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Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements and Analysis of In-Cylinder Gases and Particulates in Compression-Ignition Engines

1996-05-01
961168
The extraction of small quantities of gas and particulates from diesel engine cylinders allows time-resolved gas and particulate analysis to be performed outside the engine during a short window of a few degrees crank angle at any stage of the engine cycle. The paper describes the design features and operation of a high-speed, intermittent sampling valve for extracting in-cylinder gases and particulates from diesel engines at any selected instant of the combustion process. Various sampling valve configurations are outlined. Detailed analysis of gas flow through the valve and the performance of the electromagnetic actuator and plunger are given in order to facilitate the design of the sampling valve. Finally, examples of the uses of the sampling valve in a direct-injection diesel engine are provided. These demonstrate how gaseous emissions such as NOx, uHC, CO2, and particulate emissions can be sampled at any part of the combustion process and analysed.
Journal Article

The Performance Characteristics of an Production Oriented Air Hybrid Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0821
In a previous paper [ 1 ], the authors have proposed a cost effective air hybrid concept based on a proprietary intake system and cam profile switching (CPS) system [ 2 ]. It was shown through engine simulations that the pneumatic hybrid operation could be achieved with about 15% regenerative efficiency. The proposed air hybrid operation can be achieved with proven technologies and engine components and hence it represents a cost-effective, reliable and quick deployable solution for low carbon vehicles. In this work, a four-cylinder 2 litre diesel engine has been modelled to operate on refined air hybrid engine configurations and the braking and motoring performance of each configuration have been studied. Both air hybrid systems can be constructed with production technologies and incur minimum changes to the existing engine design.
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 3: Effects of Water Vapour

1997-05-01
971659
Water vapour is a main constituent of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diesel engines and its influence on combustion and emissions were investigated. The following effects of the water vapour were examined experimentally: the effect of replacing part of the inlet charge oxygen (dilution effect), the effect of the higher specific heat capacity of water vapour in comparison with that of oxygen it replaces (thermal effect), the effect of dissociation of water vapour (chemical effect), as well as the overall effect of water vapour on combustion and emissions. Water vapour was introduced into the inlet charge, progressively, so that up to 3 percent of the inlet charge mass was displaced. This was equivalent to the amount of water vapour contained in 52 percent by mass of EGR for the engine operating condition tested in this work.
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 2: Effects of Carbon Dioxide

1996-05-01
961167
This is the second of a series of papers on how exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) affects diesel engine combustion and emissions. It concentrates on the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) which is a principal constituent of EGR. Results are presented from a number of tests during which the nitrogen or oxygen in the engine inlet air was progressively replaced by CO2 and/or inert gases, whilst the engine speed, fuelling rate, injection timing, inlet charge total mass rate and inlet charge temperature were kept constant. In one set of tests, some of the nitrogen in the inlet air was progressively replaced by a carefully controlled mixture of CO2 and argon. This ensured that the added gas mixture had equal specific heat capacity to that of the nitrogen being replaced. Thus, the effects of dissociated CO2 on combustion and emissions could be isolated and quantified (chemical effect).
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 1: Effect of Reducing Inlet Charge Oxygen

1996-05-01
961165
This is a first of a series of papers describing how the replacement of some of the inlet air with EGR modifies the diesel combustion process and thereby affects the exhaust emissions. This paper deals with only the reduction of oxygen in the inlet charge to the engine (dilution effect). The oxygen in the inlet charge to a direct injection diesel engine was progressively replaced by inert gases, whilst the engine speed, fuelling rate, injection timing, total mass and the specific heat capacity of the inlet charge were kept constant. The use of inert gases for oxygen replacement, rather than carbon dioxide (CO2) or water vapour normally found in EGR, ensured that the effects on combustion of dissociation of these species were excluded. In addition, the effects of oxygen replacement on ignition delay were isolated and quantified.
Technical Paper

Progress in Diesel HCCI Combustion Within the European SPACE LIGHT Project

2004-06-08
2004-01-1904
The purpose of the European « SPACE LIGHT » (Whole SPACE combustion for LIGHT duty diesel vehicles) 3-year project launched in 2001 is to research and develop an innovative Homogeneous internal mixture Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) for passenger cars diesel engine where the combustion process can take place simultaneously in the whole SPACE of the combustion chamber while providing almost no NOx and particulates emissions. This paper presents the whole project with the main R&D tasks necessary to comply with the industrial and technical objectives of the project. The research approach adopted is briefly described. It is then followed by a detailed description of the most recent progress achieved during the tasks recently undertaken. The methodology adopted starts from the research study of the in-cylinder combustion specifications necessary to achieve HCCI combustion from experimental single cylinder engines testing in premixed charged conditions.
Journal Article

Pneumatic Regenerative Engine Braking Technology for Buses and Commercial Vehicles

