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Journal Article

VOC Emissions and OFP Assessment for Two Real World Urban Driving Cycles using a EURO 2 SI Car

2008-04-14
2008-01-1303
A FTIR in-vehicle on-road emission measurement system was installed in a EURO2 emissions compliant SI (Spark Ignition) car to investigate exhaust Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emissions and Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) under different urban traffic conditions. The real time fuel consumption and vehicle traveling speed were measured and logged. The temperatures were measured along the exhaust pipe so as to monitor the thermal characteristics and efficiency of the catalyst. Two real world driving cycles were developed with different traffic conditions. One (West Park Loop cycle) was located in a quiet area with few traffic interference and the other one (Hyde Park Loop cycle) was in a busy area with more traffic variations. The test car was pre-warmed before each test to eliminate cold start effect. The driving parameters were analyzed for two real world cycles.
Technical Paper

The Use of a Water/Lube Oil Heat Exchanger and Enhanced Cooling Water Heating to Increase Water and Lube Oil Heating Rates in Passenger Cars for Reduced Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions During Cold Start.

2007-07-23
2007-01-2067
Lubricating oil takes all of the NEDC test cycle time to reach 90°C. Hence, this gives high friction losses throughout the test cycle, which leads to a significant increase in the fuel consumption. In real world driving, particularly in congested traffic, it is shown that lube oil warm-up is even slower than in the NEDC. Euro 1, 2 and 4 Ford Mondeo water and oil warm up rates in real world urban driving were determined and shown to be comparable with the results of Kunze et al. (2) for a BMW on the NEDC. This paper explores the use of forced convective heat exchange between the cooling water and the lube oil during the warm-up period. A technique of a step warm-up of the engine at 32 Nm at 2000 rpm (35% of peak power) was used and the engine lube oil and water temperature monitored. It was shown that the heat exchanger results in an increase in lube oil temperature by 4°C, which increased to 10°C if enhanced heat transfer to the water was used from an exhaust port heat exchanger.
Technical Paper

The Influence of an On Line Heated Lubricating Oil Recycler on Emissions from an IDI Passenger Car Diesel as a Function of Oil Age

2000-03-06
2000-01-0232
A method of cleaning diesel engine lubricating oil on-line was investigated using a bypass fine particulate filter followed by an infra-red heater to remove water vapour and light diesel fractions in the oil. The impact of this oil recycler on the gaseous and particulate emissions was investigated over a 300 hour oil age period. A Ford 1.8 litre IDI passenger car diesel engine was used with engine out emission sampled every 15-20 hours. The tests were carried out at 2500rpm (52% of the maximum speed) and 12.3 kW with 47 Nm load (43% of the maximum load and 29% of the maximum power). The EGR level at this condition was 15%. A stop start test cycle was used with a cold start each time and a typical test period of 2-3 hours. The results showed that the recycler had its greatest influence on emissions for fresh oil when there was a large reduction in particulate emissions due mainly to large reductions in the ash, carbon and unburned lubricating oil fractions.
Technical Paper

The Influence of an Oil Recycler on Lubricating Oil Quality with Oil Age for a Bus Using in Service Testing

2000-03-06
2000-01-0234
A method of cleaning lubricating oil on line was investigated using a fine bypass particulate filter followed by an infra red heater, to remove water and light diesel fractions in the oil. Two bypass filter sizes of 6 and 1 micron were investigated, both filter sizes were effective but the one micron filter had the greatest benefit. This was tested on two nominally identical Euro 2 emissions compliance single decker buses, fitted with Cummins 6 cylinder 8.3 litre turbocharged intercooled engines. These vehicles had oil deterioration and emissions characteristics that were significantly different, in spite of their similar age and total mileage. Comparison was made with the oil quality on the same vehicles and engines with and without the on-line recycler. Oil samples were analysed about every 2000 miles. All tests started with an oil drain and fresh lubricating oil.
Technical Paper

The Influence of an Oil Recycler on Emissions with Oil Age for a Refuse Truck Using in Service Testing

2001-03-05
2001-01-0623
A method of cleaning lubricating oil on line was investigated using a fine bypass particulate filter followed by an infra red heater. Two bypass filter sizes of 6 and 1 micron were investigated, both filter sizes were effective but the one micron filter had the greatest benefit. This was tested on two nominally identical EURO 1 emissions compliance refuse trucks, fitted with Perkins Phazer 210Ti 6 litre turbocharged intercooled engines and coded as RT320 and RT321. These vehicles had emissions characteristics that were significantly different, in spite of their similar age and total mileage. RT321 showed an apparent heavier black smoke than RT320. Comparison was made with the emissions on the same vehicles and engines with and without the on-line bypass oil recycler. Engine exhaust emissions were measured about every 400 miles. Both vehicles started the test with an oil drain and fresh lubricating oil.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Lubricating Oil Age on Oil Quality and Emissions from IDI Passenger Car Diesels

