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Technical Paper

Vizualization of Evaporative Diesel Spray Impinging Upon Wall Surface by Exciplex Fluorescence Method

A single diesel spray of n-decane which was miscible with a small quantity of exciplex dopants was injected from a hole nozzle into a quiescent high-temperature and high-pressure atmosphere of nitrogen, and was impinged in a normaldirection upon a flat wall with elevated temperature. This experiment was to serve as a simplified model of the actual state in a combustion chamber of diesel engines. When a thin sheet of laser light from Nd:YAG laser is passing through the cross section of this spray containing its central axis, it is able to generate fluorescent emissions from vapor and liquid phases in this evaporating spray. Then, clear 2-dimensional images concerning the concentration distributions of vapor and liquid phases were obtained simultaneously, by an exciplex fluorescence method using an image-intensifier and a CCD camera system. The dispersion processes of vapor and liquid phases in this impinging spray near the wall were analyzed with an image analyzer.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Cavitating Flow inside the Nozzle Hole Using by Enlarged Acrylic Nozzle

In this study, it is purpose to make clear the effect of cavitation phenomenon on the spray atomization. In this report, the cavitation phenomenon inside the nozzle hole was visualized and the pressure measurements along the wall of the nozzle hole were carried out by use of 25-times enlarged acrylic nozzle. For the representatives of regular gasoline, single and two-component fuels were used as a test fuel. In addition, various cavitating flow patterns same as experimental conditions were simulated by use of Barotropic model incorporated in commercial code of Star-CD scheme, and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Cavitation Inside Nozzle Hole and Injected Liquid Jet

The atomization structure of the fuel spray is known to be affected by flow conditions and cavitation inside the nozzle hole. In this paper, the cavitation phenomena inside the nozzle hole was visualized by using large-scale transparent nozzles, as well as the effect of length-to-width ratio (l/w ratio) of the nozzle hole on cavitation and on the behavior of injection liquid jet. In addition, various flow patterns inside the nozzle hole same as experimental conditions were simulated by the use of Cavitation model incorporated in Star-CCM+, which was compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Vaporization Characteristics and Liquid-Phase Penetration for Multi-Component Fuels

The maximum liquid-phase penetration and vaporization behavior was investigated by using simultaneous measurement for mie-scattered light images and shadowgraph ones. The objective of this study was to analyze effect of variant parameters (injection pressure, ambient gas condition and fuel temperature) and fuel properties on vaporization behavior, and to investigate liquid phase penetration for the single- and multi-component fuels. The experiments were conducted in a constant-volume vessel with optical access. Fuel was injected into the vessel with electronically controlled common rail injector.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Fuel Atomization and Droplet Size Distribution in Diesel Fuel Spray

The purposes of this study are to clarify the atomization mechanism, the change over time in droplet size distribution, and the change in spray characteristics dependent on back pressure on diesel fuel spray. Diesel spray injected into a quiescent gaseous environment under high pressure is observed by taking direct microscopic photographs varying the moment of exposure, the back pressure, and the ambient density. The results show that the mechanism of spray atomization is divided into 4 processes, and spatial distribution of breakup droplets and a droplet volume rate are assessed for the whole spray region. Total and local distributions of droplet size are expressed by empirical equations as a function of time elapsed from the moment of injection. It is confirmed that the uniformity of the distribution, Sauter mean diameter of droplets, and droplet production rate change with time. Mean droplet diameter is further described in relation to the pressure drop and the ambient density.
Technical Paper

The structure analysis of diesel free spray with phase change~(Effect of viscosity change of vapor-phase fuel on the structure of diesel free spray)

In this study, the purpose is placed in analysis the structure of diesel spray and, especially, making clear the mixture formation process in the evaporative diesel spray. The liquid fuel was injected from a single-hole nozzle (1/d = 1.0 mm/0.2 mm) into a constant-volume vessel possessing phenomena visualization under high pressure and temperature field. As for measurement method, in order to investigate liquid and vapor-phase of injected spray, exciplex fluorescence method was applied in the evaporative fuel spray. And the interested view region in injected spray is the downstream spray. For the minute investigation of spray flow, the liquid and vapor-phase region is taken with 35 mm still camera and CCD camera, respectively.
Technical Paper

The Structure Analysis of Evaporative Diesel Spray

This paper analyzes heterogeneous distribution of branch-like structure at downstream region of the diesel spray. The liquid and vapor phase of the spray are obtained by a 35mm still camera and CCD camera in order to investigate spray structure of evaporative diesel spray. The many previous studies about diesel spray structure have yet stayed in the analyses of 2-D structure, and there is little information which is concerned with 3-D structure analysis of evaporative spray. The heterogeneous distribution of droplets in inner spray affects the mixture formation of diesel spray, and the combustion characteristics of the diesel engines. In this study, the laser beam of 2-D plane was used in order to investigate 3-D structure of evaporative spray. The incident laser beam was offset on central axis of the spray.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel-Vapor Concentration on the Process of Initial Combustion and Soot Formation in a DI Diesel Engine Using LII and LIEF

