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Technical Paper

A New Approach to Predicting Component Temperature Collectives for Vehicle Thermal Management

2017-03-28
2017-01-0134
There is a growing need for life-cycle data – so-called collectives – when developing components like elastomer engine mounts. Current standardized extreme load cases are not sufficient for establishing such collectives. Supplementing the use of endurance testing data, a prediction methodology for component temperature collectives utilizing existing 3D CFD simulation models is presented. The method uses support points to approximate the full collective. Each support point is defined by a component temperature and a position on the time axis of the collective. Since it is the only currently available source for component temperature data, endurance testing data is used to develop the new method. The component temperature range in this data set is divided in temperature bands. Groups of driving states are determined which are each representative of an individual band. Each of the resulting four driving state spaces is condensed into a substitute load case.
Journal Article

Active Crosswind Generation and Its Effect on the Unsteady Aerodynamic Vehicle Properties Determined in an Open Jet Wind Tunnel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0722
In this article the unsteady aerodynamic properties of a 25% scale DrivAer notchback model as well as the influence of the wind tunnel environment on the resulting unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments under crosswind excitation are investigated using experimental and corresponding numerical methods. Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) swing® (side wind generator) is used to reproduce the essential properties of natural stochastic crosswind in the open jet test section of the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK) model scale wind tunnel (MWK). The results show that the test environment of an open jet wind tunnel alters the amplitudes of side force and yaw moment under crosswind excitation when compared to an ideal environment neglecting wind tunnel interference effects.
Technical Paper

Advances in Modelling A-Pillar Water Overflow

2015-04-14
2015-01-1549
Driving when it is raining can be a stressful experience. Having a clear unobstructed view of the vehicles and road around you under these conditions is especially important. Heavy rain conditions can however overwhelm water management devices resulting in water rivulets flowing over the vehicle's side glass. These rivulets can significantly impair the driver's ability to see the door mirror, and laterally onto junctions. Designing water management features for vehicles is a challenging venture as testing is not normally possible until late in the design phase. Additionally traditional water management features such as grooves and channels have both undesirable design and wind noise implications. Having the ability to detect water management issues such as A-pillar overflow earlier in the design cycle is desirable to minimize the negative impact of water management features. Numerical simulation of windscreen water management is desirable for this reason.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Water Jacket Flow Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0659
The increasing importance of electric mobility results into the need for optimizing all power train components to further reduce the energy consumption of the vehicle. The aim of this study is to predict the thermal behavior and the pressure losses in water jackets of electric machines by use of CFD. The heat loss of electric machines in passenger cars is sufficient to let its components reach critical temperatures. For this reason, the optimization of heat dissipation plays an important role. The goal of efficient heat dissipation is a high heat transfer coefficient. At the same time, the pressure loss should be low in order to reduce the required power of the pump. Flow simulations can help to evaluate different water jacket concepts in an early stage of development. In this work, the validation of flow simulations in water jackets is based on measurements of a simplified geometry with constant boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Test System for Holistic Vehicle Dynamics Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0449
In the automotive industry, there is a continued need to improve the development process and handle the increasing complexity of the overall vehicle system. One major step in this process is a comprehensive and complementary approach to both simulation and testing. Knowledge of the overall dynamic vehicle behavior is becoming increasingly important for the development of new control concepts such as integrated vehicle dynamics control aiming to improve handling quality and ride comfort. However, with current well-established test systems, only separated and isolated aspects of vehicle dynamics can be evaluated. To address these challenges and further merge the link between simulation and testing, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK), University of Stuttgart is introducing a new Handling Roadway (HRW) Test System in cooperation with The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) and MTS Systems Corporation.
Technical Paper

