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Technical Paper

The Upper-Load Extension of a Boosted Direct Injection Poppet Valve Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2339
Engine downsizing can effectively improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines, but extreme downsizing is limited by knocking combustion and low-speed pre-ignition at higher loads. A 2-stroke SI engine can produce higher upper load compared to its naturally aspirated 4-stroke counterpart with the same displacement due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. To determine the potential of a downsized two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve SI gasoline engine with 0.7 L displacement in place of a naturally aspirated 1.6 L gasoline (NA4SG) engine, one-dimensional models for the 2-stroke gasoline engine with a single turbocharger and a two-stage supercharger-turbocharger boosting system were set up and validated by experimental results.
Technical Paper

The Modeling and Design of a Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1970
Engine downsizing of the spark ignition gasoline engine is recognized as one of the most effective approaches to improve the fuel economy of a passenger car. However, further engine downsizing beyond 50% in a 4-stroke gasoline engine is limited by the occurrence of abnormal combustion events as well as much greater thermal and mechanical loads. In order to achieve aggressive engine downsizing, a boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline (BUSDIG) engine concept has been proposed and researched by means of CFD simulation and demonstration in a single cylinder engine. In this paper, the intake port design on the in-cylinder flow field and gas exchange characteristics of the uniflow 2-stroke cycle was investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In particular, the port orientation on the in-cylinder swirl, the trapping efficiency, charging efficiency and scavenging efficiency was analyzed in details.
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 1: Effect of Reducing Inlet Charge Oxygen

1996-05-01
961165
This is a first of a series of papers describing how the replacement of some of the inlet air with EGR modifies the diesel combustion process and thereby affects the exhaust emissions. This paper deals with only the reduction of oxygen in the inlet charge to the engine (dilution effect). The oxygen in the inlet charge to a direct injection diesel engine was progressively replaced by inert gases, whilst the engine speed, fuelling rate, injection timing, total mass and the specific heat capacity of the inlet charge were kept constant. The use of inert gases for oxygen replacement, rather than carbon dioxide (CO2) or water vapour normally found in EGR, ensured that the effects on combustion of dissociation of these species were excluded. In addition, the effects of oxygen replacement on ignition delay were isolated and quantified.
Technical Paper

Study of Flame Speed and Knocking Combustion of Gasoline, Ethanol and Hydrous Ethanol (10% Water) at Different Air/Fuel Ratios with Port-Fuel Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-0655
In this paper, an experimental study was performed to investigate characteristics of flame propagation and knocking combustion of hydrous (10% water content) and anhydrous ethanol at different air/fuel ratios in comparison to RON95 gasoline. Experiments were conducted in a full bore overhead optical access single cylinder port-fuel injection spark-ignition engine. High speed images of total chemiluminescence and OH* emission was recorded together with the in-cylinder pressure, from which the heat release data were derived. The results show that under the stoichiometric condition anhydrous ethanol and wet ethanol with 10% water (E90W10) generated higher IMEP with at an ignition timing slightly retarded from MBT than the gasoline fuel for a fixed throttle position. Under rich and stoichiometric conditions, the knock limited spark timing occurred at 35 CA BTDC whereas both ethanol and E90W10 were free from knocking combustion at the same operating condition.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Intake Pressure and Split Injection on Lean Combustion Characteristics of a Poppet-Valve Two-Stroke Direct Injection Gasoline Engine at High Loads

2018-09-10
2018-01-1723
Poppet-valve two-stroke gasoline engines can increase the specific power of their four-stroke counterparts with the same displacement and hence decrease fuel consumption. However, knock may occur at high loads. Therefore, the combustion with stratified lean mixture was proposed to decrease knock tendency and improve combustion stability in a poppet-valve two-stroke direct injection gasoline engine. The effect of intake pressure and split injection on fuel distribution, combustion and knock intensity in lean mixture conditions at high loads was simulated with a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic software. Simulation results show that with the increase of intake pressure, the average fuel-air equivalent ratio in the cylinder decreases when the second injection ratio was fixed at 70% at a given amount of fuel in a cycle.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Methane Slip Using Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1798
An experimental study has been carried out with the end goal of minimizing engine-out methane emissions with Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion (PMPC) in a natural gas-diesel Dual-Fuel™ engine. The test engine used is a heavy-duty single cylinder engine with high pressure common rail diesel injection as well as port fuel injection of natural gas. Multiple variables were examined, including injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentages, and rail pressure for diesel, conventional Dual-Fuel, and PMPC Dual-Fuel combustion modes. The responses investigated were pressure rise rate, engine-out emissions, heat release and indicated specific fuel consumption. PMPC reduces methane slip when compared to conventional Dual-Fuel and improves emissions and fuel efficiency at the expense of higher cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Potentials of External Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Water Injection for the Improvement in Fuel Economy of a Poppet Valve 2-Stroke Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Two-Stage Serial Charging System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0859
Engine downsizing is one of the most effective means to improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines because of lower pumping and friction losses. However, the occurrence of knocking combustion or even low-speed pre-ignition at high loads is a severe problem. One solution to significantly increase the upper load range of a 4-stroke gasoline engine is to use 2-stroke cycle due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. It was found that a 0.7 L two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve gasoline engine equipped with a two-stage serial boosting system, comprising a supercharger and a downstream turbocharger, could replace a 1.6 L naturally aspirated 4-stroke gasoline engine in our previous research, but its fuel economy was close to that of the 4-stroke engine at upper loads due to knocking combustion.
Technical Paper

