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Technical Paper

U.S. 2007 - Which Way to Go? Possible Technical Solutions

The exhaust emissions standards for heavy-duty (HD) truck engines in the U.S. are facing a severe reduction of both PM and NOx emission in the year 2007, making extensive exhaust aftertreatment inevitable. Although the final emission limit values for NOx (0.20 g/bhp-hr) and NMHC (0.14 g/bhp-hr) will see a phase-in between 2007 and 2010, the PM emission limits of 0.01 g/bhp-hr will already take full effect in 2007. Engine-out emissions in the range of EURO 5 / U.S. 2002/04 will be achievable through internal measures as described in this paper. To fulfill U.S. 2007 limits, a diesel particulate filter will be necessary. The final limits taking effect in 2010 will only be fulfilled through application of NOx and particulate aftertreatment. To achieve the low engine-out emission levels, this paper will focus on both internal measures (high-EGR combustion systems and partial homogenization) and external aftertreatment systems.
Technical Paper

Transient Drive Cycle Modeling of Supercharged Powertrains for Medium and Heavy Duty On-Highway Diesel Applications

The problem with traditional drive cycle fuel economy analysis is that kinematic (backward looking) models do not account for transient differences in charge air handling systems. Therefore, dynamic (forward looking) 1D performance simulation models were created to predict drive cycle fuel economy which encompass all the transient elements of fully detailed engine and vehicle models. The transient-capable technology of primary interest was mechanical supercharging which has the benefit of improved boost response and "time to torque." The benefits of a supercharger clutch have also been evaluated. The current US class 6-8 commercial vehicle market exclusively uses turbocharged diesel engines. Three vehicles and baseline powertrains were selected based on a high-level review of vehicle sales and the used truck marketplace. Fuel economy over drive cycles was the principal output of the simulation work. All powertrains are based on EPA 2010 emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Tier 2 Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

Due to its high efficiency and superior durability, the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the United States is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies-such as high-pressure, common-rail fuel systems; low-sulfur diesel fuel; oxides of nitrogen (NOx) adsorber catalysts or NACs; and diesel particle filters (DPFs)-allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S.
Technical Paper

Tier 2 Intermediate Useful Life (50,000 Miles) and 4000 Mile Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

Due to its high efficiency and superior durability the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the U.S. is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as high-pressure common-rail fuel systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S.
Technical Paper

The NVH Behavior of Internal Combustion Engines used in Range Extended Electric Vehicles

The electrification of vehicle propulsion has changed the landscape of vehicle NVH. Pure electric vehicles (EV) are almost always quieter than those powered by internal combustion engines. However, one of the key challenges with the development of range extended electric vehicles (ReEV) is the NVH behavior of the vehicle. Specifically, the transition from the EV mode to one where the range extender engine is operational can cause significant NVH issues. In addition, the operation of the range extender engine relative to various driving conditions can also pose significant NVH concerns. In this paper internal combustion engines are examined in terms of their acoustic behavior when used as range extenders. This is done by simulating the vibrations at the engine mounting positions as well as the intake and exhaust orifice noise. By using a transfer path synthesis, interior noise components of the range extenders are calculated from these excitations.
Journal Article

The Contribution of Engine Mechanics to Improved Fuel Economy

Measures for reducing engine friction within the powertrain are assessed in this paper. The included measures work in combination with several new technologies such as new combustion technologies, downsizing and alternative fuels. The friction reduction measures are discussed for a typical gasoline vehicle. If powertrain friction could be eliminated completely, a reduction of 15% in CO2 emissions could be achieved. In order to comply with more demanding CO2 legislations, new technologies have to be considered to meet these targets. The additional cost for friction reduction measures are often lower than those of other new technologies. Therefore, these measures are worth following up in detail.
Technical Paper

Systematic Approach to Analyze and Characterize Pre-ignition Events in Turbocharged Direct-injected Gasoline Engines

Downsized direct-injected boosted gasoline engines with high specific power and torque output are leading the way to reduce fuel consumption in passenger car vehicles while maintaining the same performance when compared to applications with larger naturally aspirated engines. These downsized engines reach brake mean effective pressure levels which are in excess of 20 bar. When targeting high output levels at low engine speeds, undesired combustion events called pre-ignition can occur. These pre-ignition events are typically accompanied by very high cylinder peak pressures which can lead to severe damage if the engine is not designed to withstand these high cylinder pressures. Although these pre-ignition events have been reported by numerous other authors, it seems that their occurrence is rather erratic which makes it difficult to investigate or reliably exclude them.
Journal Article

Strategies for Meeting Phase 2 GHG and Ultra-Low NOx Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

When considered along with Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) requirements, the proposed Air Resource Board (ARB) nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission limit of 0.02 g/bhp-hr will be very challenging to achieve as the trade-off between fuel consumption and NOx emissions is not favorable. To meet any future ultra-low NOx emission regulation, the NOx conversion efficiency during the cold start of the emission test cycles needs to be improved. In such a scenario, apart from changes in aftertreatment layout and formulation, additional heating measures will be required. In this article, a physics-based model for an advanced aftertreatment system comprising of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), an SCR-catalyzed diesel particulate filter (SDPF), a stand-alone selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and an ammonia slip catalyst (ASC) was calibrated against experimental data.
Technical Paper