Audi Aero-Acoustic Wind Tunnel

1993-03-01
930300
The present paper reveals the design concept as well as results of experimental investigations, which were conducted in the early design stage of the planned AUDI Aero-Acoustic Wind Tunnel. This low-noise open-jet facility, featuring a nozzle exit area of 11 m2 and a top speed of approximately 60 m/s, enables aerodynamic as well as acoustic testing of both, full-scale and model-scale ground vehicles. Ground simulation is provided by means of a moving-belt rig. The surrounding plenum is designed as a semi-anechoic chamber to simulate acoustic free-field conditions around the vehicle. Fan noise will be attenuated below the noise level of the open jet. The work reported herein, comprises 1/8-scale pilot-tunnel experiments of aerodynamic and acoustic configurations which were carried out at the University of Darmstadt.
Technical Paper

CFD Approach to Evaluate Wind-Tunnel and Model Setup Effects on Aerodynamic Drag and Lift for Detailed Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0760
Previous work by the authors showed the development of an aerodynamic CFD model using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for simulating vehicles inside the IVK Model-Scale Wind-Tunnel test-section. In both experiment and simulation, alternate configurations of the wind-tunnel geometry were studied to change the pressure distribution in the wind-tunnel test section, inducing a reduction in aerodynamic drag due to interference between the wind-tunnel geometry and the pressure on the surface of the vehicle. The wind-tunnel pressure distribution was modified by adding so-called “stagnation bodies” inside the collector to create blockage and to increase the pressure in the rear portion of the test section. The primary purpose of previous work was to provide a validated CFD approach for modeling wind-tunnel interference effects, so that these effects can be understood and accounted for when designing vehicles.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigations of Wind Tunnel Interference Effects

2007-04-16
2007-01-1045
Wind tunnel interference effects are still considered to be negligible - or at least undesired - in automotive aerodynamics. Consequently, up to now there is no standard correction method which is used in everyday wind tunnel testing although a lot of research has been done in recent years. In most full-vehicle CFD simulations, wind tunnel interference effects are not simulated. The flow about the car is computed under idealized conditions. The wind tunnel is designed to simulate these conditions but fails to do so to some degree due to its limited size. Therefore a comparison of blockage-free CFD results and wind tunnel measurements is deficient. Hence CFD simulations including wind tunnel interference effects should be favored in the future for validation purposes. Furthermore, CFD offers new possibilities to investigate individual contributions to wind tunnel interference effects and therefore could help to increase the understanding of the flow in the wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

CFD Validation Study for a Sedan Scale Model in an Open Jet Wind Tunnel

2008-04-14
2008-01-0325
Aerodynamic simulations using CFD is now a standard tool in the automotive industry, and is becoming more and more integrated in the aerodynamic design process of new vehicles. This process is distinguished by parallel development with wind tunnel experiments and CFD simulation results, which demands comparable results to be generated by the two development tools. As wind tunnel effects are not simulated in most industrial applications of CFD, the comparison with experimental results normally show differences partly due to wind tunnel effects and ground simulation effects. Therefore a deeper understanding of wind tunnel effects and methods to fully reproduce experimental values with CFD is necessary. In this paper, an extensive validation study with a detailed scale notchback model inside an open jet wind tunnel is presented. This study includes experimental data from the real wind tunnel as well as CFD simulation results with and without wind tunnel effects.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities of Numerically Simulating the Idle Load Case for Vehicle Thermal Management

2015-04-14
2015-01-0340
Collective life-cycle data is needed when developing components like elastomer suspension mounts. Life-time prediction is only possible using thermal load frequency distributions. In addition to current extreme load cases, the Idle Load Case is examined at Mercedes-Benz Car Group as a collective load case for Vehicle Thermal Management (VTM) numerical simulations in early development stages. It combines validation opportunities for HVAC, cooling and transmission requirements in hot-country-type ambient conditions. Experiments in climatic wind tunnels and coupled 3D CFD and heat transfer simulations of the Idle Load Case have been performed. Measurements show steady conditions at the end of the load case. Decoupling of the torque converter, changes in ambient temperature and the technical implementation of a wind barrier for still air conditions exhibit influence on component-level results. Solar load, however, does not significantly change the examined component temperatures.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Different Ground Simulation Techniques for Use in Automotive Wind Tunnels

