Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking Mechanism Applying the Chemical Luminescence Method

1995-02-01
951005
One of the most effective means of improving the thermal efficiency and the specific fuel consumption in spark ignition engines is the increase of the compression ratio. However, there is a limit to it because of the generation of knocking combustion due to the rise of temperature and pressure in the unburnt mixture. Also in turbo charged spark ignition engines, the ignition timing cannot be advanced until MBT in order to avoid the knocking phenomena. Generally speaking, it is very difficult to investigate the phenomena in an actual engine, because there are many restriction and the phenomena are too complex and too fast. According-ly, it is advantageous to reveal the phenomena fundamentally, including the autoignition process of the end-gas by using simplified model equipment. Therefore, a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) with a pan-cake combustion chamber was designed and developed for the experiments presented here.
Technical Paper

Artificial Control of Diesel Spray and Flame Feature by using Dual-component Fuel

2015-09-01
2015-01-1916
Fuel design approach has been proposed as the control technique of spray and combustion processes in diesel engine to improve thermal efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions. In order to kwow if this approach is capable of controlling spray flame structure and interaction between the flame and a combustion chamber wall, the present study investigated ignition and flame characteristics of dual-component fuels, while varying mixing fraction, fuel temperature and ambient conditions. Those characteristics were evaluated through chemiluminescence photography and luminous flame photography. OH radical images and visible luminous flame images were analyzed to reveal flame shape aspect ratio and its fractal dimension.
Technical Paper

Atomization of Spray under Low-Pressure Field from Pintle Type Gasoline Injector

1992-02-01
920382
This paper presents an atomization mechanism of a spray injected into the low-pressure field, as the subject of injection system in a suction manifold of gasoline engine. Pure liquid fuel, which is n-Pentane or n-Hexane is injected into quiescent gaseous atmosphere at room-temperature and low- pressure through pintle type electronic control injector. Fuel sprays are observed by taking photographs for variation of the back pressure and the changes in spray characteristics with the back pressure below atmospheric pressure are examined in detail. In particular, in the case of the back pressure below the saturated vapor pressure of fuel, the atomization mechanism is discussed from a viewpoint of flash boiling phenomena, those are bubble growth rate and so on.
Technical Paper

CO2 Mixed Fuel Combustion System for Reduction of NO and Soot Emission in Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970319
We propose a new concept on simultaneous reduction of NO and soot emissions in Diesel engine exhaust by the diesel fuel oil (n-Tridecane) with liquefied CO2 dissolved. The CO2 dissolved fuel is expected to undergo flash boiling or gas separation when being injected into the combustion chamber and improve spray atomization and mixing process both of which are primary factors to govern soot formation. Also the internal EGR effect caused by CO2 injected with the fuel is expected to NO formation. In order to assess this concept, combustion experiments were carried out using a rapid compression and expansion machine. Thus, flame characteristics and heat release rate were analyzed for the combustion process of diesel fuel and CO2 mixed fuel. And, it is revealed that the diesel fuel-liquefied CO2 mixed fuel can successfully reduce NO emission in a diesel combustion system.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Combustion in an IDI Diesel Engine with a Swirl Chamber Made of Ceramics

1992-02-01
920696
There is a concept that the increase in the temperature of charge in a combustion chamber and the shield of heat transferred through a chamber wall can facilitate the oxidation of soot and reduce the discharge of soot from the engine. In the experiments presented here in, an IDI diesel engine was used to inspect the concept. The engine was installed a bigger sized cylindrical swirl chamber which was equipped with two flat quarts windows, in order to observe the combustion phenomena and to apply the optical measurement. The experiments were carried out using two types of divided chambers, that is, the swirl chamber made of ceramics and that made of steel, to examine the the effects mentioned above.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Free and Impinging Gas Jets by Means of Image Processing

1997-02-24
970045
A transient gas jet seems to be a model of a diesel spray because it has no vaporization process. Recently, CNG is utilized in a diesel engine. In the case of diesel engine, sprays or jets have the free state in some cases, and they are impinging surely on the piston surface in the other cases. The 2-D image of acetylene gas with tracer particles was taken by high-speed photography. In both jets, the outer shape was measured on the images and the characteristics of the internal flow was obtained by particle image velocimetry. Then, the physical models of these jets were constructed by use of experimental results.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Transient Gas Diffusion Flame

1997-10-01
972965
CNG is one of the future fuel for a CI engine. Recently, the general tendency is the use of the high pressure injection system over 100 MPa in a CI engine for the near future severe regulation. Combustion phenomenon in a CI engine with such injection system is like a transient gas diffusion flame. The flow in a gas diffusion flame was investigated by the particle image velocimetry on its 2-D images, the relative soot concentration, the temperature and the relative CO2 concentration was detected in the experiments. And the model of transient gas diffusion flame was constructed by use of experimental data.
Technical Paper

Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

1992-02-01
920697
It is unavoidable that a DI diesel engine exhausts a blue and white smoke at starting, especially in the cold atmosphere. In the experiments presented here, a small DI diesel engine started under the conditions of coolant and suction air whose minimum temperatures were 255 K and 268 K, respectively. The flame was photographed by high-speed photography, the temperature of flame and the soot concentration were measured by two-color method, and CO2 concentration was detected by luminous method. The engine cannot be started over several cycles when the coolant temperature is 255 K and suction air temperature is 268 K. As the temperature of coolant and suction air are decreasing, the maxima of the cylinder pressure, the flame temperature, the soot concentration and CO2 concentration are decreasing. Luminous small dots or small lumps of flame become scattered in the piston cavity.
Technical Paper

Controlling PCCI Combustion with Mixed Fuel - Application of Flashing Spray to Early Injection

2007-04-16
2007-01-0624
A diesel engine operating in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) mode promises the reduction of engine-out emissions of NOx and particulate matter. A serious issue for PCCI operation with the early injection timing during the compression stroke is the difficulty of controlling the mixture formation process. In this study, a mixed fuel consisting of high volatility fuel and high ignitability one is applied in order to develop a control technique for the mixture preparation. In particular, we focuses on a flash boiling phenomenon of mixed fuel. For pure substance, the quality of flashing spray is dominated by the degree of superheat. In contrast, that of mixed fuel is affected much by low boiling point fuel.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Diesel Spray Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

2001-03-05
2001-01-1262
This paper confirms a structure for the soot formation process inside a burning diesel jet plume of oxygenated fuels. An explanation of how the soot formation process changes by the use of oxygenated fuel in comparison with that for using a conventional diesel fuel, and why oxygenated fuel drastically suppresses the soot formation has been derived from the chemical kinetic analysis. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, which is combined with various proposed chemical kinetic models including normal paraffinic hydrocarbon oxidation, oxygenated hydrocarbon oxidation, and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation, was developed in present study. The calculated results are presented to elucidate the influence of fuel mixture composition and fuel structure, especially relating to oxygenated fuels, on PAH formation. The analysis also provides a new insight into the initial soot formation process in terms of the temperature range of PAH formation.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling and Laser Diagnostics of Soot Formation Process in Diesel Jet Flame

2004-03-08
2004-01-1398
This work investigates the soot formation process in diesel jet flame using a detailed kinetic soot model implemented into the KIVA-3V multidimensional CFD code and 2D imaging by use of time-resolved laser induced incandescence (LII). The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver using Message Passing Interface (MPI). This allows for the chemical reactions to be simulated in parallel on multiple CPUs. The detailed soot model used is based on the method of moments, which begins with fuel pyrolysis, followed by the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, their growth and coagulation into spherical particles, and finally, surface growth and oxidation of the particles. The model can describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of soot formation processes such as soot precursors distributions, nucleation rate and surface reaction rate.
Technical Paper

Distribution of Fuel Droplets, Hydrocarbon and Soot in Diesel Combustion Chamber

1983-02-01
830456
Distribution of injected fuel droplets, total hydrocarbon concentration and soot concentration in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine with a swirl chamber have been measured microscopically with regard to the time and the space by means of optical method. As a result of this study, effect of the swirl flow on atomized droplet distribution, relation between the droplets and hydrocarbon concentration, and relation between the change in concentration gradient of hydrocarbon with the time and the velocity of the swirl flow, and effect of non-luminous flame on the time of heat release rate raising period have been obtained. And from spatial distributions of hydrocarbon concentration, soot concentration, and local temperature in the combustion chamber at each time, the locational characteristics of soot generation are clarified. Further, effects of hydrocarbon and local temperature on soot generation have been considered.
Technical Paper

Effect of ADOIL TAC Additive on Diesel Combustion

1991-11-01
912555
Some papers on the combustion in a diesel engine have been already presented to discuss the effect of the additive called ADOIL TAC. A bottom view DI diesel engine driven at 980rpm with no load was used in the experiment presented here, in order to make clear this effect. JIS second class light diesel fuel oil was injected through a hole nozzle at the normal test run. The additive was intermixed 0.01 vol. % in this fuel oil, in the experiments to compare with the normal combustion. The flame was taken by direct high-speed photography. Profiles of flame temperature and KL were detected on the film by image processing, applying the two-color method. Soot was visualized by high-speed laser shadowgraphy, and the heat release rate was calculated using the cylinder pressure diagram. Discussion on the effect of the additive on the combustion phenomena was made by using all the data.
Technical Paper

Effects of Flame Lift-Off and Flame Temperature on Soot Formation in Oxygenated Fuel Sprays

2003-03-03
2003-01-0073
Considering the bell-shaped temperature dependence of soot particle formation, the control of flame temperature has a possibility to drastically suppress of soot formation. Furthermore, oxygenated fuels are very effective on soot reduction, and the use of these kinds of fuels has a potentiality for smokeless diesel combustion. In this paper, the effects of flame lift-off and flame temperature on soot formation in oxygenated fuel sprays were experimentally investigated using a constant volume combustion vessel which simulated diesel engine conditions. The diffusion flame lift-off length was measured in order to estimate the amount of the oxygen entrained upstream of the flame lift-off length in the fuel jet. This was determined from time-averaged OH chemiluminescence imaging technique. Also, the flame temperature and soot concentration were simultaneously evaluated by means of two-color method.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis on Soot Formation Process In DI Diesel Combustion Chamber by Use of Optical Diagnostics

