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Technical Paper

Vapor/Liquid Behaviors in Split-Injection D.I. Diesel Sprays in a 2-D Model Combustion Chamber

Some experimental investigations have shown that the trade-off curve of NOx vs. particulate of a D.I. diesel engine with split-injection strategies can be shifted closer to the origin than those with a single-pulse injection, thus reducing both particulate and NOx emissions significantly. It is clear that the injection mass ratios and the dwell(s) between injection pulses have significant effects on the combustion and emissions formation processes in the D.I. diesel engine. However, how and why these parameters significantly affect the engine performances remains unexplained. The effects of both injection mass ratios and dwell between injections on vapor/liquid distributions in the split-injection diesel sprays impinging on a flat wall have been examined in our previous work.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Study on Similarity of Diesel Combustion

Based on the similarity theory and conservation equations, some of the important dimensionless numbers in diesel combustion are deduced and discussed. Existence of similarity is theoretically proved in diffusion (or mixing-controlled) combustion and premixed combustion as well as in spray mixture formation processes in different size diesel engines. With the prerequisite of geometric similarity, scaling rules for some parameters including engine speed, injection pressure and injection duration are established to realize the similarity between large-bore and small-bore diesel engines. To verify the similarity theories, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation are conducted, and three scaling rules, which keep the engine speed, injection pressure and lift-off length constant, respectively, are compared under the conditions of the light load (0.3 MPa IMEP) and high load (1.55 MPa IMEP) operations.
Technical Paper

Suitability Study of n-Butanol for Enabling PCCI and HCCI and RCCI Combustion on a High Compression-ratio Diesel Engine

This work investigates the suitability of n-butanol for enabling PCCI, HCCI, and RCCI combustion modes to achieve clean and efficient combustion on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) diesel engine. Systematic engine tests are conducted at low and medium engine loads (6∼8 bar IMEP) and at a medium engine speed of 1500 rpm. Test results indicate that n-butanol is more suitable than diesel to enable PCCI and HCCI combustion with the same engine hardware. However, the combustion phasing control for n-butanol is demanding due to the high combustion sensitivity to variations in engine operating conditions where engine safety concerns (e.g. excessive pressure rise rates) potentially arise. While EGR is the primary measure to control the combustion phasing of n-butanol HCCI, the timing control of n-butanol direct injection in PCCI provides an additional leverage to properly phase the n-butanol combustion.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Group-hole Nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine

Reduction of orifice diameter of nozzle is advantageous to the fuel atomization in a D.I. diesel engine. However, the diameter reduction is usually accompanied with decrease of spray tip penetration, thus worsening fuel spatial-distribution and fuel-air mixing. In this paper, a group-hole nozzle concept was proposed to solve the problem resulting from minimization of orifice diameter. Compared to the conventional multi-hole nozzle, group-hole nozzle has a series group of orifices, and each group consists of two micro-orifices with a small spatial interval and small angle. For examining the characteristics of the spray injected by the group-hole nozzle, the ultraviolet-visible laser absorption-scattering (LAS) imaging technique was adopted to determine vapor concentration and droplets density as well as other spray characteristics such as spray angle and penetration of both vapor and liquid phases.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurement of the Flame Lift-Off Length on Direct Injection Diesel Sprays Using High Speed Schlieren Imaging and OH Chemiluminescence

Lift-off length is defined as the distance from injector hole to the location where flame stabilized on a high injection pressure direct injection (DI) diesel spray. In this paper we used the high-speed (40 kHz) Schlieren and time-averaged OH chemiluminescence imaging technique to simultaneously measure the flame lift-off locations on a DI diesel spray in an optically accessible and constant-volume combustion vessel. The time-resolved development of the diesel spray acquired from the high-speed Schlieren imaging system enabled us to observe the instantaneous spray structure details of the spray flames. The OH chemiluminescence image obtained from a gated, intensified CCD video camera with different delay and width settings was used to determine the quiescent lift-off length. Experiments were conducted under various ambient temperatures, ambient gas densities, injection pressures and oxygen concentrations.
Technical Paper

