Refine Your Search


Search Results

Technical Paper

W/O Emulsion Realizes Low Smoke and Efficient Operation of DI Engines without High Pressure injection

To improve engine performance parameters such as smoke, NOx, and BSFC in a DI diesel engine, water-in-gas oil emulsified fuel was used without high pressure or high injection rate. It was confirmed that when compared with high pressure and high injection rate operation with gas oil, emulsified fuel gives significant reductions in NOx concentration, improved fuel economy, and reduced smoke density at ordinary injection pressure and retarded timings.
Technical Paper

Theory and Experiments on Air-Entrainment in Fuel Sprays and Their Application to Interpret Diesel Combustion Processes

This paper presents a theory and its experimental validation for air entrainment changes into fuel sprays in DI diesel engines. The theory predicts air entrainment changes for a variety of swirl speeds, number of nozzle holes, nozzle diameters, engine speeds, injection speeds and fuel densities. The formulae of the theory are simple non-dimensional equations, which apply for different sized engines. Experiments were performed to compare theoretical predictions and experimental results in six different engines varying from 85 to 800mm bore. All results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions for shallow-dish piston engines. However the agreement became poor in the case of deep cavity piston engines. With the theory, it is possible to interpret a variety of combustion phenomena in diesel engines, providing additional understanding of diesel combustion processes.
Technical Paper

The Microcrystal Structure of Soot Particulates in the Combustion Chamber of Prechamber Type Diesel Engines

To clarify the microcrystal structure of soot particulate in the combustion chamber, we examined sampling methods which freeze the reaction of sample specimens from the combustion chamber and collected the soot particulates on microgrids. We investigated the microcrystal structure with a high resolution transmission electron microscope. The results were: the particle size distribution and the microcrystal structure of the soot particulates is little different for the cooled freezing method and room temperature sampling. The typical layer plane structure which characterizes graphite carbon is not observed in the exhaust of diesel engines, but some particulates display a somewhat similar layer plane structure. The structure of soot particulate is a turbostratic structure as the electron diffraction patterns show polycrystals. The soot particulates in the combustion chamber is similar to exhaust soot particulates.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Flash Boiling Fuel Injection on Spray Characteristics” Combustion, and Engine Performance in DI and IDI Diesel Engines

This paper deals with the effects of flash-boiling injection of various kinds of fuels on spray characteristics, combustion, and engine performance in DI and IDI diesel engines. It is known that spray characteristics change dramatically at the boiling point of fuel. When the fuel temperature increases above the boiling point, the droplet size decreases apparently and the spray spreads much wider. At higher fuel temperatures, above the boiling point, the apparent effects are a lower smoke density and improved thermal efficiency at higher loads, resulting from the shorter combustion duration; it is thus possible to obtain a markedly improved engine performance in engines with a low air-utilization chamber. Remarkable changes in heat release with the increase in fuel temperature are; an increase in premised combustion quantity and shortening of the combustion duration. The changes in smoke emission and thermal efficiency for different engine types are also considered in this paper.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Properties on Particulate Formation (The Effect of Molecular Structure and Carbon Number)

Exhaust particulate in diesel engines is affected by fuel properties, but the reason for this is not clear. Interest in using low-grade fuels in diesel engines has made it necessary to understand the particulate formation mechanism and factors to decrease it. Particulate formation has been reported to start with thermal cracking of the fuel to lower boiling point hydrocarbons followed by condensation polymerization and production of benzene ring compounds; the formation of particulate takes place via polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This report investigates the amount and configuration of particulate with a fluid reaction tube and in a nitrogen atmosphere, and analyzes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of fuels with different molecular structure and carbon number.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Properties on Diesel Engine Exhaust Particulate Formation

Exhaust particulate in diesel engines are affected by fuel properties, especially the aromatic hydrocarbon content and distillation properties, but the reasons for this are not clear. The process of particulate formation has been reported to start with a thermal cracking of the fuel to lower boiling point hydrocarbons followed by condensation polymerization and production of benzene ring compounds; the formation of particulate takes place via polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The fuel properties affect diesel engine particulate because the thermal cracking and condensation polymerization of various fuels are different.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reductions of Smoke and NOx from a DI Diesel Engine with EGR and Dimethyl Carbonate

Extensive experiments were conducted on a low emission DI diesel engine by using Dimethyl Carbonate (DMC) as an oxygenate fuel additive. The results indicated that smoke reduced almost linearly with fuel oxygen content. Accompanying noticeable reductions of HC and CO were attained, while a small increase in NOx was encountered. The effective reduction in smoke with DMC was maintained with intake charge CO2, which led to low NOx and smoke emissions by the combined use of oxygenated fuel and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Further experiments were conducted on an optically accessible combustion bomb and a thermal cracking set-up to study the mechanisms of DMC addition on smoke reduction.
Technical Paper