2002-03-04
2002-01-0893
Soot formation process inside the combustion chamber of an DI diesel engine is focused as a phenomenological basic scheme by using several optical diagnostics technique for the improvement of diesel exhaust emission. We have conducted the series of optical measurement research for the clarification of combustion field in an DI diesel engine. Then, this paper is a kind of review by adding the fuel vapor properties and particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis with focusing the soot formation process. The experiments were carried out in a small sized high-speed DI diesel engine installed with an optical access view. The spray characteristics and its flow field in 2-D field were measured by laser sheet scattering (LIS) method and PIV scheme.
Technical Paper

Flame Structure and Combustion Characteristics in Diesel Combustion Fueled with Bio-diesel

2004-03-08
2004-01-0084
The Flame structure and combustion characteristics for two waste-cooking oils were investigated in detail. One fuel is the waste-cooking oil methyl esters. This fuel is actually applied to the garbage collection vehicle with DI diesel engine (B100) and the city bus (B20; 80% gas oil is mixed into B100 in volume) as an alternative fuel of gas oil in Kyoto City. Another one is the fuel with ozone treatment by removing impurities from raw waste-cooking oils. Here, in order to improve the fuel properties, kerosene is mixed 70% volume in this fuel. This mixed fuel (i-BDF) is applied into several tracks and buses in Wakayama City. In the experiments, the used fuels were gas oil, i-BDF, B100 and B20. Spray characteristics and basic combustion properties were measured inside a rapid compression and an expansion machine (RCEM).
Technical Paper

Fuel Design Concept for Low Emission in Engine Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-1258
In previous our work, we revealed that the flash boiling process could improve remarkably the spray atomization for the pure substance-single component fuel in relation to the port-injected S.I. engines. Then, we applied this flash boiling spray to the Diesel spray process by the use of the two phase region formed between liquefied CO2 and n-Tridecane as the first step of fuel design concept. And the promoted atomization properties could be obtained in this mixed fuel concept. Further, we could obtain the simultaneous reduction of NO and soot emissions in Diesel engine exhaust due to the spray internal EGR effect and reburning of soot. As the second step, we proposed a novel fuel design concept for low exhaust emission and combustion control, relating to mixed and reformulated fuels with a lower boiling point fuel such as gasoline components or gas fuel and a higher boiling point fuel such as gas oil or heavy oil components to obtain the both advantages of their fuels for combustion.
Technical Paper

Fuel Design Concept for Low Emission in Engine Systems 4th Report: Effect of Spray Characteristics of Mixed Fuel on Exhaust Concentrations in Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1038
In this study, the novel fuel design concept has been proposed in order to realize the low emission and combustion control in engine systems. In this fuel design concept, the mixed fuels with a high volatility fuel (gasoline or gaseous fuel components) and a low volatility fuel (gas oil or fuel oil components) are used in order to improve the spray characteristics by flash boiling. In our previous papers on this study, the fundamental characteristics of spray and its combustion of mixed fuel were reported. In this paper, heat release and exhaust emission (smoke, NOx and THC) characteristics of single cylinder diesel engine operated with the mixed fuels were investigated under each load. The exhaust performance of diesel engine could be improved using mixed fuel, because fuel properties and spray characteristics were controlled by changing mixing fraction of the mixed fuel.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Spray and Combustion Process by Applying CO2 Gas Dissolved Fuel

2017-11-05
2017-32-0046
The CO2 gas dissolved fuel for the diesel combustion is effective to reduce the NOx emissions to achieve the internal EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) effect by fuel. This method has supplied EGR gas to the fuel side instead of supply EGR gas to the intake gas side. The fuel has followed specific characteristics for the diesel combustion. When the fuel is injected into the chamber in low pressure, this CO2 gas is separated from the fuel spray. The distribution characteristics of the spray are improved and the improvement of the thermal efficiency by reduction heat loss in the combustion chamber wall, and reduce soot emissions by the lean combustion is expected. Furthermore, this CO2 gas decreases the flame temperature. Further, it is anticipated to reduce NOx emissions by the spray internal EGR effect.
Technical Paper

Knocking Phenomena in a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

1992-02-01
920064
In this study, a rapid compression and expansion machine(RCEM) with a pancake combustion chamber was designed to investigate fundamentally on the knocking phenomena in spark ignition(S.I) engines. This RCEM is intended to simulate combustion in an actual engine. The homogeneous pre-mixture of n-pentane and air was charged into a quiescent atmosphere of the chamber. Then, the combustion field become simpler in this machine than it in a real S.I. engine. Also, the combustion phenomena, that is a cylinder pressure history, the behavior of flame propagation and so on, with high reproducibility are realized in this machine. The phenomena caught in this experiment were so-called low speed knocking. And, this knocking characteristics such as a knock intensity and a knock mass fraction were revealed by the cylinder pressure analysis varying the charge pressure and the equivalence ratio of the mixture, a compression ratio and an ignition timing.
X