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Journal Article

Visualization of Oxidation of Soot Nanoparticles Trapped on a Diesel Particulate Membrane Filter

2011-04-12
2011-01-0602
Through microscopic visualization experiments, a process generally known as depth filtration was shown to be caused by surface pores. Moreover, the existence of a soot cake layer was an important advantage for filtration performance because it could trap most of the particulates. We proposed an ideal diesel particulate filter (DPF), in which a silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticle membrane (made from a mixture of 80 nm and 500 nm powders) instead of a soot cake was sintered on the DPF wall surface; this improved the filtration performance at the beginning of the trapping process and reduced energy consumption during the regeneration process. The proposed filter was called a diesel particulate membrane filter (DPMF). A diesel fuel lamp was used in the trapping process to verify the trapping and oxidation mechanisms of ultrafine particulate matter. Thus, the filtration performance of the membrane filters was shown to be better than that of conventional DPFs.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Combustion Phenomena in Regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filter

2003-03-03
2003-01-0836
Combustion phenomena in the regeneration of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were clarified through a visualization experiment, using a half-cylindrical wall-flow DPF covered by a quartz glass plate. At a constant oxygen concentration (8.5% and 10% in the current study) of a working gas used for regeneration, in the cases of large particulate masses and high working gas temperatures, the particulate matter trapped on the filter surface is burned in a narrow reaction zone which can be observed as a high brightness zone moving slowly toward the downstream side. Just after the reaction zone passes, a sharp temperature peak is detected and there remains no particulate matter on the filter surface. Furthermore, the particulate matter is ignited first around the middle of the DPF, and then, the reaction zone propagates toward both the upstream and the downstream sides.
Technical Paper

Soot Oxidation Characteristics of SiC Nanoparticle Membrane Filters

2012-04-16
2012-01-0848
A diesel particulate membrane filter (DPMF) has good trapping efficiency of soot and reduces the pressure loss through the soot accumulation process on the diesel particulate filter wall. The activation energy reduction effect of the soot oxidation reaction by DPMF was clarified. The membrane consists of SiC nanoparticles with a diameter of 10-100 nm. A thin oxide layer is formed on the SiC particle surface, and nanoscale noble metal particles are distributed on the surface. The reduction mechanism for the activation energy was investigated in detail. Nanoscale soot was accumulated on DPMF from a diesel lamp. Furthermore, the soot oxidation in the regeneration process was observed using an optical microscope. An Arrhenius plot was made from the change of the concentration of the product gases CO and CO₂ with respect to time. The performance and the temperature dependence of oxygen desorption on the oxide layer was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS).
Technical Paper

Scanning Electron Microscopic Visualization of Transition from Surface Pore Filtration to Cake Filtration Inside Diesel Particulate Filter Walls

2015-04-14
2015-01-1018
Surface pores that are open to the inlet channel below the surface play a particularly important role in the filtration of particulate matter (i.e., soot) inside the walls of a diesel particulate filter (DPF); they are closely related to the pressure drop and filtration efficiency through the DPF as well as the performance of the regeneration process. In this study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to dynamically visualize the soot deposition process at the particle scale as “time-lapse” images corresponding to the different increases in the pressure drop at each time step. The soot was first trapped at the deepest areas of the surface pores because the porous channels in this area were constricted by silicon carbide grains; soot dendrite structures were observed to grow and finally cause obstructions here.
Journal Article

Scanning Electron Microscopic Visualization of Bridge Formation inside the Porous Channels of Diesel Particulate Filters

2016-10-24
2016-01-9079
Time-lapse images of particulate matter (PM) deposition on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) at the PM-particle scale were obtained via field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). This particle scale time-series visualization showed the detailed processes of PM accumulation inside the DPF. First, PM introduced into a micro-pore of the DPF wall was deposited onto the surface of SiC grains composing the DPF, where it formed dendritic structures. The dendrite structures were locally grown at the contracted flow area between the SiC grains by accumulation of PM, ultimately constructing a bridge and closing the porous channel. To investigate the dominant parameters governing bridge formation, the filtration efficiency by Brownian diffusion and by interception obtained using theoretical filtration efficiency analysis of a spherical collector model were compared with the visualization results.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Trapping and Oxidation on a Catalyst Membrane

2010-04-12
2010-01-0808
Particulate matter (PM) trapping and oxidation in regeneration on the surface of a diesel particulate catalyst-membrane filter (DPMFs) were investigated in detail using an all-in-focus optical microscope. The DPMF consists of two-layer sintered filters, where a SiC-nanoparticle membrane (made from a mixture of 80 nm and 500 nm powders) covers the surface of a conventional SiC filter. Using a visualization experiment, it was shown that PMs were trapped homogeneously along fine surface pores of the membrane's top surface, whereas in the regeneration process, the particulates in contact with the membrane may have been oxidized with some catalytic effect of the SiC nanoparticles. A soot cake was reacted continuously on the nanoparticles since pushed by a gas flow. The oxidation temperature of particulate trapped on the SiC-nanoparticle membrane was about 75 degrees lower than that on the conventional diesel particulate filters (DPF) without a catalyst.
Journal Article