Research on a Variable Swirl Intake Port for 4-Valve High-Speed DI Diesel Engines

A variable swirl intake port system for 4 valves/cylinder direct injection diesel engines was developed. This system combines two mutually independent intake ports, one of which is a helical port for generating an ultra-high swirl ratio and the other is a tangential port for generating a low swirl ratio. The tangential port incorporates a swirl control valve that controls the swirl ratio by varying the flow rate. To investigate the performance of the intake port system, steady-state flow tests were conducted in parallel with three-dimensional computations. In conducting the steady-state flow tests, it was found that a paddle wheel flow sensor was not suitable for evaluating the characteristics of the high-swirl port and that it was necessary to use an impulse swirl flow meter.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Smoke and NOx by Strong Turbulence Generated During the Combustion Process in D.I. Diesel Engines

This paper presents results of experiments to reduce smoke emitted from direct Injection diesel engines by strong turbulence generated during the combustion process. The turbulence was created by jets of burned gas from an auxiliary chamber installed in the cylinder head. Strong turbulence, which was induced late in the combustion period, enhanced the mixing of air with unburned fuel and soot, resulting in a remarkable reduction of smoke and particulate; NOx did not show any increase with this system, and thermal efficiency was improved at high loads. The paper also shows that the combination of EGR and water injection with this system effectively reduces the both smoke and NOx.
Technical Paper

Nissan's New Multivalve DI Diesel Engine Series

This paper presents Nissan's new four-valve-per-cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine series consisting of a 2-liter class and 3-liter class. These engine series provide substantially improved power output along with lower noise and vibration levels, which have been traditional drawbacks of DI diesel engines. Nissan developed this engine series in response to the heightened need in recent years for passenger-car DI diesel engines with superior thermal efficiency, a characteristic advantageous for reducing CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

Nature and Reduction of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Engine with Ethanol-Diesel Fuel Blends

Many of the promissing alternative fuels have relatively low cetane numbers, and may-result in combustion variation problems. This paper presents the chracteristics of the cycle-to-cycle combustion variations in diesel engines, and analyzes and evaluates the mechanism. Combustion variations appear in various forms, such as variations in ignition lag, indicated mean effective pressure, maximum combustion pressure, or rate of heat release. These variations are clearly correlated, and it is possible to represent the combustion variations by the standard deviation in the combustion peak pressure. The combustion variations are random (non-periodic), and are affected by ethanol amount, intake air temperature, engine speed and other various operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of NOx Reduction by Ethanol on a Silver-Base Catalyst

Since there is a trade-off relationship between NOx and particulates in exhaust gas emitted from a diesel engine, simultaneous reduction of the amounts of NOx and particulates in a combustion chamber is difficult. However, the amount of particulates produced in the combustion process could be reduced in a state of almost complete combustion, and the amount of NOx produced during the combustion process could be reduced by the use of a catalyst and reducing agent in the exhaust process. It has been demonstrated that the use of ethanol as a reducing agent on a silver-base catalyst in the presence of oxygen is an effective means for reducing NOx, although the mechanism of the reduction has not been elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, an NOx-reduction apparatus was conducted, and model experiments on NOx reduction were carried out in an atmosphere simulating exhaust gas emitted from a diesel engine and at the same catalyst temperature as that in a combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Low Carbon Flower Buildup, Low Smoke, and Efficient Diesel Operation with Vegetable Oils by Conversion to Mono-Esters and Blending with Diesel Oil or Alcohols

The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the feasibility of rapeseed oil and palm oil for diesel fuel substitution in a naturally aspirated D.I. diesel engine, and also to find means to reduce the carbon deposit buildup in vegetable oil combustion. In the experiments, the engine performance, exhaust gas emissions, and carbon deposits were measured for a number of fuels: rapeseed oil, palm oil, methylester of rapeseed oil, and these fuels blended with ethanol or diesel fuel with different fuel temperatures. It was found that both of the vegetable oil fuels generated an acceptable engine performance and exhaust gas emission levels for short term operation, but they caused carbon deposit buildups and sticking of piston rings after extended operation.
Technical Paper

Influence of Emulsified Fuel Properties on the Reduction of BSFC in a Diesel Engine

Micro-explosions and vaporizing behaviors of droplets of various emulsified fuels were investigated to determine the influence of emulsified fuel properties such as water content, water particle size, and viscosity of base fuel on combustion in a diesel engine. The investigation used gas oil, A heavy oil, and B heavy oil mixed with water and evaporated on a hot surface under atmospheric pressure. The influence on the engine performance was also investigated. It was confirmed that the viscosity of the base fuel, the water content, and the water particle size influenced the droplet evaporation on the hot surface and the occurrence and intensity of micro-explosions. There were remarkable differences in the BSFC for emulsified fuels in or outside the range where micro-explosions occurred on the hot surface.
Technical Paper