1999-03-01
1999-01-1135
Two Ford IDI passenger car diesel engines, 1.6 and 1.8 litres, were tested over a 100 hour lube oil ageing period with engine out emission samples every 15 hours. The 1.6 litre engine was tested with 5% EGR and the 1.8 litre engine with 15% EGR. Comparison was also made with previous work using an older Petter AA1 engine. The three engines had different dependencies of particulate emissions on the lube oil age. The 1.6 litre engine increased the particulates from 1 to 2.5 g/kg of fuel, whereas the 1.8 litre engine first decreased the particulate emissions from 3 to 1 g/kg over 50 hours of oil age and then they increased to 2 g/kg at 100 hours. This was similar to the previous work on the Petter AA1 engine, where the emissions first decreased and then increased as the oil aged. For the 1.8 litre engine the lube oil fraction of the VOF was high with fresh oil and decreased with time for the first 50 hours and then remained steady.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Fuel Pre-Heating on Combustion and Emissions with 100% Rapeseed Oil for a DI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0486
This work investigates the heating of unprocessed rapeseed oil as a means to improve fuel delivery by reducing the fuel viscosity, and to assess the effects on combustion performance. The results show that a simple low power heater with thermal insulation around the fuel line and pump can effectively raise the operational fuel temperature at delivery to the pump. The results show that even with a moderate temperature increase, the fuel flow limitations with rapeseed oil are reduced and the legislated gaseous emissions are reduced at steady state conditions. As one of the main reasons for the conversion of straight oils to the methyl ester, ie biodiesel, is to reduce the viscosity, this work shows that heating the oil can have a similar effect. An emissions benefit is observed with biodiesel compared to rapeseed oil but this is not large. There is also a significant greenhouse gas and cost benefit associated with straight vegetable oils.
Technical Paper

Study of thermal characteristics, fuel consumption and emissions during cold start using an on-board measuring method for SI car real world urban driving

2007-07-23
2007-01-2065
Exhaust emissions were measured under real world urban driving conditions using a set of in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system, which is able to measure 65 emission components simultaneously at a rate of 0.5 Hz. The test vehicle was a EURO 2 emission compliant SI car equipped with real time fuel consumption measurement and temperature measurement along the exhaust pipe across the catalyst allowing the matching of thermal characteristics to emission profiles and monitor fuel consumption. The temperature profile indicated that the light-off of the catalyst took about 150∼200 seconds. The warm up of the lubricating oil and coolant water required a longer time than the catalyst did. The impact of ambient temperatures on lubricating oil and coolant water warm ups was greater than that on the light-off of the catalyst. The heat loss and energy balance were calculated during the whole cycle period. The influence of cold start on fuel consumption was investigated.
Technical Paper

Study of the Emissions Generated at Intersections for a SI Car under Real World Urban Driving Conditions

2006-04-03
2006-01-1080
A precision in-vehicle tail-pipe emission measurement system was installed in a EURO1 emissions compliant SI car and used to investigate the variability in tail-pipe emission generation at an urban traffic junction. Exhaust gas and skin temperatures were also measured along the exhaust pipe of the instrumented vehicle, so the thermal characteristics and the efficiency of the catalyst monitored could be included in the analysis. Different turning movements (driving patterns) at the priority T-junction were investigated such as straight, left and right turns with and without stops. The test car was hot stable running conditions before each test, thereby negating cold start effects. To demonstrate the influence of the junction on tail-pipe emissions and fuel consumption, distance based factors were determined that compared the intersection drive-through measurements with steady speed (state) runs. Fuel consumption was increased at intersections by a factor of 1.3∼5.9.
Journal Article

Study of Thermal Characteristics and Emissions during Cold Start using an on-board Measuring Method for Modern SI Car Real World Urban Driving

2008-04-14
2008-01-1307
Exhaust emissions were measured under real world urban driving conditions using a set of in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system, which is able to measure 65 emission components simultaneously at a rate of 0.5 Hz. The test vehicle was a modern EURO4 emission compliant SI car equipped with temperature measurement along the exhaust pipe across the catalyst so as to match thermal characteristics to emission profiles. A free flow urban driving cycle was used for the test and four repeated journeys were conducted. The results were compared to EU emissions legislation. The results show that the warm up of the lubricating oil needed 15 minutes. The TWC needed about 200 seconds to reach full conversion efficiency. CO, THC and NOx emissions exceeded the EURO4 exhaust emission legislation. CO2 emissions were well above the type approval value of this vehicle.
Technical Paper

