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Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines by Organic Rankine Cycle Part II: Working Fluids for WHR-ORC

In Part I of this paper, the organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery (ORC-WHR) from the heavy-duty diesel truck engines was discussed. This work is Part II of the paper. The efficiency of the ORC-WHR system varies considerably with thermodynamic properties of the working fluid. In this work, characteristics of candidate working fluids are discussed on the basis of the thermodynamic theory. The discussion covers inorganic and organic fluids for both pure fluids and binary-mixture fluids. On the basis of the characteristics of the working fluids, the thermal efficiency for the ORC-WHR system is analyzed. Discussions and conclusions of this paper are helpful in selecting proper working fluids for the ORC-WHR system and determining a proper temperature range for system operations.
Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines by Organic Rankine Cycle Part I: Hybrid Energy System of Diesel and Rankine Engines

Waste heat from a heavy-duty truck diesel engine is analyzed employing the first and second law of thermodynamics. A hybrid energy system is proposed, with the diesel cycle being hybridized with an organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery (ORC-WHR). The charge air cooler and EGR cooler(s) are integrated in the ORC loop as pre-heaters and the ORC working fluid serves as the coolant for these coolers. A supercritical reciprocating Rankine engine is proposed, which avoids using the high-cost evaporator and is easier for the system packaging. It is demonstrated in a case study that up to 20 % of waste heat from the heavy-duty diesel engine may be recovered by the supercritical ORC-WHR system, making the efficiency for the hybrid energy system be ≥ 50%. Discussion on working fluids for the WHR-ORC system is covered in Part II of this paper.
Journal Article

Waste Heat Recovery Concept to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Heat Rejection from a Diesel Engine

Fuel economy is critical for heavy-duty line haul applications. As fuel prices rise and impending fuel economy regulations are implemented, new ways to improve heavy-vehicle fuel economy will be in high demand. AVL Powertrain Engineering has undertaken a research and development project to demonstrate the feasibility of a Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. The goals of the project were to reduce the overall engine heat rejection, specific emissions and fuel consumption (CO₂ emissions) of heavy-duty diesel engines by converting heat that is typically wasted to the exhaust stack and through the EGR cooler to useable mechanical energy. A detailed thermodynamic analysis was conducted which laid the groundwork for working fluid selection and proper sizing of the WHR components. Based on the system specifications, a prototype WHR system was designed and built. The performance of the system was evaluated on a 10.8-liter heavy-duty on-highway diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Viscosity and Lubricity of (Liquid) Dimethyl Ether - An Alternative Fuel for Compression-Ignition Engines

In this paper, dependence of liquid-DME viscosity on temperature and pressure was studied theoretically. It was found that in the saturated-liquid state, the DME viscosity is 0.37 cSt at - 40 ° C and it drops to 0.17 cSt when temperature increases to 80 ° C. In the subcooled-liquid state, viscosity varies linearly with pressure at a given temperature; at 20 ° C, viscosity of the subcooled liquid is 0.23 cSt at 5.3 bar and it increases to 0.33 cSt at 500 bar. The predicted liquid-DME viscosity and its pressure dependence agree with those obtained by measurement. Lubricity of liquid DME also was studied. Polar-headed, long-chain alcohols and fatty acids with chain length of C15 ∼ C22 were found to be candidates of lubricity additives for DME. Castor oil (chemically, it is basically a C18 fatty acid) was found to be a good additive for improving the DME lubricity.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Properties of Dimethyl Ether - An Alternative Fuel for Compression-Ignition Engines

On the basis of the molecular thermodynamics for fluids, the thermodynamic properties of DME are developed for pressure p ≤ 500 bar and temperature T ≤ 200 °C, which covers pressures and temperatures that a DME fuel system for the CI-engine application would experience. The properties cover subcooled, two-phase, and superheated/supercritical regions, including p-v-T properties, enthalpy, entropy, latent heat, heat capacity, speed of sound in vapor, liquid and two-phase mixtures, bulk modulus, and surface tension. A volume-cubic equation of state for DME also is developed, which allows calculating the DME density at any given pressure and temperature analytically. All the properties are given in equations as well as in charts. For convenience in two-phase-flow applications, e.g., design of the fuel tank and cavitation analysis, the saturated properties are also given in tables, listed in both pressure and temperature up to the critical point.
Technical Paper