Formation Process of SOF in the Combustion Chamber of IDI Diesel Engines

Exhaust Particulate emitted from diesel engines is a serious problem form the point of view of the environment and energy saving. Exhaust particulate is consist of dry soot and SOF (soluble organic fraction). To clarify the formation process of SOF in the combustion chamber of diesel engines, first lower temperature column condensed method was investigated. The gas from combustion chamber was collected to the sampling column using this method, and the cracked as well as the condensation polymerized components were analyzed with gas chromatography. The sampling condition of the low temperature column condensation method are length of condensation column 600mm, cooling temperature 198K, and dilution ratio 5. The diesel fuel injected into the combustion chamber, first cracks into lower boiling point hydrocarbons, this is followed by dehydrogenation and formation of benzene ring compounds through condensation polymerization. This is followed by the formation of PAH.
Technical Paper

Experimental Reduction of NOx, Smoke, and BSFC in a Diesel Engine Using Uniquely Produced Water (0 - 80%) to Fuel Emulsion

With the aid of static mixer and non-ionic emulsifying agent, a comparatively stable water-fuel emulsion was obtained. Engine performance in a 4 cycle direct injection engine using these fuels were studied. A large reduction of NOx concentration was obtained over the wide range of engine operation, in spite of increased ignition lag and rapid combustion. Furthermore, improvements of economy and reduction of exhaust smoke were obtained. The reduction of NOx concentration, fuel consumption and smoke were even more remarkable when compared with operating same engine with water fumigation.
Technical Paper

Elimination of Combustion Difficulties in a Glow Plug-Assisted Diesel Engine Operated with Pure Ethanol and Water-Ethanol Mixtures

Forced ignition with glow plugs has great potential for the utilization of alcohol fuels in diesel engines. However, the installation of glow plugs may cause misfiring or knocking in parts of the operating range. This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the ignition characteristics of ethanol in a glow plug-assisted diesel engine; these factors may be classified into two categories: the factors related to the temperature history of the drop lets before contact with the glow plug, and those related to the probability of contact. By optimizing these factors, the combustion difficulties were successfully eliminated over the whole operating range, and engine performance comparable with conventional diesel operation was achieved.
Technical Paper

Effects of Super Heating of Heavy Fuels on Combustion and Performance in DI Diesel Engines

This paper is concerned with the effects of temperature of heavy fuels on combustion and engine performance in a naturally aspirated DI diesel engine. Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions were measured for rapeseed oil, B-heavy oil, and diesel fuel at fuel temperatures from 40°C to 400°C. With increased fuel temperature, mainly from improved efficiency of combustion there were significant reductions in the specific energy consumption and smoke emissions. It was found that the improvements were mainly a function of the fuel viscosity, and it was independent of the kind of fuel. The optimum temperature of the fuels with regard to specific energy consumption and smoke emission is about 90°C for diesel fuel, 240°C for B-heavy oil, and 300°C for rapeseed oil. At these temperatures, the viscosities of the fuels show nearly identical value, 0.9 - 3 cst. The optimum viscosity tends to increase slightly with increases in the swirl ratio in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Effects of Combustion and Injection Systems on Unburnt HC and Particulate Emissions from a DI Diesel Engine

This paper is a systematic investigation of the effects of combustion and injection systems on hydrocarbon(HC) and particulate emissions from a DI diesel engine. Piston cavity diameter, swirl ratio, number of injection nozzle openings, and injection direction are varied as the experimental parameters, and the constituents in the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the particulate were analyzed. The results show that the emission characteristics of deep dish chambers greatly differ from those of shallow dish chambers varying with the number of nozzle openings, the injection direction, and swirl intensity. The HC analysis shows mainly low carbon number gaseous HC constituents, and there is a tendency towards increasing polynucleation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon(PAH) in SOF with increasing soot formation.
Technical Paper

Description and Analysis of Diesel Engine Rate of Combustion and Performance Using Wiebe's Functions

Two laboratory engines, one direct, injection and one indirect injection, were operated for a range of speeds, loads, injection timings, fuels, and steady and transient conditions. Rate of combustion data were derived and analyzed using a double Wiebe's function approximation. It is shown that three of the six function parameters are constant for a wide range of conditions and that the other three can be expressed as linear functions of the amount of fuel injected during ignition lag. Engine noise, smoke, and thermal efficiency correlate with the parameters describing the amount of premixed combustion and diffusive combustion duration. These characteristics may be optimized by reducing the quantity of premixed combustion while maintaining the duration of diffusive combustion to less than 60°CA.