Scaled Model Experiments for Marine Low-Speed Diesel Engines

Diesel engines have been widely used as marine propulsion, with a wide range of bore diameters. Since some similar characteristics of spray combustion exist in different size diesel engines, the ability to accurately reproduce engine performance by existing engines is therefore beneficial for reducing time, cost and energy consumption in new engine development. However, so far knowledge on scaling diesel engines is far from adequate, particularly for large marine low-speed diesel engines. The aim of this study is to explore the potential of scaled model experiments for marine low-speed diesel engines with different bore diameters.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Liquid and Vapor Distributions in Flash Boiling Fuel Sprays using Planar Laser Induced Exciplex Technique

The flash boiling phenomenon occurs at some operating conditions when fuel is directly injected into the cylinder of a homogeneous charge spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engine due to the higher temperature of the injected fuel and lower back pressure. A flash boiling spray has significantly different characteristics from a conventional DI gasoline spray. In this paper, the planar laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (PLIEF) technique with two specially designed dopants of the fluorobenzene (FB) and the diethyl-methyl-amine (DEMA) in n-hexane was implemented to investigate the liquid and vapor phases of sprays from a multi-hole injector. A vapor phase calibration was carried out to quantitatively correlate the fluorescence signal with vapor concentration. The quantitative vapor concentration distribution is then obtained by applying the calibration.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of Droplets and Vapor Concentration Distributions in Diesel Sprays by Processing UV and Visible Images

In order to measure the droplets and vapor concentration inside a fuel spray, a dual-wavelength laser absorption-scattering technique was developed using the second harmonic (532nm) and the fourth harmonic (266nm) of a Nd:YAG laser and using dimethylnaphthalene as the test fuel. The investigation results show that dimethylnaphthalene, which has physical properties similar to diesel fuel, is almost transparent to visible light near 532nm and is a strong absorber of ultraviolet light near 266nm. Based on this result, the vapor concentration in a fuel spray can be determined by the two separate measurements: a transmission measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength to detect the droplets optical thickness and a transmission measurement at an absorbing wavelength to detect the joint vapor and droplets optical thickness. The droplets density can be determined by extinction imaging through the transmission at the non-absorbing wavelength.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Testing of n-Butanol HCCI on High Compression Ratio Diesel Engines

The control of combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is investigated with neat n-butanol in this work. HCCI is a commonly researched combustion mode, owing to its improved thermal efficiency over conventional gasoline combustion, as well as its lower nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter emissions compared to those of diesel combustion. Despite these advantages, HCCI lacks successful widespread implementation with conventional fuels, primarily due to the lack of effective combustion phasing control. In this preliminary study, chemical kinetic simulations are conducted to study the auto-ignition characteristics of n-butanol under varied background pressures, temperatures, and dilution levels using established mechanisms in CHEMKIN software. Increasing the pressure or temperature lead to a shorter ignition delay, whereas increasing the dilution by the application of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) leads to a longer ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Compression Ratio of a Boosted PFI SI Engine with Cooled EGR

This paper studies the effect of cooled EGR on fuel consumption and anti-knock performance of a boosted port fuel injection (PFI) SI engine. Experimental results show that the cooled EGR increases the thermal efficiency by 2%∼18% depending on the operation conditions. Compared to low load operations, more improvements of the thermal efficiency are obtained at higher loads, primarily owing to the enhanced anti-knock performance, advanced combustion phasing, elimination of fuel-rich operations as well as reduced heat transfer loss with cooled EGR. The anti-knock performance of cooled EGR provides further potential to improve the thermal efficiency by increasing the compression ratio. To this end, a 1-D thermodynamic model of the engine is built and calibrated using the GT-Power code. A knock prediction correlation considering EGR is developed and validated with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Intake Port and In-Cylinder Flow in a Two-Valve Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine

In small and compact class vehicles equipped with diesel engines, the 2-valve-per-cylinder design still holds a significant share of the market. The current work describes the numerical simulation of port-valve-cylinder flow in a 1.2 liter 2-valve-per-cylinder diesel engine to characterize the performance of its manifold and intake ports. First, evaluation metrics were defined and analysis procedure was established for CFD assessment of intake manifold performance in multi-cylinder engines. Then the CFD analysis was carried out for the 2-valve engine in comparison with the baseline 4-valve reference engine. The results show that a complex interaction between intake port and flow distribution around TDC was found in the 2-valve engine, resulting in much higher mean flow velocity, inhomogeneity index/rotational momentum at the port inlet and consequently higher swirl ratio than the baseline 4-valve engine, which can cause high smoke at high load operations.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulation of Hollow-Cone Sprays Interacting with Uniform Crossflow for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

The interaction of fuel sprays with in-cylinder air flow is crucially important for the mixture preparation and subsequent combustion processes in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. In the present work, the experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to study the dynamics and physical insight of hollow-cone sprays interacting with a uniform crossflow. The basis of the model is the standard Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach coupled to the Lagrangian treatment for statistical groups (parcels) representing the physical droplet population. The most physically suitable hybrid breakup models depicting the liquid sheet atomization and droplet breakup processes based on the linear instability analysis and Taylor analogy theory (LISA-TAB) are used. Detailed comparisons are made between the experiments and computations in terms of spray structure, local droplet diameter and velocity distributions.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation and Combustion Processes of Multi-Hole Nozzle with Micro Orifices for D.I. Diesel Engines

In order to investigate effects of the multi-hole nozzle with micro orifices on mixture formation processes in Direct-Injection Diesel engines, mixture characteristics were examined via an ultraviolet-visible laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique under various injectors. The injection quantity per orifice per cycle was reduced by nozzle hole sizes. The LAS technique can provide the quantitative and simultaneous measurements of liquid and vapor phases concentration distributions inside of the fuel spray. Mass of ambient gas entrained into the spray, liquid/ vapor mass and mean equivalence ratio of total fuel were obtained based on Lambert Beer's law. As a result, the leaner and more homogeneous fuel-gas mixture can be achieved by reducing the nozzle hole diameter, in the meanwhile more ambient gas were entrained into the spray. Moreover, relationships between mixture formation and D.I.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Temperature and Soot (KL) Distributions in Spray Flames of Diesel-Butanol Blends by Two-Color Method Using High-Speed RGB Video Camera

Taking advantages of high speed RGB video cameras, the two-color method can be implemented with a relatively simple setup to obtain the temporal development of the two dimensional temperature and soot (KL) distributions in a reacting diesel jet. However, several issues such as the selection of the two wavelengths, the role of bandpass filters, and the proper optical settings, etc. should be known to obtain a reliable measurement. This paper, at first, discusses about the uncertainties in the measurement of temperature and KL distributions in the diesel flame by the two-color method using the high speed RGB video camera. Since n-butanol, as an alternative renewable fuel, has the potential application in diesel engines, the characteristic of spray combustion of diesel-butanol blends under the diesel-like ambient conditions in a pre-burning constant-volume combustion chamber is studied.
Technical Paper

Improvements in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Blending ETBE to Diesel Fuel

The effects of blending ETBE to diesel fuel on the characteristics of low temperature diesel combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated in a naturally-aspirated DI diesel engine with large rates of cooled EGR. Low temperature smokeless diesel combustion in a wide EGR range was established with ETBE blended diesel fuel as mixture homogeneity is promoted with increased premixed duration due to decreases in ignitability as well as with improvement in fuel vaporization due to the lower boiling point of ETBE. Increasing the ETBE content in the fuel helps to suppress smoke emissions and maintain efficient smokeless operation when increasing EGR, however a too high ETBE content causes misfiring at larger rates of EGR. While the NOx emissions increase with increases in ETBE content at high intake oxygen concentrations, NOx almost completely disappears when reducing the intake oxygen content below 14 % with cooled EGR.
Journal Article

Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of Wall-Impinging Sprays Injected by Group-Hole Nozzles for Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