Thermochemical Characteristics of Dimethyl Ether - An Alternative Fuel for Compression-Ignition Engines

This paper analyzed chemical and thermophysical properties of dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel for compression-ignition engines. On the basis of the chemical structure of DME and the molecular thermodynamics of fluids, equations have been developed for most of the DME thermophysical properties that would influence the fuel-system performance. These equations are easy to use and accurate in the pressure and temperature ranges for CI engine applications. The paper also pointed out that the DME spray in the engine cylinder would differ significantly from that of diesel fuel due to the thermodynamic characteristics of DME. The DME spray pattern will affect the mixing and combustion processes in the engine cylinder, which, in turn, will influence emissions from combustion.
Technical Paper

Mitigating Intensities of Super Knocks Encountered in Highly Boosted Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

Turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines can achieve a very high level of brake mean effective pressure and thus the engines can be downsized. The biggest challenge in developing highly-boosted TGDI engines may be how to mitigate the pre-ignition (PI) triggered severe engine knocks at high loads and low engine speeds. Since magnitudes of cylinder pressure fluctuations during aforementioned engine knocks reach those for peak firing pressures in normal combustion, they are characterized as super knocks. It is widely believed that the root cause for super knocks is the oil particles entering the engine cylinder, which pre-ignite the cylinder mixture in late of the compression stroke. It is neither possible nor practical to completely eliminate the oil particles from the engine cylinder; a reasonable approach to mitigate super knocks is to weaken the conditions favoring super knocks.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Dilution of Crankcase Oil on Ignitability of Oil Particles in a Highly Boosted Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

The relationship between fuel dilution of the crankcase oil and low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) was studied experimentally with a highly-boosted 1.8L turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine fueled with RON93 gasoline. It was found that properties of oil particles entered the engine cylinder were affected significantly by fuel dilution. The gasoline content in the oil represents those with long carbon chain or heavy species in gasoline, with much lower boiling points and auto ignition temperatures than those for the undiluted engine oil. Thus, dilution of the engine oil by these gasoline species lowers the volatility and the minimum auto ignition temperature of the engine oil. With 15% fuel content in the oil, the flash point and the fire point of the SAE 5W30 oil dropped from 245 °C to 90 °C and from 265 °C to 150 °C, respectively.
Journal Article

Influence of Crankcase Oil Properties on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition Encountered in a Highly-Boosted Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

This paper reports an experimental investigation on the influence of the crankcase oil properties on the engine combustion in the low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) zone. The investigation was conducted on a highly boosted 1.5L TGDI engine operated at the low-speed-end maximum torque, at which LSPI events were observed most frequently. Six different engine oils were tested, covering SAE 0W-20, 0W-30, 0W-40, 5W-20, 5W-30 and 5W-40. In order to evaluate the evaporative characteristics of the crankcase oil, for each of the selected engine oils, the tests were conducted at two different coolant temperatures, 90°C and 105°C. Because SAE 5W-30 was the base oil for the engine under study, for this particular oil, the investigation was extended to the impact of different levels of the mixture enrichment.
Technical Paper

Improving Fuel Economy for HD Diesel Engines with WHR Rankine Cycle Driven by EGR Cooler Heat Rejection

The fuel saving benefit is analyzed for a class-8 truck diesel engine equipped with a WHR system, which recovers the waste heat from the EGR. With this EGR-WHR system, the composite fuel savings over the ESC 13-mode test is up to 5%. The fuel economy benefit can be further improved if the charge air cooling is also integrated in the Rankine cycle loop. The influence of working fluid properties on the WHR efficiency is studied by operating the Rankine cycle with two different working fluids, R245fa and ethanol. The two working fluids are compared in the temperature-entropy and enthalpy-entropy diagrams for both subcritical and supercritical cycles. For R245fa, the subcritical cycle shows advantages over the supercritical cycle. For ethanol, the supercritical cycle has better performance than the subcritical cycle. The comparison indicates that ethanol can be an alternative for R245fa.
Journal Article