A phenomenological or empirical model based on experimental results obtained from various optical measurements is critical for the understanding of DI diesel combustion phenomena as well as for the improvement of its emission characteristics. Such a model could be realized by the application of advanced optical measurement, which is able to isolate a particular phenomenon amongst complicated physical and chemical interactions, to a DI diesel combustion field. The authors have conducted experimental studies to clarify the combustion characteristics of unsteady turbulent diffusion flames in relation to the soot formation and oxidation process in a small-sized DI diesel engine. In the present study, the effect of fuel vapor concentration on the process of early combustion and soot formation has been investigated using several optical measurements.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Auto-Ignition and Combustion of Unsteady Synthetic Gas Jet

It is thought that the synthetic gas, including hydrogen and carbon monoxide, has a potential to be an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines, because a heating value of the synthetic gas is higher than one of hydrogen or natural gas. A purpose of this study is to acquire stable auto-ignition and combustion of the synthetic gas which is supposed to be applied into a direct-injection compression ignition engine. In this study, the effects of ambient gas temperatures and oxygen concentrations on auto-ignition characteristics of the synthetic gas with changing percentage of hydrogen (H2) or carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the synthetic gas. An electronically-controlled, hydraulically-actuated gas injector was used to control a precise injection timing and period of gaseous fuels, and the experiments were conducted in an optically accessible, constant-volume combustion chamber under simulated quiescent diesel engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Reformulated Biodiesel with Mixing of Lower Boiling Point Fuel

Authors propose the reformulation technique of physical properties of Biodiesel Fuel (BDF) by mixing lower boiling point fuels. In this study, waste cooking oil methyl ester (B100), which have been produced in Kyoto city, is used in behalf of BDF. N-Heptane (C7H16) and n-Dodecane (C12H26) are used as low and medium boiling point fuel. Mixed fuel of BDF with lower boiling point fuels have lighter quality as compared with neat BDF. This result is based on the chemical-thermo dynamical liquid-vapor equilibrium theory. This paper describes fundamental spray and combustion characteristics of mixed fuel of B100 with lower boiling point fuels as well as the reformulation technique. By mixing lower boiling point fuel, lighter quality fuels can be refined. Thus, mixed fuels have higher volatility and lower viscosity. Therefore, vaporization of mixed fuel spray is promoted and liquid phase penetration of mixed fuel shortens as compared with that of neat BDF.
Technical Paper

Soot formation/oxidation and fuel-vapor concentration in a DI diesel engine using laser-sheet imaging method

Four kinds of optical measurements were performed to investigate the process of soot formation and oxidation in a direct-injection (DI) diesel engine. Measurements were carried out in an optically accessible DI diesel engine that allows planar laser sheet for combustion diagnostics to enter the combustion chamber either horizontally or along the axis of the fuel jet. The temporal and spatial distribution of soot particles has been investigated using the laser- induced incandescence (LII) and high-speed direct photography. Fuel vapor concentration, which is directly linked to the soot formation process in diesel combustion, has been deduced from the images obtained by the measurements of laser shadowgraph and elastic Mie scattering. According to the experimental results, soot formation begins to occur near the injector nozzle in which a fuel-rich mixture is distributed with a homogeneous condition. LII signal is dominated by the fuel vapor concentration in initial combustion period.
Technical Paper

Soot Kinetic Modeling and Empirical Validation on Smokeless Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

This paper provides new insights on the mechanism of the smokeless diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels, based on a combination of soot kinetic modeling and optical diagnostics. The chemical effects of fuel compositions, including aromatics - paraffins blend, neat oxygenated fuels and oxygenate additives, on sooting equivalence ratio ‘ϕ’ - temperature ‘T’ dependence were numerically examined using a detailed soot kinetic model. To better understand the physical factors affecting soot formation in oxygenated fuel sprays, the effects of injection pressure and ambient gas temperature on the flame lift-off length and relative soot concentration in oxygenated fuel jets were experimentally investigated. The computational results show that the leaner mixture side of soot formation peninsula on the ϕ - T map, rather than the lower temperature one, should be utilized to suppress the formation of PAHs and ultra-fine particles together with the large reduction in particulate mass.
Journal Article

Simultaneous Reduction of Pressure Rise Rate and Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine by Use of Dual-Component Fuel Spray

Ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of dual-component fuel spray were examined for ranges of injection timing and intake-air oxygen concentration. Fuels used were binary mixtures of gasoline-like component i-octane (cetane number 12, boiling point 372 K) and diesel fuel-like component n-tridecane (cetane number 88, boiling point 510 K). Mass fraction of i-octane was also changed as the experimental variable. The experimental study was carried out in a single cylinder compression ignition engine equipped with a common-rail injection system and an exhaust gas recirculation system. The results demonstrated that the increase of the i-octane mass fraction with optimizations of injection timing and intake oxygen concentration reduced pressure rise rate and soot and NOx emissions without deterioration of indicated thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Reaction Mechanism for n-Tridecane Based on Knowledge of Detailed Reaction Paths

n-Tridecane is a low boiling point component of gas oil, and has been used as a single-component fuel for diesel spray and combustion experiments. However, no reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-tridecane have been presented for three-dimensional modeling. A detailed mechanism developed by KUCRS (Knowledge-basing Utilities for Complex Reaction Systems), contains 1493 chemical species and 3641 reactions. Reaction paths during ignition process for n-tridecane in air computed using the detailed mechanism, were analyzed with the equivalence ratio of 0.75 and the initial temperatures of 650 K, 850 K, and 1100 K, which are located in the cool-flame dominant, negative-temperature coefficient, and blue-flame dominant regions, respectively.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Analysis of Fuel Vapor Concentration in Diesel Spray by Exciplex Fluorescence Method