SOLID SCR®: Demonstrating an Improved Approach to NOx Reduction via a Solid Reductant

Stringent global emissions legislation demands effective NOx reduction strategies, particularly for the aftertreatment, and current typical liquid urea SCR systems achieve efficiencies greater than 90% [1]. However, with such high-performing systems comes the trade-off of requiring a tank of reductant (urea water solution) to be filled regularly, usually as soon as the fuel fillings or as far as oil changes. Advantages of solid reductants, particularly ammonium carbamate, include greater ammonia densities, enabling the reductant refill interval to be extended several multiples versus a given reductant volume of urea, or diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) [2]. An additional advantage is direct gaseous ammonia dosing, enabling reductant injection at lower exhaust temperatures to widen its operational coverage achieving greater emissions reduction potential [3], as well as eliminating deposits, reducing mixing lengths, and avoiding freeze/thaw risks and investments.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Parasitic Losses in Front-End-Accessory-Drive Systems - Part 1

Demanding CO2 and fuel economy regulations are continuing to pressure the automotive industry into considering innovative powertrain and vehicle-level solutions. Powertrain engineers continue to minimize engine internal friction and transmission parasitic losses with the aim of reducing overall vehicle fuel consumption. Strip friction methods are used to determine and isolate components in engines and transmissions with the highest contribution to friction losses. However, there is relatively little focus on friction optimization of Front-End-Accessory-Drive (FEAD) components such as alternators and Air Conditioning (AC) compressors. This paper expands on the work performed by other researchers’ specifically targeting in-depth understanding of system design and operating strategy.
Technical Paper

Predictive GT-Power Simulation for VNT Matching to EIVC Strategy on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

The use of early intake valve closing (EIVC) can lead to improvements in spark-ignition engine efficiency. One of the greatest barriers facing adoption of EIVC for high power-density applications is the challenge of boosting as EIVC strategies reduce volumetric efficiency. Turbochargers with variable nozzle turbines (VNT) have recently been developed for gasoline applications operating at high exhaust gas temperatures. The use of a single VNT as a boost device may provide a lower-cost option compared to two-stage boosting systems or 48 V electronic boost devices for some EIVC applications. A predictive model was created based on engine testing results from a 1.6 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine [1]. The model was tuned so that it predicted burn-rates and end-gas knock over an engine operating map with varying speeds, loads, compression ratios and fuel types.
Journal Article

Pre-Turbo Aftertreatment Position for Large Bore Diesel Engines - Compact & Cost-Effective Aftertreatment with a Fuel Consumption Advantage

Tier 4 emissions legislation is emerging as a clear pre-cursor for widespread adoption of exhaust aftertreatment in off-highway applications. Large bore engine manufacturers are faced with the significant challenge of packaging a multitude of catalyst technologies in essentially the same design envelope as their pre-Tier 4 manifestations, while contending with the fuel consumption consequences of the increased back pressure, as well as the incremental cost and weight associated with the aftertreatment equipment. This paper discusses the use of robust metallic catalysts upstream of the exhaust gas turbine, as an effective means to reduce catalyst volume and hence the weight and cost of the entire aftertreatment package. The primarily steady-state operation of many large bore engine applications reduces the complication of overcoming pre-turbine catalyst thermal inertia under transient operation.
Technical Paper

Potential of the Spray-guided Combustion System in Combination with Turbocharging

Based on the TurboDISI engine presented earlier [1], [2], a new Spray Guided Turbo (SGT) concept with enhanced engine performance was developed. The turbocharged engine was modified towards utilizing a spray-guided combustion system with a central piezo injector location. Higher specific power and torque levels were achieved by applying specific design and cooling solutions. The engine was developed utilizing a state-of-the-art newly developed charge motion design (CMD) process in combination with single cylinder investigations. The engine control unit has a modular basis and is realized using rapid prototyping hardware. Additional fuel consumption potentials can be achieved with high load EGR, use of alternative fuels and a hybrid powertrain. The CO2 targets of the EU (120 g/km by 2012 in the NEDC) can be obtained with a mid-size vehicle applying the technologies presented within this paper.
Journal Article

Operation Strategies for Controlled Auto Ignition Gasoline Engines

Controlled Auto Ignition combustion systems have a high potential for fuel consumption and emissions reduction for gasoline engines in part load operation. Controlled auto ignition is initiated by reaching thermal ignition conditions at the end of compression. Combustion of the CAI process is controlled essentially by chemical kinetics, and thus differs significantly from conventional premixed combustion. Consequently, the CAI combustion process is determined by the thermodynamic state, and can be controlled by a high amount of residual gas and stratification of air, residual gas and fuel. In this paper both fundamental and application relevant aspects are investigated in a combined approach. Fundamental knowledge about the auto-ignition process and its dependency on engine operating conditions are required to efficiently develop an application strategy for CAI combustion.
Journal Article

