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Technical Paper

Wall Heat Flux on Impinging Diesel Spray Flame: Effect of Hole Size and Rail Pressure under Similar Injection Rate Condition

The fuel economy of recent small size DI diesel engines has become more and more efficient. However, heat loss is still one of the major factors contributing to a substantial amount of energy loss in engines. In order to a full understanding of the heat loss mechanism from combustion gas to cylinder wall, the effect of hole size and rail pressure under similar injection rate conditions on transient heat flux to the wall were investigated. Using a constant volume vessel with a fixed impingement wall, the study measured the surface heat flux of the wall at the locations of spray flame impingement using three thin-film thermocouple heat-flux sensors. The results showed that the characteristic of local heat flux and soot distribution was almost similar by controlling similar injection rate except for the small nozzle hole size with increasing injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Fuel-Air Mixing Processes in a Small D.I. Diesel Engine Using the Liquid injection Technique

Simplified visualization of the fuel spray developing process in a small D.I. diesel engine was made by the liquid injection technique. In this technique, a liquid fuel was injected into another liquid to simulate injection into a high pressure gaseous atmosphere. For obtaining spray characteristics in the liquid similar to a diesel spray in a high-pressure gaseous atmosphere, the similarity principles based on the Reynolds number of the fuel flow at a nozzle hole and empirical equations of the spray penetration including the breakup length were introduced in this study. Especially, the injector was newly designed for the liquid injection technique based on these similarity principles. The behavior of the spray in a swirling flow was investigated. The spray with different breakup length shows different behavior in the same swirling flow.
Technical Paper

Vaporization and Turbulence Characteristics of High Pressure Gasoline Sprays Impinging on a Wall

To get a better understanding of the characteristics of the high pressure gasoline sprays impinging on a wall, a fundamental study was conducted in a high-temperature high-pressure constant volume vessel under the simulated engine conditions of in-cylinder pressures, temperatures, and wall temperatures. The injection pressure was varied from 20 to 120 MPa. The spray tip penetration, vapor mass distribution, and vaporization rate were quantitatively measured with the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique. The velocity fields of the wall-impinging sprays under vaporizing conditions were measured with the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique using silicone oil droplets as tracers. The effects of injection pressure and spray/wall interactions on spray characteristics were investigated. The results showed that the increased injection pressure improved penetration, vaporization, and turbulence of the sprays.
Technical Paper

Vapor/Liquid Behaviors in Split-Injection D.I. Diesel Sprays in a 2-D Model Combustion Chamber

Some experimental investigations have shown that the trade-off curve of NOx vs. particulate of a D.I. diesel engine with split-injection strategies can be shifted closer to the origin than those with a single-pulse injection, thus reducing both particulate and NOx emissions significantly. It is clear that the injection mass ratios and the dwell(s) between injection pulses have significant effects on the combustion and emissions formation processes in the D.I. diesel engine. However, how and why these parameters significantly affect the engine performances remains unexplained. The effects of both injection mass ratios and dwell between injections on vapor/liquid distributions in the split-injection diesel sprays impinging on a flat wall have been examined in our previous work.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Measurements of the Fuel Vapor Concentration in the Combustion Chamber of a SI Engine with Laser Rayleigh Scattering

An experimental study was made of the two-dimensional distributions of the fuel vapor concentration simulated by Freon-12 in the combustion chamber of a SI engine. Laser Rayleigh scattering was applied for this remote, nonintrusive and highly space- and time-resolved measurement. The original engine was modified to introduce YAG laser-induced sheet light into the combustion chamber and the scattered light was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated double-microchannel plate image intensifier. The results showed that the fuel vapor concentration was highly heterogeneous during the intake stroke and the inhomogeneity decreased in the compression stroke. But, even at the end of the compression stroke, a number of small lumps of inhomogeneous mixture still existed randomly in the engine combustion chamber, which is assumed to cause the heterogeneity of the mixture strength field at the spark discharge.
Technical Paper

Total In-Cylinder Sampling Experiment on Emission Formation Processes in a D.I. Diesel Engine

An experimental study on emission formation processes, such as these of nitric oxide, particulate and total hydrocarbon in a small direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine was carried out by using a newly developed total in-cylinder sampling technique. The sampling method consisted of rapidly opening a blowdown valve attached to the bottom of the piston bowl, and quickly transferring most of the in-cylinder contents into a large sampling chamber below the piston. No modification of the intake and exhaust ports in a cylinder head was required for the installation of the blowdown apparatus. The sampling experiment gave a history of spatially-averaged emission concentrations in the cylinder. The effects of several engine variables, such as the length-to-diameter ratio of the nozzle hole, the ratio of the piston bowl diameter to the cylinder bore and the intake swirl ratio, on the emission formation processes were investigated.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Spray Distributions in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Experiments and modeling of a spray impinged onto a cavity wall of a simulated piston were performed under simulated diesel engine conditions (pressure and density) at an ambient temperature. The diesel fuel was delivered from a Bosch-type injection pump to a single-hole nozzle, the hole being drilled in the same direction as the original five-hole nozzle. The fuel was injected into a high-pressure bomb in which an engine combustion chamber, composed of a piston, a cylinder head and a cylinder liner, was installed. Distributions of the spray impinged on the simulated combustion chamber were observed from various directions while changing some of the experimental parameters, such as combustion chamber shape, nozzle projection and top-clearance. High-speed photography was used in the constant volume bomb to examine the effect of these parameters on the spray distributions.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Visualization for Calculated Distributions of Diesel Spray and Flame in the Combustion Chamber of a D.I. Diesel Engine