1990-02-01
900321
The range of applicability and the physical restrictions for the use of ground-simulation techniques in automotive wind tunnels are elucidated. The techniques considered are the moving-belt technique, as well as boundary layer control techniques like tangential blowing and distributed normal suction for use in wind tunnels with stationary ground boards. Attention has to be paid to the question of whether the flow to be simulated is of boundary layer or Couette type. In the case of boundary layer flow, interaction of the ground-floor boundary layer with the inviscid flow in the gap between a vehicle and the road can be fully simulated by introducing a negative transpiration velocity along the stationary ground plane. In practise however, angularity effects on the external flow result from mismatched control parameters. Very small relative ground clearances give rise to the formation of a Couette flow between the road and the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development support for the design of distributed control systems in a road vehicle

2000-06-12
2000-05-0117
The development process of electronic control units (ECU) is increasingly supported by different tools. The target-specific code-generation for single micro-controllers becomes a standard technology. Thus a continuous tool support during the whole development cycle is possible. This extends from the specification of the functionality to the implementation of the software on the controller. The next generation of tool support is not only focused on single micro-controllers it also supports the design of systems consisting of different controllers connected via various communication entities. Thus the goal of the tool support is the automatic code-generation for such distributed embedded real-time systems including support of different communication buses (e.g., Controller Area Network CAN, Time Triggered Protocol TTP) and different processor targets.
Technical Paper

Flow around an Isolated Wheel - Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Two CFD Codes

2004-03-08
2004-01-0445
This paper presents velocity and pressure measurements obtained around an isolated wheel in a rotating and stationary configuration. The flow field was investigated using LDA and a total pressure probe in the model scale wind tunnel at IVK/FKFS. Drag and lift were determined for both configurations as well as for the wheel support only. These results were used as a reference for comparing numerical results obtained from two different CFD codes used in the automotive industry, namely STAR-CD™ and PowerFLOW™. The comparison gives a good overall agreement between the experimental and the simulated data. Both CFD codes show good correlation of the integral forces. The influence of the wheel rotation on drag and lift coefficients is predicted well. All mean flow structures which can be found in the planes measured with LDA can be recognized in the numerical results of both codes. Only small local differences remain, which can be attributed to the different CFD codes.
Technical Paper

Further Investigations on Gradient Effects

2004-03-08
2004-01-0670
In automotive wind tunnels with modern road simulation installations boundary layer pre-suction is a widely-used technique for boundary layer control. The consequence of boundary layer pre-suction is an additional pressure gradient in front of the model. In order to investigate the effects of the additional pressure gradient on drag, experiments were conducted with two different models (scale 1:5) in the IVK Model Wind Tunnel. In these experiments the suction velocity of the boundary layer pre-suction served as a parameter to change the static pressure gradient along the test section and was for this purpose adjusted higher and lower than the standard suction velocity. It is shown that the total drag increment due to boundary layer pre-suction consists of at least two parts: the ground simulation increment and the static pressure gradient increment. The ground simulation increment is due to a decrease in the boundary layer thickness and the resulting modified flow beneath the model.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Technique for Underbody Noise Transmission of Wind Noise

2011-05-17
2011-01-1700
Wind noise has become an important indicator for passenger automobile quality. Several transmission paths can be related to different parts of the vehicle exterior. While the greenhouse (side glasses, windshield, seals & others) often dominates the interior noise level above 500 Hz, the contribution coming from the underbody area usually dominates the interior noise spectrum at lower frequencies. This paper describes a framework of numerical tools which is capable of determining realistic underbody turbulent and acoustic loads being generated for typical driving conditions, as well as performing the noise transmission through underbody panels and the propagation of sound to the drivers ear location.
Journal Article

Integrated Numerical and Experimental Approach to Determine the Cooling Air Mass Flow in Different Vehicle Development Stages