Performance and Analysis of a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with CAI Combustion

2002-03-04
2002-01-0420
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion was realised in a production type 4-stroke 4-cylinder gasoline engine without intake charge heating or increasing compression ratio. The CAI engine operation was achieved using substantially standard components modified only in camshafts to restrict the gas exchange process The engine could be operated with CAI combustion within a range of load (0.5 to 4 bar BMEP) and speed (1000 to 3500 rpm). Significant reductions in both specific fuel consumption and CO emissions were found. The reduction in NOx emission was more than 93% across the whole CAI range. Though unburned hydrocarbons were higher under the CAI engine operation. In order to evaluate the potential of the CAI combustion technology, the European NEDC driving cycle vehicle simulation was carried out for two identical vehicles powered by a SI engine and a CAI/SI hybrid engine, respectively.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Gasoline Spray with an Outward-Opening Piezoelectric Injector: A Comparative Study of Different Breakup Models

2018-04-03
2018-01-0272
The outward-opening piezoelectric injector can achieve stable fuel/air mixture distribution and multiple injections in a single cycle, having attracted great attentions in direct injection gasoline engines. In order to realise accurate predictions of the gasoline spray with the outward-opening piezoelectric injector, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of the gasoline spray with different droplet breakup models were performed in the commercial CFD software STAR-CD and validated by the corresponding measurements. The injection pressure was fixed at 180 bar, while two different backpressures (1 and 10 bar) were used to evaluate the robustness of the breakup models. The effects of the mesh quality, simulation timestep, breakup model parameters were investigated to clarify the overall performance of different breakup model in modeling the gasoline sprays.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Induced Pre-Ignition in an Optical SI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1222
This work was concerned with study of lubricant introduced directly into the combustion chamber and its effect on pre-ignition and combustion in an optically accessed single-cylinder spark ignition engine. The research engine had been designed to incorporate full bore overhead optical access capable of withstanding peak in-cylinder pressures of up to 150bar. An experiment was designed where a fully formulated synthetic lubricant was deliberately introduced through a specially modified direct fuel injector to target the exhaust area of the bore. Optical imaging was performed via natural light emission, with the events recorded at 6000 frames per second. Two port injected fuels were evaluated including a baseline commercial grade gasoline and low octane gasoline/n-heptane blend. The images revealed the location of deflagration sites consistently initiating from the lubricant itself.
Book

Laser Diagnostics and Optical Measurement Techniques in Internal Combustion Engines

2012-07-30
The increasing concern about CO2 emissions and energy prices has led to new CO2 emission and fuel economy legislation being introduced in world regions served by the automotive industry. In response, automotive manufacturers and Tier-1 suppliers are developing a new generation of internal combustion (IC) engines with ultra-low emissions and high fuel efficiency. To further this development, a better understanding is needed of the combustion and pollutant formation processes in IC engines. As efficiency and emission abatement processes have reached points of diminishing returns, there is more of a need to make measurements inside the combustion chamber, where the combustion and pollutant formation processes take place. However, there is currently no good overview of how to make these measurements.
Technical Paper

Investigation of EGR and Miller Cycle for NOx Emissions and Exhaust Temperature Control of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2227
In order to meet increasingly stringent emissions standards and lower the fuel consumption of heavy-duty (HD) vehicles, significant efforts have been made to develop high efficiency and clean diesel engines and aftertreatment systems. However, a trade-off between the actual engine efficiency and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission remains to minimize the operational costs. In addition, the conversion efficiency of the diesel aftertreatment system decreases rapidly with lower exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), which occurs at low load operations. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the optimum combustion and engine control strategies that can lower the vehicle’s running costs by maintaining low engine-out NOx emissions while increasing the conversion efficiency of the NOx aftertreament system through higher EGTs.
Technical Paper

Innovative Ultra-low NOx Controlled Auto-Ignition Combustion Process for Gasoline Engines: the 4-SPACE Project

2000-06-19
2000-01-1837
The purpose of the 4-SPACE (4-Stroke Powered gasoline Auto-ignition Controlled combustion Engine) industrial research project is to research and develop an innovative controlled auto-ignition combustion process for lean burn automotive gasoline 4-stroke engines application. The engine concepts to be developed could have the potential to replace the existing stoichiometric / 3-way catalyst automotive spark ignition 4-stroke engines by offering the potential to meet the most stringent EURO 4 emissions limits in the year 2005 without requiring DeNOx catalyst technology. A reduction of fuel consumption and therefore of corresponding CO2 emissions of 15 to 20% in average urban conditions of use, is expected for the « 4-SPACE » lean burn 4-stroke engine with additional reduction of CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Port Fuel Injection and In-Cylinder Fuel Injection Strategies on Gasoline Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy

2016-10-17
2016-01-2174
As the emission regulations for internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent, different solutions have been researched and developed, such as dual injection systems (combined port and direct fuel injection), split injection strategies (single and multiple direct fuel injection) and different intake air devices to generate an intense in-cylinder air motion. The aim of these systems is to improve the in-cylinder mixture preparation (in terms of homogeneity and temperature) and therefore enhance the combustion, which ultimately increases thermal efficiency and fuel economy while lowering the emissions. This paper describes the effects of dual injection systems on combustion, efficiency and emissions of a downsized single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. A set of experiments has been conducted with combined port fuel and late direct fuel injection strategy in order to improve the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of an Online Gasoline Fractionating System for use in Spark-Ignition Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-1193
A fuel fractionating system is designed and commissioned to separate standard gasoline fuel into two components by evaporation. The system is installed on a Ricardo E6 single cylinder research engine for testing purposes. Laboratory tests are carried out to determine the Research Octane Number (RON) and Motoring Octane Number (MON) of both fuel fractions. Further tests are carried out to characterize Spark-Ignition (SI) and Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion under borderline knock conditions, and these are related to results from some primary reference fuels. SI results indicate that an increase in compression ratio of up to 1.0 may be achieved, along with better charge ignitability if this system is used with a stratified charge combustion regime. CAI results show that the two fuels exhibit similar knock-resistances over a range of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) Combustion with Positive Valve Overlap in a HCCI Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1126
The spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) is widely used to expend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), as it can reduce the high heat release rate effectively while partially maintain the advantage of high thermal efficiency and low NOx emission. But as engine load increases, the SACI combustion traditionally using negative valve overlap strategy (NVO) faces the drawback of higher pumping loss and limited intake charge availability, which lead to a restricted load expansion and a finite improvement of fuel economy. In this paper, research is focused on the SACI combustion using positive valve overlap (PVO) strategy. The characteristics of SACI combustion employing PVO strategy with external exhaust gas recirculation (eEGR) are investigated. Two types of PVO strategies are analyzed and compared to explore their advantages and defects, and the rules of adjusting SACI combustion with positive valve overlap are concluded.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion

2007-11-28
2007-01-2609
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition), is increasingly seen as a very effective way of lowering both fuel consumption and emissions from gasoline engines. Therefore, it's seen as one of the best ways to meet future engine emissions and CO2 legislations. This combustion concept was achieved in a Ford production, port-injected, 4 cylinder gasoline engine. The only major modification to the original engine was the replacement of the original camshafts by a new set of custom made ones. The CAI operation was accomplished by means of using residual gas trapping made possible by the use of VCT (variable cam timing) on both intake and exhaust camshafts. When running on CAI, the engine was able to achieve CAI combustion with in a load range of 0.5 to 4.5 BMEP, and a speed range of 1000 to 3500 rpm. In addition, spark assisted CAI operation was employed to extend the operational range of low NOx and low pumping loss at part-load conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on DME Assisted Gasoline CAI/HCCI Combustion with Intake Re-Breathing Valve Strategy

2015-09-01
2015-01-1818
In order to investigate feasibility of DME (Di-methyl ether) assisted gasoline CAI (controlled-auto ignition) combustion, direct DME injection is employed to act as the ignition source to trigger the auto-ignition combustion of premixed gasoline/air mixture with high temperature exhaust gas. Intake re-breathing valve strategy is adopted to obtain internal exhaust recirculation (EGR) that regulates heat release rate and ignitability of the premixed gasoline and air mixture. The effects of intake re-breathing valve timing and 2nd DME injection timing of different split injection ratios were investigated and discussed in terms of combustion characteristics, emission and efficiencies. The analyses showed that re-breathing intake valve timing had a large effect on the operation range of CAI combustion due to EGR and intake temperature variation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of the Direct Injection Dimethyl Ether Enabled Micro-Flame Ignited (MFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1247
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to improve gasoline engines’ efficiency and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. Two of the primary obstacles for applying CAI combustion are the control of combustion phasing and the maximum heat release rate. To solve these problems, dimethyl ether (DME) was directly injected into the cylinder to generate multi-point micro-flame through compression in order to manage the entire heat release of gasoline in the cylinder through port fuel injection, which is known as micro-flame ignited (MFI) hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Stoichiometric Stratified Flame Ignited (SFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke PFI/DI Gasoline Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0960
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), can improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. However, the difficulty in combustion phasing control and violent combustion at high loads limit the commercial application of CAI combustion. To overcome these problems, stratified mixture, which is rich around the central spark plug and lean around the cylinder wall, is formed through port fuel injection and direct injection of gasoline. In this condition, rich mixture is consumed by flame propagation after spark ignition, while the unburned lean mixture auto-ignites due to the increased in-cylinder temperature during flame propagation, i.e., stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion.
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