Three-Dimensional visualization technique based on volume rendering method has been developed in order to translate a calculated result of diesel combustion simulation into an realistically spray and flame image. This paper presents an overview of diesel combustion model which has been developed at Hiroshima University, a description of the three-dimensional visualization technique, and some examples of spray and flame image generated by this visualization technique.
Technical Paper

Spray and Mixture Properties of Hole-Type Injector for D. I. Gasoline Engine-Comparison of Experiment and CFD Simulation-

An experimental and numerical study was conducted on the spray and mixture properties of a hole-type injector for direct injection (D. I.) gasoline engines. The Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was adopted to simultaneously measure the spatial concentration distributions and the mass of the liquid and vapor phases in the fuel spray injected into a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel. The experimental results were compared to the numerical calculation results using three-dimensional CFD and the multi-objective optimization. In the numerical simulation, the design variable of the spray model was optimized by choosing spray tip penetration, and mass of liquid and vapor phases as objective functions.
Technical Paper

Spray and Flame Behaviors of Ethanol-Gasoline Blend Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for DISI Engine

Different ethanol-gasoline blended fuels, namely the E0 (100% gasoline), E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline mixed in volume basis) and E100 (100% ethanol) were injected by a valve-covered-orifice (VCO) hole-type nozzle in a condition simulating the near top dead center (TDC). Two typical injection pressures of 10 and 20MPa were adopted to clarify the spray and flame behaviors. The correlation of the upstream unburned fuel and the flame propagation was analyzed by the high-speed imaging of shadowgraph. Moreover, the effects of ignition timing and location on the flame propagation were discussed based on the imaging of OH* chemiluminescence.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Group-hole Nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine

Reduction of orifice diameter of nozzle is advantageous to the fuel atomization in a D.I. diesel engine. However, the diameter reduction is usually accompanied with decrease of spray tip penetration, thus worsening fuel spatial-distribution and fuel-air mixing. In this paper, a group-hole nozzle concept was proposed to solve the problem resulting from minimization of orifice diameter. Compared to the conventional multi-hole nozzle, group-hole nozzle has a series group of orifices, and each group consists of two micro-orifices with a small spatial interval and small angle. For examining the characteristics of the spray injected by the group-hole nozzle, the ultraviolet-visible laser absorption-scattering (LAS) imaging technique was adopted to determine vapor concentration and droplets density as well as other spray characteristics such as spray angle and penetration of both vapor and liquid phases.
Technical Paper

Split Injection Spray Development, Mixture Formation, and Combustion Processes in a Diesel Engine Piston Cavity: Rig Test and Real Engine Results

The objectives of this study are to investigate the effects of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) strategies with split injection on soot emission characteristics. The split injection conditions included three injection intervals (1.1 ms, 1.3 ms, and 1.5 ms) and three injection quantity fraction ratios (Q1/Q2 = 10.0/14.6 mm3/st, 15.2/9.4 mm3/st, and 20.0/4.6 mm3/st). The results in real engine tests showed that shorter injection intervals, and the 1st injection quantity contributes to reduced soot emissions. A rig test with high-pressure and high-temperature constant-volume vessel (CVV) and a two-dimensional (2D) model piston cavity were used to determine correlations between injection conditions and soot emissions. During the rig test, fuel was injected into the CVV by a single-hole nozzle under split injection strategies. The injection strategies include the same injection intervals and quantity fraction ratios as in the real engine test.
Journal Article

Small Injection Amount Fuel Spray Characteristics Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine

Spray characteristics under very small injection amount injected by the hole-type nozzle for a D.I. Diesel engine were investigated using the spray test rig consisting a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel with optical accesses and a common rail injection system. The Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was used to visualize the liquid and vapor phase distributions in the evaporating spray. In the very small injection amount condition of the evaporating and free (no wall impingement) spray, the both spray tip penetration and spray angle are larger than those of the non-evaporating free spray. This tendency contradicts the previous observation of the diesel spray with large injection amount and the quasi steady state momentum theory. In the case of the spray impinging on a 2-dimensional piston cavity wall, the spray tip penetration of the evaporating spray is larger than that of the non-evaporating spray.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Concentration Measurement of Vapor and Liquid in an Evaporating Diesel Spray