OBD Diagnostic Strategies for LEVIII Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Concepts

Upcoming motor vehicle emission regulations, such as California's LEVIII, continue to tighten emission limitations in diesel vehicles. These increasingly challenging emission requirements will be met by improving the combustion process (reducing engine-out emissions), as well as improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment efficiency. Furthermore, intricate On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) systems are required to properly diagnose and meet OBD regulation requirements for complex aftertreatment systems. Under these conditions, current monitoring strategies are unable to guarantee reliable detection of partially failed systems. Additionally, new OBD regulations require aftertreatment systems to be diagnosed as a whole. This paper covers potential OBD strategies for LEVIII aftertreatment concepts with regard to regulation compliance and robustness, while striving to use existing sensor concepts.
Technical Paper

Novel Approach to Integration of Turbocompounding, Electrification and Supercharging Through Use of Planetary Gear System

Technologies that provide potential for significant improvements in engine efficiency include, engine downsizing/downspeeding (enabled by advanced boosting systems such as an electrically driven compressor), waste heat recovery through turbocompounding or organic Rankine cycle and 48 V mild hybridization. FEV’s Integrated Turbocompounding/Waste Heat Recovery (WHR), Electrification and Supercharging (FEV-ITES) is a novel approach for integration of these technologies in a single unit. This approach provides a reduced cost, reduced space claim and an increase in engine efficiency, when compared to the independent integration of each of these technologies. This approach is enabled through the application of a planetary gear system. Specifically, a secondary compressor is connected to the ring gear, a turbocompounding turbine or organic Rankine cycle (ORC) expander is connected to the sun gear, and an electric motor/generator is connected to the carrier gear.
Technical Paper

New Exhaust Catalyst Emission Control Systems for Nonroad SI Class I Engines

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has completed a program to demonstrate the feasibility of using integrated catalyst-muffler exhaust systems for nonroad spark ignition gasoline Class I engines (sub-19 kW, less than 225 cc). Integrated catalyst-muffler systems were developed for 4 different Class I engine families. Passive secondary air-injection systems were used with most of the systems to provide an exhaust feed-gas composition that was slightly rich of stoichiometry when used in conjunction with unmodified “Phase 2” carburetor A/F ratio calibrations. Catalyst sizing, PGM loading, and secondary-air venturi design were selected to limit CO oxidation and the typically resultant high heat rejection at high load operating points while still providing good NOx and HC emission control. Infrared thermal imaging was used to assess heat rejection at the EPA A-cycle operational points and during simulated hot soaks for selected configurations.
Technical Paper

NVH Target Cascading from Customer Interface to Vehicle Subsystems

The definition of vehicle and powertrain level targets is one of the first tasks toward establishing where a vehicle will reside with respect to the current or future state of industry. Though development of sound quality metrics is ongoing to better correlate objective data with subjective assessments, target setting at the vehicle level is relatively straightforward. However, realization of these targets depends on effective cascading to system and component levels. Often, component level targets are derived based on experience from earlier development programs, or based on selected characteristics observed during component level benchmarking. An approach is presented here to complement current strategies for component level target definition. This approach involves a systematic concept for definition of component NVH targets based on desired vehicle level performance and a consequent target break down.
Technical Paper

NOx Adsorber Desulfation Techniques for Heavy-Duty On-Highway Diesel Engines

A 5.9 liter medium-heavy-duty diesel engine, equipped with a diesel exhaust emission control system consisting of catalyzed diesel particulate filters (CDPF) and NOx adsorber catalysts arranged in a dual-path configuration, was evaluated with the goal of developing desulfation strategies for in-use NOx adsorber desulfation. NOx adsorber desulfation was accomplished by providing reductant via a secondary exhaust fuel injection system and exhaust flow via an exhaust bypass valve. An alternating restriction of the exhaust flow between the two flow paths allowed reductant injection and adsorber desulfation to occur under very low space velocity conditions. An exhaust bypass valve connecting the dual path configuration upstream of the catalyzed diesel particulate filters allowed controlled addition of exhaust into the desulfating pathway for desulfation method development.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of 12V Lead-Acid Battery for Stop-Start Technology

As part of the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 Light-duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of stop-start technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles. Stop-start technology is widespread in Europe due to high fuel prices and due to stringent EU CO2 emissions standards beginning in 2012. Stop-start has recently appeared as a standard equipment option on high-volume vehicles like the Chevrolet Malibu, Ford Fusion, Chrysler 200, Jeep Cherokee, and Ram 1500 truck. EPA has included stop-start technology in its assessment of CO2-reducing technologies available for compliance with the standards. Simulation and modeling of this technology requires a suitable model of the battery. The introduction of stop-start has stimulated development of 12-volt battery systems capable of providing the enhanced performance and cycle life durability that it requires.