Impact of Fuel Injection on Dilution of Engine Crankcase Oil for Turbocharged Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

Turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines often have a flat torque curve with the maximum torque covering a wide range of engine speeds. Increasing the high-speed-end torque for a TGDI engine provides better acceleration performance to the vehicle powered by the engine. However, it also requires more fuel deliveries and thus longer injection durations at high engine speeds, for which the multiple fuel injections per cycle may not be possible. In this study, results are reported of an experimental investigation of impact of fuel injection on dilution of the crankcase oil for a highly-boosted TGDI engine. It was found in the tests that the high-speed-end torque for the TGDI engine had a significant influence on fuel dilution: longer injection durations resulted in impingement of large liquid fuel drops on the piston top, leading to a considerable level of fuel dilution.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Strategy for Reducing NOx Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Fueled with DME

A new fuel injection strategy is proposed for DME engines. Under this strategy, a pre-injection up to 40% demand is conducted after intake valves closing. Due to high volatility of DME, a lean homogeneous mixture can be formed during the compression stroke. Near TDC, a pilot injection is conducted. Combined fuel mass for the pre-injection and pilot injection is under the lean combustion limit of DME. Thus, the mixture is enriched and combustion can take place only in the neighborhood of sprays of the pilot injection. The main injection is conducted after TDC. Because only about half of the demand needs to be injected and DME evaporates almost immediately, combustion duration for the main injection plus the unburnt fuel in the cylinder should not be long because a large portion of the fuel has been premixed with air. With a high EGR rate and proper timing for the main injection, low temperature combustion could be realized.
Technical Paper

Development of a Variable-Displacement, Rail-Pressure Supply Pump for Dimethyl Ether

A variable-displacement, 275-bar dimethyl-ether pump for a common-rail injection system has been developed successfully. The pump is an inlet-throttled, wobble-plate-actuated, multi-plunger system. Results of the pump tests/simulations show that the pump can deliver fuel according to the engine requirement at different speeds due to its variable-displacement feature, which is obtained by controlling the discharge phase angle via the two-phase filling characteristic of the pump. Although the pump is designed for dimethyl ether, its concept is general and thus may be applied to the common-rail systems for other fuels.
Technical Paper

Development of a Liquid-DME Fuel Tank - A Two-Fluid Thermodynamic Pump

A novel fuel tank for storing liquid dimethyl ether (DME) has been developed. This fuel tank was made of cast aluminum with a water capacity of 40 liters. It contains two fluids: liquid DME and a vapor-liquid mixture of propane. A diaphragm separates the two fluids. The propane in the tank is a pressurizing fluid that pressurizes DME into a subcooled-liquid state; and, it also functions as a driving fluid that pumps the liquid DME from the tank to the injection pump using its vapor pressure. These features characterize the tank as a thermodynamic pump. Several hundred hours of tank tests at various temperatures have been conducted. Results of tank filling-discharge cycles simulating those in vehicle applications demonstrated that the concept of the two-fluid thermodynamic pump works and that the tank design is successful.
Technical Paper

Compression Ignition Delay (Physical + Chemical) of Dimethyl Ether - An Alternative Fuel for Compression-Ignition Engines

Compression ignition delay of DME is studied theoretically. Physical phenomena that would influence the ignition delay, characteristics of the DME spray and evaporation of DME droplets in the spray, are analyzed. It is found that the short ignition delay of DME revealed in engine tests is due largely to the short physical delay of DME: The evaporation rate of DME droplets is about twice that of diesel-fuel droplets at the same cylinder condition and, the stoichiometric mixture in a DME spray can be established immediately - in comparison, the stoichiometric mixture in a diesel-fuel spray cannot be established before temperatures of diesel-fuel droplets become higher than 225 °C. The high droplet evaporation rate of DME is also responsible for the irregular boundary and tip of the DME spray as observed by many investigators. On the basis of experimental data reported in the literature, cetane number of DME is estimated to be 68.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Characteristics of Diesel-Fuel and Dimethyl-Ether Sprays in the Engine

