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Technical Paper

The Modified Martempering and its Effect on the Impact Toughness of a Cold Work Tool Steel

The so-called Modified Martempering discussed in this work differs from the standard martempering by that the temperature of the quenching bath is below the Ms point. In spite of the fact the lower temperature increases the severity of quenching, this also usually avoids the bainite formation, and by this reason, it is possible to make a fair comparison between different processes, which result in different microstructures. The present study shows the results in terms of mechanical properties, impact resistance in special of a cold work tool steel class, after being heat treated by the isothermal modified martempering process, as well as a comparison with the conventional quenching and tempering process and the austempering as well.
Technical Paper

The Effect of the Addition of Hard Particles on the Wear of Liner and Ring Materials Running with High Sulfur Fuel

The components of the piston/ring/liner system must have their wear resistance increased to meet the new engine requirements. The engine operating conditions can be even worse if corrosive wear in the engine is expected to occur. This paper presents a study to improve the wear resistance of piston ring coatings and liner materials by the addition of chromium carbide and carbide forming alloying elements, respectively. The engine tests were run with high sulfur fuel (about 1.0 wt%) and lubricant with low total base number (TBN) with the objective of increasing the corrosive conditions. The results show the improvement of the ring coatings wear resistance with the increase of the chromium carbide content. The cylinder liner materials also presented lower wear rates when they had hard particles, mainly due to the addition of niobium, vanadium and titanium.
Technical Paper

Nittred Gray Cast Iron Piston Rings

The piston rings are responsible for maintaining some engine functioning parameters in an acceptable range, mainly the lubricant oil consumption and the blow-by gases flow from the combustion chamber to the crankcase. The wear resistance of these components is related to their capacity of properly exerting these functions during the whole engine life. In Diesel engines, all the rings have a wear resistant coating applied to their contact face with the cylinder wall. However, the chrome plating of the second groove compression ring is a conservative solution with the possibility of the development of lower cost alternatives. This paper presents the results of engine tests that compare the wear resistance of second groove rings with chrome plating and rings made of nitrited gray cast iron. Test results with similar gray cast iron rings are also analyzed to infer the influence of the nitriding treatment on the wear resistance of this material.
Technical Paper

Nitrited Steel Piston Rings for Internal Combustion Engines

The evolution of internal combustion engines has led to friction reduction as well as to gaseous emissions reduction, demanding the use of narrower rings. Nodular cast iron is used satisfactorily for compression piston rings, with wear resistant coatings to improve their durability. However, for more severe applications and rings narrower than 1.2mm, even the nodular cast iron mechanical resistance is not enough. In this way, the use of steel is recommended, which may have its tribological properties improved by the nitriding thermochemical treatment. This paper presents the characteristics of the materials and of the nitriding process of compression and oil control rings as well as bench and dynamometric test results run during the development of these products.
Technical Paper

Improvement Of Cylinder Liner Materials Wear Resistance.

The higher load in heavy duty Diesel engines and the use of piston ring coatings with higher wear resistance cause more severe working conditions to the cylinder liners. In some cases, high localized wear occurs at the top dead center (TDC) of the first groove ring, where the loads and lubrication conditions are critical. It was studied the effect of the addition of hard particles on cylinder liner materials. The presence of these particles was obtained through the use of small quantities of strong carbide forming alloying elements: Vanadium, Niobium and Titanium. Cylinder liners with hard particle addition were tested in comparison to regular liners. This test used high sulfur fuel (> 1.0 wt %) and low additivation lubricant oil, maintaining the same ring pack configuration for both liners. The results showed sensible liner wear reduction at the TDC of the first ring without compromising the ring pack performance.
Technical Paper

Effect of the Nitriding Process on Impact Resistance of Austempered Cast Irons and Quenched and Tempered Ones

The nitriding process improves in some applications the fatigue resistance of mechanical components. There is a lack of information about the nitriding process effect on the toughness of components. It is well known that the austempering heat treatment improves the toughness of the nodular cast iron. Some efforts have been made to find a compromise between the toughness of the bainitic structure of nodular cast iron and the high wear resistance undertaken by the nitriding process. Nitriding causes smaller dimensional problems if compared with other termochemical processes in steel and cast iron, but during exposure to the nitriding temperature the stabilized austenite of the nodular cast iron bainite may decompose, and induce component distortion. It is well known that the stabilized austenite is responsible for high toughness of the nodular cast iron.
Technical Paper

Development and Application in Dampers and Gas Springs of a Hydraulic Fluid with Biodegradable Properties and Strong Thermochemical Resistance Based on Innovative Molecular Structure

A damper and a gas spring being a thermo engine which vibrational energy absorption occurs over heat transformation, requires very specific properties of thermo chemical stability from the hydraulic fluid as well as shear strength by heat and pressure effect. It competes to the hydraulic fluid the task of this transformation vehicle. The absorption performance of a damper depends on variation of physical-chemical properties of the hydraulic fluid under heat effect and the maintenance of this performance depends on conservation of those properties during time. The traditional hydraulic fluids for this application, despite its thermo-chemical stability, suffer a deterioration process of those properties under severe operating conditions and consequently reflect in the damper component lifetime.
Technical Paper

Configurations and Materials of Oil Control Rings to Meet the New Internal Combustion Engines Requirements

The fuel economy and gaseous emissions features have led the engine developments for the last few years. Various actions taken to meet these objectives imposed the necessity of components, in this case oil control rings, with higher mechanical resistance, durability and efficiency during the engine life. A new nodular cast iron alloyed with Niobium was developed. The presence of Niobium carbides raises significantly the wear resistance of this material. New configurations of oil control rings with taper faces or barrel faces showed a better performance if compared with two-piece conventional rings. The contact surface height variation during the engine life (and also the mean specific contact pressure variation in the ring land and cylinder wall contact) brings benefits in the oil consumption reduction without compromising the durability of rings and cylinders.
Technical Paper

Bead Weld Cold Plastic Deformation Effects on AISI 409 Ferritic Stainless Steel, Ti and Nb Stabilized

The automotive industry has been increasing stainless steel consumption daily. Some important parts of a car should keep using carbon steel, however, the exhaust system must use stainless steel tubes since the gas from engine cannot corrode those tubes, avoiding catalytic conversor contamination. Among stainless steel groups, ferritic has been choosing due to costs and strong high temperatures resistance. This report starts studying ferritic stainless steel welded tubes mechanical properties (ABNT 409 stabilized), raw material for exhaust systems. Some welded tubes have been produced with internal bead rollers, to compare, afterwards, with tubes which were produced without bead hardening. The results shows that hardening induced by bead rolling causes material elongation reduction, that could lead problems on the tube forming operation during exhaust system production. Those materials have been analyzed by optical and electronic microscopy, Vickers micro hardness and tensile test.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study Between Salt Bath and Plasma Nitrocarburizing Processes for Application in Piston Rods

The quality of the nitrocarburized layer has a decisive influence in the service life of components with pistons that work together with polymeric seals, since it interferes in the abrasion and wear mechanisms of the involved materials. Thus it is necessary to select the most adequate process to apply in a given component aiming for a quality improvement and warranty costs reduction. The literature offers a great volume of information about the different nitriding processes, but there are few reports comparing them. In this paper the salt bath and plasma processes are discussed concerning the white layer metallography, roughness and the process effect on corrosion resistance of gas spring rods manufactured with SAE 1040 steel.