Study of Emission and Combustion Characteristics of RME B100 Biodiesel from a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine

2007-01-23
2007-01-0074
A rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel RMEB100 was tested on a heavy duty DI diesel engine under steady state conditions. The combustion performance and exhaust emissions were measured and compared to a standard petroleum derived diesel fuel. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Phaser Engine, with emission compliance of EURO 2, fitted with an oxidation catalyst. The exhaust samples were taken both upstream and downstream of the catalyst. Particulates were collected and analysed for VOF, carbon and ash. A MEXA7100 gas analysis system was used for legislated gas analysis such as CO, CO2, NOx and total hydrocarbons. A FTIR analysis system was deployed for gaseous hydrocarbon speciation, which is capable of speciating up to 65 species. The results showed a significant reduction in total particulate mass, particulate VOF, CO, THC and aldehydes when using RMEB100.
Journal Article

Speciation of Nitrogen Compounds in the Tailpipe Emissions from a SI Car under Real World Driving Conditions

2014-10-13
2014-01-2812
The tailpipe exhaust emissions were measured using a EURO4 emissions compliant SI car equipped with on-board measurement systems such as a FTIR system for gaseous emission, a differential GPS for velocity, altitude and position, thermal couples for temperatures, and a MAX fuel meter for transient fuel consumption. Various nitrogen species emissions (NO, NO2, NOx, NH3, HCN and N2O) were measured at 0.5 Hz. The tests were designed and employed using two real world driving cycles/routes representing a typical urban road network located in a densely populated area and main crowded road. Journeys at various times of the day were conducted to investigate traffic conditions impacts such as traffic and pedestrian lights, road congestion, grade and turning on emissions, engine thermal efficiency and fuel consumption. The time aligned vehicle moving parameters with Nitrogen pollutant emission data and fuel consumption enabled the micro-analysis of correlations between these parameters.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Exhaust Emissions by a Synthetic Lubricating Oil with Higher Viscosity Grade and Optimized Additive Package for a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine Test

2008-10-06
2008-01-2489
A 10W-50 G4 synthetic lubricating oil (EULUBE oil) was tested on a heavy duty DI diesel engine under two steady state conditions. The exhaust emissions were measured and compared to a 10W-30 CF semi-synthetic lubricating oil. The EULUBE oil contained the friction reduction additive to improve the fuel economy. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Phaser Engine, with emission compliance of EURO 2, fitted with an oxidation catalyst. The exhaust samples were taken both upstream and downstream of the catalyst. Gaseous and particulates emissions were measured. Particulate size distribution was measured using ELPI and SMPS. The particulate samples were analysed for VOF, carbon and ash. A MEXA7100 gas analysis system was used for legislated gas analysis such as CO, CO2, NOx and total hydrocarbons. The results showed a significant reduction by synthetic lubricating oil in gaseous hydrocarbon emissions, total particulate mass, particulate carbon and ash.
Technical Paper

Real World Diesel Engine Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Diesel Fuel and B100

2013-04-08
2013-01-1514
The transport sector is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated three greenhouse gases emitted from road transport using a probe vehicle: CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ emissions as a function temperature. It should be highlighted that methane is a greenhouse gas that similarly to carbon dioxide contributes to global warming and climate change. An oxidation catalyst was used to investigate CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ GHG emissions over a real-world driving cycle that included urban congested traffic and extra-urban driving conditions. The results were determined under hot start conditions, but in congested traffic the catalyst cooled below its light-off temperature and this resulted in considerable N₂O emissions as the oxidation catalyst temperature was in the N₂O formation band. This showed higher N₂O during hot start than for diesel fuel and B100 were compared. The B100 fuel was Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), derived from waste cooking oil, which was mainly RME.
Technical Paper

Real World Cold Start Emissions from a Diesel Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-1075
This study uses on-board measurement systems to analyze emissions from a diesel engine vehicle during the cold start period. An in-vehicle FTIR (Fourier Transform Inferred) spectrometer and a Horiba on-board measurement system (OBS-1300) were installed on a EURO3 emission-compliant 1.8 TDCi diesel van, in order to measure the emissions. Both regulated and non-regulated emissions were measured, along with an analysis of the NO/NO₂ split. A VBOX GPS system was used to log coordinates and road speed for driving parameters and emission analysis. Thermal couples were installed along the exhaust system to measure the temperatures of exhaust gases during cold start. The real-time fuel consumption was measured. The study also looks at the influence of velocity on emissions of hydrocarbons (HCs) and NOx. The cold start period of an SI-engine-powered vehicle, was typically around 200 seconds in urban driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Rape Seed Oil B100 Diesel Engine Particulate Emissions: The Influence of Intake Oxygen on Particle Size Distribution