2010-04-12
2010-01-0287
This paper presents an integrated numerical and experimental approach to take best possible advantage of the common development tools at hand (1D, CFD and wind tunnel) to determine the cooling air mass flow at the different vehicle development stages. 1D tools can be used early in development when neither 3D data nor wind tunnel models with detailed underhood flow are available. A problem that has to be resolved is the dependency on input data. In particular, the pressure coefficients on the outer surface (i.e. at the air inlet and outlet region) and the pressure loss data of single components are of great importance since the amount of cooling air flow is directly linked to these variables. The pressure coefficients at the air inlet and outlet are not only a function of vehicle configuration but also of driving velocity and fan operation. Both, static and total pressure coefficient, yield different advantages and disadvantages and can therefore both be used as boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Introduction of the AeroSUV-A New Generic SUV Model for Aerodynamic Research

2019-04-02
2019-01-0646
Since the introduction of the DrivAer model, an increasing amount of aerodynamic research and CAE method development activities are based on this detailed generic car body. Due to the Open Access nature of the model, it has not only been quickly adopted by academia but also by several automotive OEMs and CAE software developers. The DrivAer has delivered high quality experimental data to permit validation of existing aerodynamic CAE capabilities and to accelerate the development of new sophisticated numerical methods. Within the last decades, the registration number of SUV, especially in Europe, has increased significantly. Among other things, a large cross-sectional area, an increased ground clearance and larger wheels characterize this kind of vehicle. The DrivAer is not capable of depicting this vehicle category. Therefore, there is a demand for an expansion of this generic vehicle concept.
Journal Article

Investigation of Aerodynamic Drag in Turbulent Flow Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1605
In this paper the influence of different turbulent flow conditions on the aerodynamic drag of a quarter scale model with notchback and estate back rear ends is investigated. FKFS swing® (Side Wind Generator) is used to generate a turbulent flow field in the test section of the IVK model scale wind tunnel. In order to investigate the increase in drag with increasing yaw, a steady state yaw sweep is performed for both vehicle models. The shape of the drag curves vary for each vehicle model. The notchback model shows a more pronounced drag minimum at 0° yaw angle and experiences a more severe increase in drag at increasing yaw when compared to the estate back model. Unsteady time averaged aerodynamic drag values are obtained at two flow situations with different turbulent length scales, turbulence intensities, and yaw angle amplitudes. While the first one is representing light wind, the second one is recreating the presence of strong gusty wind.
Technical Paper

Model Scale Based Process for the Development of Aerodynamic Tire Characteristics

2014-04-01
2014-01-0585
The geometric shape of the tires can have a large influence on the aerodynamic drag of a passenger car as it has been shown already in different publications like for example [1, 2, 3]. However, to optimize the shape of a tire, nowadays quite some effort is needed in terms of wind tunnel time and costs for prototype tires. In this paper an approach to optimize the tire's shape in model scale is described, which can help to reduce both development time and costs. The first step in the development of this method was to verify that the aerodynamic effects of the tire geometry in model scale are comparable to full scale tests. This was achieved by measuring different production tires in full scale and also by measuring the quarter scale version of the same tires. The only difference between the original and the model scale tires was that the scaled tires were not deformable. The results show that the difference between two sets of tires is comparable in full scale and in quarter scale.
Journal Article

New Motion Cueing Algorithm for Improved Evaluation of Vehicle Dynamics on a Driving Simulator

2017-03-28
2017-01-1566
In recent years, driving simulators have become a valuable tool in the automotive design and testing process. Yet, in the field of vehicle dynamics, most decisions are still based on test drives in real cars. One reason for this situation can be found in the fact that many driving simulators do not allow the driver to evaluate the handling qualities of a simulated vehicle. In a driving simulator, the motion cueing algorithm tries to represent the vehicle motion within the constrained motion envelope of the motion platform. By nature, this process leads to so called false cues where the motion of the platform is not in phase or moving in a different direction with respect to the vehicle motion. In a driving simulator with classical filter-based motion cueing, false cues make it considerably more difficult for the driver to rate vehicle dynamics.
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