2011-09-13
2011-01-2176
In this paper, a novel cost-effective air hybrid powertrain concept for buses and commercial vehicles, Brunel Regenerative Engine Braking Device (RegenEBD) technology, is presented and its performance during the braking process is analysed using the Ricardo WAVE engine simulation programme. RegenEBD is designed to convert kinetic energy into pneumatic energy in the compressed air saved in an air tank. Its operation is achieved by using a production engine braking device and a proprietary intake system design. During the braking operation, the engine switches from the firing mode to the compressor mode by keeping the intake valves from fully closed throughout the four-strokes by installing the Variable Valve Exhaust Brake (VVEB) device on the intake valves. As a result, the induced air could be compressed through the opening gap of intake valves into the air tank through the modified intake system.
Book

Laser Diagnostics and Optical Measurement Techniques in Internal Combustion Engines

2012-07-30
The increasing concern about CO2 emissions and energy prices has led to new CO2 emission and fuel economy legislation being introduced in world regions served by the automotive industry. In response, automotive manufacturers and Tier-1 suppliers are developing a new generation of internal combustion (IC) engines with ultra-low emissions and high fuel efficiency. To further this development, a better understanding is needed of the combustion and pollutant formation processes in IC engines. As efficiency and emission abatement processes have reached points of diminishing returns, there is more of a need to make measurements inside the combustion chamber, where the combustion and pollutant formation processes take place. However, there is currently no good overview of how to make these measurements.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Split Injection in a Single Cylinder Optical Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0605
Over the last decade, the diesel engine has made dramatic progress in its performance and market penetration. However, in order to meet future emissions legislations, Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and particulate matters' (PM) emissions will need to be reduced simultaneously. Nowadays researchers are focused on different combustion modes which can have a great potential for both low soot and low NOx. In order to achieve this, different injection strategies have been investigated. This study investigates the effects of split injection strategies with high levels of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on combustion performance and emissions in a single-cylinder direct injection optical diesel engine. The investigation is focused on the effects of injection timing of split injection strategies. A Ricardo Hydra single-cylinder optical engine was used in which conventional experimental methods like cylinder pressure data, heat release analysis and exhaust emissions analysis were applied.
Technical Paper

Investigation of EGR and Miller Cycle for NOx Emissions and Exhaust Temperature Control of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2227
In order to meet increasingly stringent emissions standards and lower the fuel consumption of heavy-duty (HD) vehicles, significant efforts have been made to develop high efficiency and clean diesel engines and aftertreatment systems. However, a trade-off between the actual engine efficiency and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission remains to minimize the operational costs. In addition, the conversion efficiency of the diesel aftertreatment system decreases rapidly with lower exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), which occurs at low load operations. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the optimum combustion and engine control strategies that can lower the vehicle’s running costs by maintaining low engine-out NOx emissions while increasing the conversion efficiency of the NOx aftertreament system through higher EGTs.
Technical Paper

Integrated CFD-Experimental Methodology for the Study of a Dual Fuel Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0093
This paper deals with the experimental and numerical investigation of a 2.0 litre single cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine fuelled by natural gas and diesel oil in Dual Fuel mode. Due to the gaseous nature of the main fuel and to the high compression ratio of the diesel engine, reduced emissions can be obtained. An experimental study has been carried out at three different load level (25%, 50% and 75% of full engine load). Basing on experimental data, the authors recreated a 45° mesh sector of the engine cylinder and performed CFD simulations for the cases at 50% and 75% load levels. Numerical simulations were carried out on the 3D code Ansys FORTE. The aim of this work is to study combustion phenomena and, in particular, the interaction between natural gas and diesel oil, respectively represented by methane and n-dodecane. A reduced kinetic scheme for methane auto-ignition was implemented while for n-dodecane two set of reactions were utilised.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder Studies of Fuel Injection and Combustion from a Narrow Cone Fuel Injector in a High Speed Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1789
Over the last decade, the high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine has made dramatic progress in both its performance and market share in the light duty vehicle market. However, with ever more stringent emission legislation to be introduced over coming years, the simultaneous reduction of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) from the HSDI diesel engine is being intensively researched. As part of a European Union (EU) NICE integrated project, research has been carried out to investigate the fuel injection and combustion from a narrow cone fuel injector in a high speed direct injection single cylinder engine with optical access utilising a multiple injection strategy and various alternate fuels. The fuel injection process was visualised using a high speed imaging system comprising a copper vapour laser and a high speed video camera. The auto-ignition and combustion process was analysed through the chemiluminescence images of CHO and OH using an intensified CCD camera.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements of Fuel Stratification in a Twin-Spark Three-Valve SI Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-1354
In order to take advantage of different properties of fuel components or fractions, a new concept of fuel stratification has been proposed by the authors. This concept requires that two fractions of standard gasoline (e.g., light and heavy fractions) or two different fuels in a specially formulated composite be introduced into the cylinder separately through two separate intake ports. The two fuels will be stratified into two regions in the cylinder by means of strong tumble flows. In order to verify and optimize the fuel stratification, a two-tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique was developed and applied to visualize fuel stratification in a three-valve twin-spark SI engine. This was realized by detecting simultaneously fluorescence emissions from 3-pentanone in one fuel (hexane) and from N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) in the other fuel (iso-octane).
Technical Paper