2012-04-16
2012-01-0435
Pure rape seed oil (RSO), as coded BO100 (BO: Bio-Oil) to distinguish from biodiesel was investigated for a range of intake oxygen levels from 21 to 24%. RSO can have deposit problems in both the fuel injector and piston crown and elevated intake oxygen levels potentially could control these by promoting their oxidation. Increased intake oxygen elevates the peak temperature and this promotes the oxidation of soot and volatile organic compounds. The effect of this on particle mass and on the particle size distribution was investigated using a 6-cylinder 6-liter Perkins Phaser Euro 2 DI diesel engine. The tests were conducted at 47 kW brake power output at 1500 rpm. The particle size distribution was determined from the engine-out exhaust sample using a Dekati microdilution system and nano-SMPS analyzer. The results showed that for air RSO had higher particle mass than diesel and that this mass decreased as the oxygen level was increased.
Technical Paper

Proceedings of Real Driving Emission (RDE) Measurement in China

2018-04-03
2018-01-0653
Light-duty China-6, which is among the most stringent vehicle exhaust emission standards globally, mandates the monitoring and reporting of real driving emissions (RDE) from July, 2023. In the process of regulation promulgation and verification, more than 300 RDE tests have been performed on over 50 China-5 and China-6 certified models. This technical paper endeavors to summarize the experience of RDE practice in China, and discuss the impacts of some boundary conditions (including vehicle dynamic parameters, data processing methods, hybrid propulsion and testing altitude) on the result of RDE measurement. In general, gasoline passenger cars confront few challenges to meet the upcoming RDE NOx requirement, but some China-5 certified samples, even powered by naturally-aspirated engines may have PN issues. PN emissions from some GDI-hybrid powertrain systems also need further reduction to meet China-6 RDE requirements.
Technical Paper

Oil Quality in Diesel Engines With On Line Oil Cleaning Using a Heated Lubricating Oil Recycler

1999-03-01
1999-01-1139
SYNOPSIS A method of cleaning the oil on line was investigated using a bypass fine particulate filter followed by an infra red heater to remove water and light diesel fractions in the oil. This was tested on a range of on road vehicles and a Ford 1.8 litre IDI passenger car engine on a test bed. Comparison was made with the oil quality on the same vehicles and engines without the on-line recycler. Test times were from 200 to 1500 hours of oil ageing and some of the tests showed that the oil quality was still good after 4 times the normal oil life. The results showed that the on line oil recycler cleaning system reduced the rate of fall of the TBN and rate of increase of the TAN. There was a very significant reduction in the soot in oil and the fuel dilution. There was also a consistent reduction in all the wear metals apart from copper and a decrease in the rate of reduction of oil additives. There was also measured on the Ford IDI engine a 5% reduced fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Regulated and Non-Regulated Cold Start Emissions using a EURO3 SI Car as a Probe Vehicle under Real World Urban Driving Conditions

2008-10-06
2008-01-2428
Regulated and non-regulated tailpipe exhaust emissions were measured under real world urban driving conditions using a set of in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system, which is able to measure 65 emission components simultaneously at a rate of 0.5 Hz. A EURO3 emission compliant SI car was used as a probe vehicle. An urban driving cycle was used for the test and four repeated journeys were conducted. The results were compared to EU emissions legislation. The results show that the TWC needed approximately 200 seconds to reach full conversion efficiency. THC and NOx emissions exceeded the EURO 3 exhaust emission legislation. CO2 emissions were well above the type approval value of this type of the vehicle. Greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) and toxic hydrocarbons such as benzene were predominantly emitted during cold start period from 0 to 200 seconds of the engine start. The results had a reasonable repeatability for most of the emissions.
Journal Article

Investigation of Combustion and Emission Performance of Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) Diesel

2017-10-08
2017-01-2400
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) diesel fuels have the potential to provide a reduced carbon footprint for diesel engines and reduce exhaust emissions. Therefore, it is a strong candidate for transport and diesel powered machines including electricity generators and other off-road machines. In this research, a waste cooking oil derived HVO diesel was investigated for its combustion and emission performance including ignition delays, size segregated particulate number emissions and gaseous emissions. The results were compared to the standard petroleum diesel. A EURO5 emission compliant three litre, direct injection, intercooled IVECO diesel engine equipped with EGR was used which has a maximum power output of 96kW. The engine was equipped with an integrated DOC and DPF aftertreatment system. Both the upstream and downstream of the aftertreatment emissions were measured. The tests were conducted at different RPM and loads at steady state conditions.
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