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Journal Article

Numerical Study of the Effect of Piston Shapes and Fuel Injection Strategies on In-Cylinder Conditions in a PFI/GDI Gasoline Engine

SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In order to stabilize the hybrid combustion process, the port fuel injection (PFI) combined with gasoline direct injection (GDI) strategy is proposed in this study to form the in-cylinder fuel stratification to enhance the early flame propagation process and control the auto-ignition combustion process. The effect of bowl piston shapes and fuel injection strategies on the fuel stratification characteristics is investigated in detail using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) simulations. Three bowl piston shapes with different bowl diameters and depths were designed and analyzed as well as the original flat piston in a single cylinder PFI/GDI gasoline engine.

Laser Diagnostics and Optical Measurement Techniques in Internal Combustion Engines

The increasing concern about CO2 emissions and energy prices has led to new CO2 emission and fuel economy legislation being introduced in world regions served by the automotive industry. In response, automotive manufacturers and Tier-1 suppliers are developing a new generation of internal combustion (IC) engines with ultra-low emissions and high fuel efficiency. To further this development, a better understanding is needed of the combustion and pollutant formation processes in IC engines. As efficiency and emission abatement processes have reached points of diminishing returns, there is more of a need to make measurements inside the combustion chamber, where the combustion and pollutant formation processes take place. However, there is currently no good overview of how to make these measurements.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder Studies of Multiple Diesel Fuel Injection in a Single Cylinder Optical Engine

An experimental study has been carried out on the multiple fuel injection process and its effect on the mixing and combustion in a single cylinder diesel engine with optical access. The engine is equipped with a production type cylinder head and a high pressure common rail fuel system which comprises a directly driven high pressure fuel pump and a control system capable of 8 injections per stroke. The single cylinder optical engine could be operated lubrication-free for up to 5 minutes due to the application of special coating on the piston liner and careful design of the piston and extended cylinder block. The in-cylinder spray and combustion were visualized at 10,000 fps by a high-speed colour video camera and a copper vapour laser. The high-speed video recordings and in-cylinder pressure and heat release analysis for up to four fuel injections will be presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements of Fuel Stratification in a Twin-Spark Three-Valve SI Engine

In order to take advantage of different properties of fuel components or fractions, a new concept of fuel stratification has been proposed by the authors. This concept requires that two fractions of standard gasoline (e.g., light and heavy fractions) or two different fuels in a specially formulated composite be introduced into the cylinder separately through two separate intake ports. The two fuels will be stratified into two regions in the cylinder by means of strong tumble flows. In order to verify and optimize the fuel stratification, a two-tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique was developed and applied to visualize fuel stratification in a three-valve twin-spark SI engine. This was realized by detecting simultaneously fluorescence emissions from 3-pentanone in one fuel (hexane) and from N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) in the other fuel (iso-octane).
Technical Paper

Improvements of the KIVA Dense Spray Modeling for HSDI Diesel Engines

A numerical study has been performed to investigate the soot emission from a high-speed single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine. It was shown that the current KIVA CFD code with the standard evaporation model could predict the experimental trend, where at a low speed running condition a higher smoke reading is reached when increasing the injector protrusion into the piston chamber and conversely a lower smoke reading was recorded for the same change in injector protrusion at a high running speed condition. Evidence of inappropriate air/fuel mixing was seen via rates of heat release analyses, especially in the high-speed conditions. Efforts to reduce this discrepancy by way of improvements to the KIVA breakup and evaporation models were made. Results of the modified models showed improvements in the vapor dispersion of the atomizing liquid jet, thus affecting the mixing rates and predicted smoke emissions.

Engine Combustion Instrumentation and Diagnostics

This book provides a complete description of instrumentation and in-cylinder measurement techniques for internal combustion engines. Written primarily for researchers and engineers involved in advanced research and development of internal combustion engines, the book provides an introduction to the instrumentation and experimental techniques, with particular emphasis on diagnostic techniques for in-cylinder measurements.
Technical Paper

Diesel Soot Oxidation under Controlled Conditions

A quantitative relationship between diesel soot oxidation rate and oxidation temperature and oxygen partial pressure was investigated by burning the diesel exhaust soot particles in a controlled flat flame supplied with methane/air/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The oxidation temperature and the oxygen partial pressure were controlled in the ranges of 1530 to 1820 K and 0.01 to 0.05 atm (1atm = 1.01325 bar) respectively. Soot particle size distribution measurements were achieved with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for particle samples that were collected on copper grids at different positions along the flame centerline. Oxidation periods were determined by means of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). The experimental results showed that the experimental oxidation rates fall between the values predicted by the Nagle and Strickland-Constable formula and those by the Lee formula.
Technical Paper

Computational Study of the Effects of the Re-entrant Lip Shape and Toroidal Radii of Piston Bowl on a HSDI Diesel Engine's Performance and Emissions

The piston bowl design is one of the most important factors that affect the air/fuel mixing and the subsequent combustion and pollutant formation processes in a direct injection diesel engine. The bowl geometry and dimensions, such as pip region, bowl lip area, and torus radius are all known to have an effect on the in-cylinder mixing and combustion process. In order to understand better the effect of torus radius, three piston bowls with different torus radius and lip shapes designs but with the same lip area and pip inclination were investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) engine modelling. KIVA3V with improved sub-models was used to model the in-cylinder flows and combustion process, and it was validated on a High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) engine with a 2nd generation common rail fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Tumble and Swirl Motions in a Four-Valve SI Engine

Tumble and swirl motions in the cylinder of a four-valve SI engine with production type cylinder head were investigated using a cross-correlation digital Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Tumble motion was measured on the vertical symmetric plane of the combustion chamber. Swirl motion was measured on a plane parallel to the piston crown with one of intake ports blocked. Large-scale flow behaviours and their cyclic variations were analysed from the measured two-dimensional velocity data. Results show that swirl motion is generated at the end of the intake stroke and persists to the end of the compression stroke. Tumble vortex is produced in the early stage of the compression stroke and distorted in the late stage of the stroke. The cyclic variation of swirl motion is noticeable. The cyclic variation in tumble dominated flow field is much greater.