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Technical Paper

Pre Versus Post Compressor Supply of Cooled EGR for Full Load Fuel Economy in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-0425
The work was concerned with applying cooled EGR for improved high load fuel economy and reduced pollutant emissions in a turbocharged gasoline engine. While the thermodynamic benefits of EGR were clear, challenges remain to bring the technique to market. A comparison of pre and post compressor EGR supply indicated that post-compressor routing allowed higher compressor efficiencies to be maintained and hence reduced compressor work as the mass flow of EGR was increased. However, with this post-compressor routing, attaining sufficient EGR rate was not possible over the required operating map. Furthermore, at higher engine speeds where the pre-turbine exhaust pressure was greater than the intake plenum pressure, the timing of peak in-cylinder pressure was not as readily advanced towards the optimum.
Technical Paper

Lean Boost and External Exhaust Gas Recirculation for High Load Controlled Auto-Ignition

2005-10-24
2005-01-3744
This work was concerned with increasing the attainable load during gasoline controlled auto-ignition combustion in a multi-cylinder direct fuel injection research engine. To extend the peak output under naturally aspirated conditions it proved favourable to combine internal and external exhaust gas recirculation under stoichiometric fuelled conditions. During turbocharged high load operation it was beneficial in terms of fuel economy to dilute the charge with a combination of internally re-circulated exhaust gases and excess air. Replacing a proportion of these diluents with externally re-circulated burned gases appeared to facilitate lower emissions of HC and CO. The highest load generated via boost was limited by increasing peak in-cylinder pressure and falling gas exchange efficiency. Regardless, the use of boost increased the load at which CAI could be invoked without lean NOx after-treatment.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Improved Part and Full Load Fuel Economy in a Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0047
The work was concerned with the use of exhaust gas recirculation to minimise CO2 and pollutant emissions over a wide operating range in a multi-cylinder research engine. Under part-load conditions a combination of internal and external EGR was used to invoke controlled auto ignition combustion and improve fuel consumption. Outside the CAI regime, small additional fuel savings could be made by employing reduced EGR rates in spark ignition combustion mode. At boosted high load conditions a comparison of excess fuel, excess air and cooled external EGR charge dilution was made. It was apparent that cooled EGR was a more effective suppressant of knock than excess air, with combustion phasing further advanced towards the optimum and improved combustion stability achieved over a wider operating range. The full load emissions reduction potential of EGR was also demonstrated, with emissions of CO2 reduced by up to 17% and engine-out HC and CO decreased by up to 80%.
Journal Article

Development of a Turbocharged Direct Injection Downsizing Demonstrator Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1503
This paper describes the initial development of a 3 cylinder 1.2l technology demonstrator engine from MAHLE. The purpose of this highly turbocharged direct injection engine is to demonstrate production-ready technologies that enable low CO2 emissions via downsizing by 50%. Downsizing is one of the most proven paths to CO2 emission reduction. By using careful design, a 2.4 l engine can be replaced by a 1.2l engine that has superior torque at all speeds and on-road fuel consumption benefits of 25 - 30%. A two-stage turbocharging system has been developed for the engine to enable good transient response and the high torque levels at all engine speeds demanded by a downsizing approach. Several options were tested and the final system exceeds the 30bar peak BMEP target with stoichiometric fuelling. Indeed, lambda = 1.0 fuelling is maintained over the majority of the full-load line and the 144kW peak power requirement is fulfilled at only 6000 rpm.
Technical Paper

Development of a Friction Optimized Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1052
Evolving emissions legislation and concerns for diminishing fuel reserves continue to prompt the automotive industry to seek improvements in engine operation. The application of advanced combustion and system-based concepts is being studied in detail. However, it is believed prudent to first consider the optimization of the friction of the engine, to allow a more cost effective CO2 and fuel consumption reduction policy. MAHLE has developed an optimised friction engine to demonstrate the potential fuel consumption gains available to engine manufacturers and designers. The baseline 2.0 litre turbocharged, direct injection gasoline engine was modified to suit the application of new friction optimized components. This included piston, ring pack, connecting rod, crankshaft bearings, lubrication system, valvetrain and cooling system. A discussion of the design changes, including analysis results, is made. Motored rig and fired engine test results are presented to show the individual gains.
Journal Article

A Study of Potential Fuel Economy Technologies to Achieve CAFE 2025 Regulations using Fleet Simulation Modeling Software