Microscopic Visualization of PM Trapping and Regeneration in Micro-Structural Pores of a DPF Wall

2009-04-20
2009-01-1476
Trapping and regeneration processes in a SiC wall-flow diesel particulate filter (DPF) without a catalyst were investigated in detail through microscopic visualization. By microscopic observation of the cross section and surface, the transition from depth filtration to surface filtration could be observed clearly. The open pores on the wall surface were strongly related to the filtration depth of diesel particulate matter (PM). During the regeneration process, after the soot cake was burnt out, the particulates trapped inside the surface pores were oxidized. As a result, the particulate trapping and oxidation behaviors were strongly dependent on the microstructural surface pores.
Journal Article

Investigation of Soot Oxidation Carried out on Membrane Filters Composed of SiC Nanoparticles

2015-09-01
2015-01-2015
The diesel particulate membrane filter (DPMF) is a good solution to the problem of high pressure drop that exists across diesel particulate filters (DPFs) as a result of the soot trapping process. Moreover, DPMFs that have a membrane layer composed of SiC nanoparticles can reduce the oxidation temperature of soot and the apparent activation energy. The SiC nanoparticles have an oxide layer on their surface, with a thickness less than 10 nm. From the visualization of soot oxidation on the surface of SiC nanoparticles by an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM), soot oxidation is seen to occur at the interface between the soot and oxide layers. The soot oxidation temperature dependency of the contact area between soot and SiC nanoparticles was evaluated using a temperature programmed reactor (TPR). The contact area between soot and SiC nanoparticles was varied by changing the ratio of SiC nanoparticles and carbon black (CB), which was used as an alternative to soot.
Technical Paper

Impact of TiO2 and V2O5 on Sintered Mullite Porous Microstructure and Soot Oxidation Kinetics Using SEM and TGA

2019-03-25
2019-01-1407
The exhaust emissions from diesel combustion are the sources of particulate matter emitted to the atmosphere, which are components of air pollution that implicated in human health such as lung cancer. At present the diesel particulate filter can remove PM from the exhaust gas before emitted to the atmosphere. This research is investigating morphology and structure of acicular mullite to develop the fabrication process filter in order to study particulate matters trapping and oxidation mechanisms. This paper used two main substances to study the structure of diesel particulate filter (DPFs); Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and Silicon dioxide (SiO2). These are mainly in the conventional DPFs. The variable substances are Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Vanadium oxide (V2O5), which added to investigate and produce the acicular mullite DPFs structure. The mullite samples were sintered at 1300 oC with holding time of 1 h.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Biodiesel Particle Emission in Trapping and Regeneration Processes on Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filter

2015-11-17
2015-32-0821
As well-known, the diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency at the same load as compared with internal combustion engine but its disadvantage is particulate matter (PM) emitted to the atmosphere. The studies of this paper were divided into two parts. The first part studied the quantity of PM from the both diesel and biodiesel fuels at 80% load (2400 rpm) by the trapping process on diesel particulate filter (DPF) used in a partial flow dilution tunnel. The second part studied the regeneration process of PM under the flow rate of oxygen and nitrogen gas of 13.5 L/min with 10%, 15%, and 21% of oxygen gas. The result showed that amount of PM from biodiesel fuel was lower around two times than PM from diesel fuel. The duration in regeneration process of biodiesel's PM was shorter than diesel while increasing of oxygen percentage can reduce regeneration time.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Soot Oxidation at the Interface between Soot and Silicon-Oxy-Carbide with Embedded Single Nanosized Pt Particles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0516
A diesel particulate membrane filter (DPMF) offers good trapping efficiency of soot and reduces the pressure loss through the soot-trapping process. We found that one specific design of DPMF has the effect of reducing the apparent activation energy of the soot oxidation. The membrane is made of SiC nanoparticles with a diameter of 10-100 nm, which are covered with a thin silicon-oxy-carbide layer with a thickness of about 5 nm. The apparent activation energy of soot oxidation on the DPMF was reduced by 30-40 kJ/mol than conventional SiC-DPF. Furthermore, the light-off temperature of soot oxidation on the DPMF (with single nanosized Pt) is about 100°C lower than that of the DPMF (without Pt). The single nanosized Pt particles are embedded in the silicon-oxy-carbide layer. The formation of additional Pt is different from that which takes place in a conventional catalyzed soot filter (CSF). In a conventional CSF, the surface of the Pt particles is exposed to the atmosphere.
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