point fuels (n-undecane, n-tridecane and n-hexadecane) were blended with a low boiling point fuel (n-pentane) and different low boiling point fuels (n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane) were blended with a high boiling point fuel (n-hexadecane). In addition the volume fraction of n-pentane was varied to have the best mixture ratio with n-tridecane. These fuel combinations exhibit different potential for flash boiling based on a certain ambient condition. The results indicate that though the potential for flash boiling is the highest for a mixture of n-pentane and n-hexadecane it emits about 20% higher PM than a mixture of n-pentane and n-tridecane.
Journal Article

Effect of Biodiesel on NOx Reduction Performance of Urea-SCR System

2010-10-25
2010-01-2278
The use of biomass fuels for vehicles has been a focus of attention all over the world in terms of prevention of global warming, effective utilization of resources and local revitalization. For the purpose of beneficial use of unused biomass resources, the movement of the use of bioethanol and biodiesel made from them has spread in Japan. In Japan, biodiesel is mainly made from waste cooking oil collected by local communities or governments, and in terms of local production for local consumption, it is used as neat fuel (100% biofuel) or mixed with diesel fuel in high concentration for the vehicles. On the other hand, extremely low emission level must be kept for not only gasoline vehicles but also diesel vehicles in the post new long-term regulation implemented from 2009 in Japan.
Technical Paper

Development of a Real-time NH3 Gas Analyzer Utilizing Chemi-luminescence Detection for Vehicle Emission Measurement

2004-10-25
2004-01-2907
Recently, after-treatment techniques for diesel engine emission have made remarkable progress with the development of suitable De-NOx catalysts. The urea-injection SCR system is one of the candidates for a high efficiency De-NOx method for diesel engine emissions. This system reduces NOx through a reaction with ammonia (NH3) that is generated from injected urea. In this system, it is very important to control the amount and timing of the urea injection so as to minimize the NH3 gas slip. Therefore, NH3 gas measurement is becoming important during the development of NOx after-treatment systems even though NH3 is not a target component of the current emission regulations. In this paper, a new NH3 gas analyzer utilizing a chemi-luminescence detection (CLD) method has been developed. The new NH3 analyzer consists of dual detectors (DCLDs) and a furnace for a NH3 oxidization catalyst. Real-time concentration of NH3 can be calculated from the difference of NOx readings of two detectors.
Technical Paper

Development of NOx Storage Reduction System for a Heavy-Duty Dimethyl Ether Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-1088
To establish NOx Storage Reduction(NSR) system, the effect of post fuel injection in exhaust pipe with rich spike on NOx conversion rate was investigated. With post fuel injection, a higher injection pressure and the rich spike close to the NSR catalyst (just before the NSR catalyst) shows better NOx reduction performance. Based on these results, exhaust emission was tested in transient driving mode (JE-05). In this driving mode test, it was possible to reduce NOx emission less than 0.5 g/kWh for only a 1% of fuel penalty controlling the rich spike injection precisely.
Technical Paper

Degradation of DeNOx Performance of a Urea-SCR System in In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles Complying with the New Long-Term Regulation in Japan and Estimation of its Mechanism

2016-04-05
2016-01-0958
Degradation of the deNOx performance has been found in in-use heavy-duty vehicles with a urea-SCR system in Japan. The causes of the degradation were studied, and two major reasons are suggested here: HC poisoning and deactivation of pre-oxidation catalysts. Hydrocarbons that accumulated on the catalysts inhibited the catalysis. Although they were easily removed by a simple heat treatment, the treatment could only partially recover the original catalytic performance for the deNOx reaction. The unrecovered catalytic activity was found to result from the decrease in conversion of NO to NO2 on the pre-oxidation catalyst. The pre-oxidation catalyst was thus studied in detail by various techniques to reveal the causes of the degradation: Exhaust emission tests for in-use vehicles, effect of heat treatment on the urea-SCR systems, structural changes and chemical changes in active components during the deactivation were systematically investigated.
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