Improvements of the KIVA Dense Spray Modeling for HSDI Diesel Engines

2007-01-23
2007-01-0001
A numerical study has been performed to investigate the soot emission from a high-speed single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine. It was shown that the current KIVA CFD code with the standard evaporation model could predict the experimental trend, where at a low speed running condition a higher smoke reading is reached when increasing the injector protrusion into the piston chamber and conversely a lower smoke reading was recorded for the same change in injector protrusion at a high running speed condition. Evidence of inappropriate air/fuel mixing was seen via rates of heat release analyses, especially in the high-speed conditions. Efforts to reduce this discrepancy by way of improvements to the KIVA breakup and evaporation models were made. Results of the modified models showed improvements in the vapor dispersion of the atomizing liquid jet, thus affecting the mixing rates and predicted smoke emissions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Port Fuel Injection and In-Cylinder Fuel Injection Strategies on Gasoline Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy

2016-10-17
2016-01-2174
As the emission regulations for internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent, different solutions have been researched and developed, such as dual injection systems (combined port and direct fuel injection), split injection strategies (single and multiple direct fuel injection) and different intake air devices to generate an intense in-cylinder air motion. The aim of these systems is to improve the in-cylinder mixture preparation (in terms of homogeneity and temperature) and therefore enhance the combustion, which ultimately increases thermal efficiency and fuel economy while lowering the emissions. This paper describes the effects of dual injection systems on combustion, efficiency and emissions of a downsized single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. A set of experiments has been conducted with combined port fuel and late direct fuel injection strategy in order to improve the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Exploring the NOx Reduction Potential of Miller Cycle and EGR on a HD Diesel Engine Operating at Full Load

2018-04-03
2018-01-0243
The reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines requires the development of more advanced combustion and control technologies to minimize the total cost of ownership (TCO), which includes both the diesel fuel consumption and the aqueous urea solution used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system. This drives an increased need for highly efficient and clean internal combustion engines. One promising combustion strategy that can curb NOx emissions with a low fuel consumption penalty is to simultaneously reduce the in-cylinder gas temperature and pressure. This can be achieved with Miller cycle and by lowering the in-cylinder oxygen concentration via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The combination of Miller cycle and EGR can enable a low TCO by minimizing both the diesel fuel and urea consumptions.
Book

Engine Combustion Instrumentation and Diagnostics

2001-01-30
This book provides a complete description of instrumentation and in-cylinder measurement techniques for internal combustion engines. Written primarily for researchers and engineers involved in advanced research and development of internal combustion engines, the book provides an introduction to the instrumentation and experimental techniques, with particular emphasis on diagnostic techniques for in-cylinder measurements.
Technical Paper

Effects of Air/Fuel Ratios and EGR Rates on HCCI Combustion of n-heptane, a Diesel Type Fuel

2003-03-03
2003-01-0747
The effects of Air/Fuel (A/F) ratios and Exhaust Gas Re-Circulation (EGR) rates on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion of n-heptane have been experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder, 4-stroke and variable compression-ratio engine equipped with a port fuel injector. Investigations concentrate on the HCCI combustion of n-heptane at different A/F ratios, EGR rates and their effects on knock limit, engine load, combustion variability, and engine-out emissions such as NOx, CO, and unburned HC. Variations of auto-ignition timings and combustion durations in the two-stage combustion process are analyzed in detail. Results show that HCCI combustion with a diesel type fuel can be implemented at room temperature with a conventional diesel engine compression-ratio. However, its knock limit occurs at very high A/F ratios, although high EGR rates can be tolerated.
Technical Paper

Effect of an ORC Waste Heat Recovery System on Diesel Engine Fuel Economy for Off-Highway Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-0136
Modern heavy duty diesel engines can well extend the goal of 50% brake thermal efficiency by utilizing waste heat recovery (WHR) technologies. The effect of an ORC WHR system on engine brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) is a compromise between the fuel penalty due to the higher exhaust backpressure and the additional power from the WHR system that is not attributed to fuel consumption. This work focuses on the fuel efficiency benefits of installing an ORC WHR system on a heavy duty diesel engine. A six cylinder, 7.25ℓ heavy duty diesel engine is employed to experimentally explore the effect of backpressure on fuel consumption. A zero-dimensional, detailed physical ORC model is utilized to predict ORC performance under design and off-design conditions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Soot Oxidation under Controlled Conditions

2001-09-24
2001-01-3673
A quantitative relationship between diesel soot oxidation rate and oxidation temperature and oxygen partial pressure was investigated by burning the diesel exhaust soot particles in a controlled flat flame supplied with methane/air/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The oxidation temperature and the oxygen partial pressure were controlled in the ranges of 1530 to 1820 K and 0.01 to 0.05 atm (1atm = 1.01325 bar) respectively. Soot particle size distribution measurements were achieved with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for particle samples that were collected on copper grids at different positions along the flame centerline. Oxidation periods were determined by means of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). The experimental results showed that the experimental oxidation rates fall between the values predicted by the Nagle and Strickland-Constable formula and those by the Lee formula.
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