An unsteady single spray of n-tridecane which was mixed with a small quantity of exciplex - forming dopants, that is naphthalene and TMPD, was impinged on a flat wall surface with high temperature of 550 K at a normal angle. These experiments were carried out in a quiescent N2 atmosphere with high temperature of 700 K and high pressure of 2.5 MPa. It was possible to generate the fluorescence emissions from the vapor and liquid phases in this spray, when a laser light sheet from a Nd:YAG laser was passing through the cross section of the spray containing its central axis. Then, clear 2 - D images of vapor and liquid phases in the spray were acquired simultaneously by this method. And, the vapor concentration was analyzed quantitatively by applying Lambert - Beer's law to the measured TMPD monomer fluorescence intensity from vapor phase, and by correcting the intensity for the effect of the quenching process due to the ambient temperature and fuel concentration.
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter Emission in steady state operation and transient operation from Direct Injection (DI) Off-Road Diesel Engine

For protecting human health and preserving the clean environment, current regulations stipulate acceptable levels of particulate emissions based on the mass collected on filters obtained by sampling in diluted exhaust. Such regulations will be imposed not only on-road engines but also off-road engines. From the point of view of human health [1], so-called nano-particle (d<50nm) is thought to be nuisance because it could reach deeper lung tissue. So, many researches have been done in this research field [2]. A series of experiments were conducted on an off-road general purpose direct Injection (DI) diesel engine using EEPS (Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer) to make real time particle size distribution measurements possible. The data presented covers whole operating conditions including the operating modes of off-road diesel engine emission test (C1mode). Additionally, PM emissions in transient (NRTC test cycle) engine operation were examined.
Technical Paper

Organized Structure and Motion in Diesel Spray

This paper deals with the particle distribution in Diesel spray under the non-evaporating condition from the analytical aspect based on our experimental results. In the analysis, TAB method of KIVA II code and the k-ε turbulent model were used, and the mono-disperse distribution of the initial parcel's diameter, whose size equals to the nozzle hole diameter, was utilized in conjunction with the breakup model. The size distribution of atomized droplets (i.e. the χ-squared distribution function) is justified with the degree of freedom. It is shown that the ambient gas, which is initially quiescent, is induced and led to a turbulent gas jet. The turbulent gas jet which has a equivalent momentum with the Diesel spray was also examined by Discrete Vortex method. The quantitative jet growth was shown to be possible for the estimation and determination in its initial boundary values at the nozzle.
Technical Paper

On-Board Measurement of Engine Performance and Emissions in Diesel Vehicle Operated with Bio-diesel Fuel

This paper describes the results of on-board measurement of engine performance and emissions in diesel vehicle operated with bio-diesel fuels. Here, two waste-cooking oils were investigated. One fuel is a waste-cooking oil methyl esters. This fuel is actually applied to a garbage collection vehicle with DI diesel engine (B100) and the city bus (B20; 80% gas oil is mixed into B100 in volume) as an alternative fuel of gas oil in Kyoto City. Another one is a fuel with ozone treatment by removing impurities from raw waste-cooking oils. Here, in order to improve the fuel properties, kerosene is mixed 70% volume in this fuel. This mixed fuel (i-BDF) is applied into several tracks and buses in Wakayama City. Then, these 3 bio-diesel fuels were applied to the on-board experiments and the results were compared with gas oil operation case.
Technical Paper

OH Radical Generation and Soot Formation/Oxidation in DI Diesel Engine

OH radical generated in a DI diesel engine has a close relationship to soot oxidation. To clarify this fact, the distribution of the natural emission of OH radical was captured by means of an interference filter system and that of soot was detected by the simultaneous application of a laser induced incandescence (LB) and a laser induced scattering (LIS). The experiments were carried out in a small sized high-speed DI diesel engine installed with an optical access view. The generation of OH radical and the formation/oxidation of soot are discussed by using both images.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Multicomponent Fuel Spray

Fuel design for internal combustion engines has been proposed in our study. In this concept, the multicomponent fuel with high and low volatility fuels are used in order to control the spray and combustion processes in internal combustion engine. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the spray and combustion characteristics of the multicomponent fuels in detail. In the present study, the modeling of multicomponent spray vaporization was conducted using KIVA3V code. The physical fuel properties of multicomponent fuel were estimated using the source code of NIST Mixture Property Database. Peng-Robinson equation of state and fugacity calculation were applied to the estimation of liquid-vapor equilibrium in order to take account for non-ideal vaporization process. Two-zone model in which fuel droplet was divided into droplet surface and inner core was introduced in order to simply consider the temperature distribution in fuel droplet.