2015-04-14
2015-01-1683
The 2025 Corporate Average Fleet Economy (CAFE) fuel economy regulations are a significant challenge to the automotive industry. These regulations require dramatic increases in vehicle fleet fuel economy. This paper will identify and analyze a portfolio of technologies that have the potential to achieve the 2025 CAFE fuel economy targets, focusing on powertrain enhancements. The study uses a MAHLE Powertrain developed fleet modeling tool and a range of vehicle technologies and powertrain data taken from MAHLE's global research and development activities. Powertrain technologies considered include extreme engine downsizing, dilute combustion, friction reduction, hybridization, diesel and alternative fuels. The vehicle technologies analyzed include vehicle light weighting, reduced rolling resistance, advanced transmissions and improved aerodynamics.
Journal Article

A Study of Gasoline-Alcohol Blended Fuels in an Advanced Turbocharged DISI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0138
This work was concerned with evaluation of the performance and emissions of potential future biofuels during advanced spark ignition engine operation. The fuels prepared included three variants of gasoline, three gasoline-ethanol blends and a gasoline-butanol fuel altogether covering a range of oxygen mass concentrations and octane numbers to identify key influencing parameters. The combustion of the fuels was evaluated in a turbocharged multi-cylinder direct fuel injection research engine equipped with a standard three-way catalyst and an external EGR circuit that allowed use of either cooled or non-cooled EGR. The engine operating effects studied at both part and boosted high load conditions included fuel injection timing and pressure, excess air tolerance, EGR tolerance and spark retard limits. A number of blends were also mapped at suitable sites across the European drive cycle under downsized engine conditions.
Journal Article

A Single Fuel Pre-Chamber Jet Ignition Powertrain Achieving High Load, High Efficiency and Near Zero NOx Emissions

2011-08-30
2011-01-2023
Turbulent Jet Ignition is an advanced spark initiated pre-chamber combustion system for otherwise standard spark ignition engines found in current passenger vehicles. This next generation pre-chamber design simply replaces the spark plug in a conventional spark ignition engine. Turbulent Jet Ignition enables very fast burn rates due to the ignition system producing multiple, widely distributed ignition sites, which consume the main charge rapidly. This high energy ignition results from the partially combusted (reacting) pre-chamber products initiating combustion in the main chamber. The distributed ignition sites enable relatively small flame travel distances enabling short combustion durations and high burn rates. Multiple benefits include extending the knock limit and initiating combustion in very dilute mixtures (excess air and/or EGR), with dilution levels being comparable to other low temperature combustion technologies (HCCI), without the complex control drawbacks.
Technical Paper

A New Combustion System Achieving High Drive Cycle Fuel Economy Improvements in a Modern Vehicle Powertrain

2011-04-12
2011-01-0664
Turbulent Jet Ignition is an advanced spark initiated pre-chamber combustion system for otherwise standard spark ignition engines found in current passenger vehicles. This next generation pre-chamber design simply replaces the spark plug in a conventional spark ignition engine. Turbulent Jet Ignition enables very fast burn rates due to the ignition system producing multiple, widely distributed ignition sites, which consume the main charge rapidly. This high energy ignition results from the partially combusted (reacting) pre-chamber products initiating combustion in the main chamber. The distributed ignition sites enable relatively small flame travel distances enabling short combustion durations and high burn rates. Multiple benefits include extending the knock limit and initiating combustion in very dilute mixtures (excess air and or EGR), with dilution levels being comparable to other low temperature combustion technologies (HCCI), without the complex control drawbacks.
Technical Paper

A Lean Burn Gasoline Fueled Pre-Chamber Jet Ignition Combustion System Achieving High Efficiency and Low NOx at Part Load

2012-04-16
2012-01-1146
Turbulent Jet Ignition is an advanced spark-initiated pre-chamber combustion system for otherwise standard spark ignition engines. Combustion in the main chamber is initiated by jets of partially combusted (reacting) pre-chamber products which provide a high energy ignition source. The resultant widely distributed ignition sites allow relatively small flame travel distances enabling short combustion durations and high burn rates. Demonstrated benefits include ultra lean operation (λ≻2) at part load and high load knock limit extension. Previous jet ignition experimental results have highlighted high thermal efficiencies, high load capability and near-zero engine-out NOx emissions in a standard contemporary engine platform. Although previous results of this system have been very promising, the main hurdle has been the need for a dual fuel system, with liquid gasoline used in the main combustion chamber and small fractions of gaseous propane in the pre-chamber.
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