A comparative study of characteristics of diesel fuel and dimethyl ether sprays was conducted on the basis of momentum conservation. The analysis reveals that the DME spray in the diesel combustion system may not develop as well as that of diesel fuel at high engine loads and speeds due primarily to the following reasons. (1) Because 42% more fuel volume must be injected into the engine to reach the diesel-fuel equivalent and because the DME injection pressure is lower than that of diesel fuel, longer injection duration for DME is needed even if with the enlarged orifice diameters.
Technical Paper

Can Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Fueled with DME Meet US 2007/2010 Emissions Standard with A Simplified Aftertreatment System?

Emissions from CI engines fueled with dimethyl ether (DME) were discussed in this paper. Thanks to its high content of fuel oxygen, DME combustion is virtually soot free. This characteristic of DME combustion indicates that the particulate filter will not be needed in the aftertreatment system for engines fueled with DME. NOx emissions from a CI engine fueled with DME can meet the US 2007 regulation with a high EGR rate. Because 49% more fuel mass must be delivered in each DME injection than the corresponding diesel-fuel injection, and the DME injection pressure is lower than 500 bar under the current fuel-system technology, the DME injection duration is generally longer than that of diesel-fuel injection. This is unfavorable to further NOx reduction. A multiple-injection strategy with timing for the primary injection determined by the cylinder temperature was proposed.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation on Low Speed Pre-Ignition in a Highly Boosted Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

The biggest challenge in developing Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection (TGDI) engines may be the abnormal combustion phenomenon occurring at low speeds and high loads, known as low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI can trigger severe engine knocks with intensities much greater than those of spark knocks and thus characterized as super knocks. In this study, behavior and patterns of LSPI were investigated experimentally with a highly-boosted 1.5L TGDI engine. It was found that LSPI could occur as an isolated event, a couple of events in sequence, or a trail of events. Although occurring randomly among the engine cylinders, LSPI took place frequently when the engine was operated at low speeds and high loads in the zone where scavenging was employed for boosting engine torques at low speeds, typically < 2500 rpm.
Technical Paper

Achieving High Engine Efficiency for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines by Waste Heat Recovery Using Supercritical Organic-Fluid Rankine Cycle

A supercritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for recovery of waste heat from heavy-duty diesel engines is proposed. In this system, an organic, medium-boiling-point fluid is selected as the working fluid, which also serves as the coolant for the charge air cooler and the EGR coolers. Because the exhaust temperature can be as high as 650 °C during the DPF regeneration, an exhaust cooler is included in the system to recover some of the high level exhaust energy. In the present ORC system, the expansion work is conducted by a uniflow reciprocating expander, which simplifies the waste-heat-recovery (WHR) system significantly. This reciprocating Rankine engine is more appropriate for on-road-vehicle applications where the condition for waste heat is variable. The energy level of waste heat from a heavy-duty diesel engine is evaluated by the analyses of the first and second law of thermodynamics.
Technical Paper

A Thermal Energy Operated Heating/Cooling System for Buses

The passenger cabin heating and cooling has a considerable impact on the fuel economy for buses, especially during the waiting period. This problem becomes more significant for the hybrid buses for which the impact of the auxiliary load on the fuel economy is almost twice that on the conventional buses. A second-law analysis conducted in this study indicates that a heat-driven AC system has higher energy utilization efficiency than the conventional AC system. On the basis of this analysis, a concept waste-heat-driven absorptive aqua-ammonia heat pump system is proposed and analyzed. Results of the analysis show that the heat-driven system can reduce the engine auxiliary load significantly because it eliminates the conventional AC compressor. In the AC mode, its energy utilization efficiency can be up to 50%. In the heating mode, the effective efficiency for heating can be up to 100%.