The concept of two closely spaced micro-orifices (group hole nozzle) has been studied as a promising technology for the reduction of soot emission from direct injection (DI) diesel engines by improving the fuel atomization and evaporation. One of the main issues on group hole nozzle is the arrangement of orifices with various distances and angles. In this study, the ignition and combustion characteristics of wall-impinging diesel sprays from group-hole nozzles were investigated with various angles between two micro-orifices (included angles). A laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique for non-axisymmetric sprays, developed based on a LAS technique for axisymmetric spray, was applied to investigate the liquid/vapor mass distribution of wall-impinging sprays. The direct flame images and OH radical images inside a high pressure constant volume vessel were captured to analyze the effect of included angle on spray ignition and combustion characteristics.
Technical Paper

Group-Hole Nozzle Effects on Mixture Formation and In-cylinder Combustion Processes in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

The group-hole (GH) nozzle concept that uses two closely spaced micro-orifices to substitute the conventional single orifice has the potential to facilitate better fuel atomization and evaporation, consequently attenuate the soot emission formed in direct-injection (D.I.) diesel engines. Studies of quantitative mixture properties of the transient fuel spray injected by the group-hole nozzles were conducted in a constant volume chamber via the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique, in comparison with conventional single-hole nozzles. Specific areas investigated involved: the non-evaporating and the evaporating ambient conditions, the free spray and the spray impinging on a flat wall conditions. The particular emphasis was on the effect of one of key parameters, the interval between orifices, of the group-hole (SH) nozzle structure.
Technical Paper

Flow-field Evaluation of Superheated Fuel Sprays using High-Speed PIV

Spray atomization and evaporation are expected to be improved by injecting fuel at a superheated state. However, the breakup mechanism and evaporation processes of superheated sprays have not been clarified. In previous studies [1], the multi-hole spray flow-field on the vertical plane through the spray axis was investigated by using high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results showed that the spray plumes collapse to the spray axis under high superheat conditions. It's also proven that the superheat degree is the predominant factor influencing the structure and the flow-field of the spray. To further understand this process, the interaction among spray plumes on three cross-sectional planes under various superheated conditions is investigated. In this study, n-hexane sprays generated from an eight-hole DI injector were measured using a high-speed PIV system. The results provide insight to the spray-collapse processes and the interaction between the spray plumes.
Technical Paper

Flow Field Characterization of Superheated Sprays from a Multi-Hole Injector by Using High-Speed PIV

Superheated spray is expected to improve the fuel atomization and evaporation processes by introducing fuel temperature as a new control parameter in spark-ignited direct-injection (SIDI) engines. In this study, flow fields of n-hexane spray from a multi-hole injector in both vertical and cross-sectional directions were investigated by using high-speed particle image velocimetry (HS-PIV) within the lower density regions. The results provide insight to the spray-collapsing processes under various superheated conditions. It was found that in axial direction, the vertical velocity increases while the radial velocity decreases with increasing superheat degree, which determines the convergent spray structure. In cross-sectional direction, the dynamic variation of the spray structure and interaction among spray plumes were investigated. The relationship between the spray structure and flow field was found. The flow patterns during and after the injection are significantly different.
Journal Article

Flash Boiling: Easy and Better Way to Generate Ideal Sprays than the High Injection Pressure

When heated fuel is injected into an ambient environment below its saturation pressure, the fuel could reach superheated state and experience flash boiling. Comparing with the non-flash boiling spray, namely the single phase liquid spray, flash boiling spray is characterized by its nature of two phase flow, due to vapor bubbles constantly generating inside the liquid phase. The behavior of those microscopic scale bubbles could introduce prompt spray atomization and vaporization, resulting in dramatically different spray characteristics. Comparing with the sprays generated via a high pressure injection system, the flash boiling spray has much shorter penetration, wider spray angle, more uniformly distributed mass, quicker evaporation, and smaller drop sizes, etc., which are ideal for the direct-injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engine applications without the hassle and the high cost associated with the high pressure injection system.