A new technique was proposed for the simultaneous measurement of the concentration of fuel vapor and liquid in an evaporating diesel spray injected into a high temperature and high pressure environment. This technique was based on the principle of the absorption of ultraviolet laser light by fuel vapor and the scattering of visible laser light by fuel droplets in the diesel spray. For this principle, α-methylnaphthalene was used as a test fuel. Measuring the transmissivity of ultraviolet and visible laser lights absorbed and scattered by β-methylnaphthalene spray made it possible to analyze the fuel vapor concentration, droplets density and the mixture temperature in the diesel spray. A computerized tomographic transfer technique was also adopted to analyze three-dimensional fuel concentration distribution in the spray.
Technical Paper

Simplified Three-Dimensional Modeling of Mixture Formation and Combustion in a D.I. Diesel Engine

This paper describes a simplified three-dimensional modeling of the mixture formation and combustion processes in a direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine. The fuel-air mixing and combustion processes in the D.I. diesel engine can be characterized by the combined effects of some processes, such as spray trajectory, fuel vaporization, gas motion, combustion, and dispersion of gaseous components and enthalpy. Each process was computed by a simple sub-model based on the experimental results and empirical equations. The dispersion process was, however, computed by solving the conservation equations of the gaseous components and enthalpy by the finite difference technique. The sub-models were combined for predicting the three-dimensional distributions of the gaseous components and the temperature in the combustion chamber, and finally the cylinder pressure, heat release rate, engine performance and pollutant emissions (NO and soot).
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of Liquid and Vapor Phase Concentration Distributions in a D.I. Gasoline Spray by the Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) Technique

To get quantitative measurements of liquid and vapor phase concentration distributions in a gasoline spray, a laser-based absorption and scattering (LAS) technique was developed. The LAS technique adopts ultraviolet and visible lasers as light sources and a test fuel, which absorbs the ultraviolet light but does not absorb the visible light, instead of gasoline. The LAS principle is based on the incident light extinction in the ultraviolet band due to both vapor absorption and droplets scattering, whereas in the visible band, the incident light extinction is due only to the droplet scattering. The absorption spectra and molar absorption coefficients of the candidate test fuels including p-xylene, benzene and toluene, all of which have physical properties similar to gasoline, were investigated, and p-xylene was finally selected as a test fuel. Measurement accuracy of the LAS technique was discussed.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of Droplets and Vapor Concentration Distributions in Diesel Sprays by Processing UV and Visible Images

In order to measure the droplets and vapor concentration inside a fuel spray, a dual-wavelength laser absorption-scattering technique was developed using the second harmonic (532nm) and the fourth harmonic (266nm) of a Nd:YAG laser and using dimethylnaphthalene as the test fuel. The investigation results show that dimethylnaphthalene, which has physical properties similar to diesel fuel, is almost transparent to visible light near 532nm and is a strong absorber of ultraviolet light near 266nm. Based on this result, the vapor concentration in a fuel spray can be determined by the two separate measurements: a transmission measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength to detect the droplets optical thickness and a transmission measurement at an absorbing wavelength to detect the joint vapor and droplets optical thickness. The droplets density can be determined by extinction imaging through the transmission at the non-absorbing wavelength.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Imaging of the Fuel Concentration in a SI Engine with Laser Rayleigh Scattering

Quantitative imaging of the fuel concentration distribution was made in the combustion chamber of a propane-fueled spark ignition (SI) engine with the employment of laser-sheet-induced Rayleigh scattering technique for realizing the remote, nonintrusive and highly space- and time-resolved measurement. The original engine was modified to introduce YAG laser-induced sheet light into the combustion chamber and the scattered light was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated double-micro- channel plate image intensifier. The measurements were done at the crank angle of 270°ATDC in the combustion chamber of the engine motored at 200rpm with an air fuel ratio of 13 for various injection timing, injection direction and intake flow. The results show that with an appropriate matching of fuel injection timing, injection direction and intake flow, a stratified distribution of the fuel concentration can be realized.
Technical Paper

PLIF Measurements of the Cyclic Variation of Mixture Concentration in a SI Engine

Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was employed to perform the quantitative measurements of the cyclic variation of mixture concentration in the combustion chamber of a spark ignition (SI) engine. Nitrogen dioxide was used as the fluorescence tracer to simulate the fuel vapor. A Nd:YAG laser operated at its second harmonic wavelength was employed as the light source. The original engine was modified to introduce laser sheet light into the combustion chamber and the induced fluorescence was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated image intensifier. The measurements were done at the engine crank angles of 180° ∼ 300° ATDC with the engine speeds of 200 ∼ 400 rpm and the injection timings of -70 °, 50° and 100° ATDC. A theoretical analysis was made to describe the cyclically varying characteristics of the mixture concentration.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analyses of the Injection Characteristics of Dimethyl Ether with a D. I. Diesel Injection System

The fuel injection characteristics of Dimethyl Ether(DME) were calculated and compared with the calculated results of diesel fuel using a simulation model of an in-line diesel injection system in order to clarify the differences between the injection characteristics of the two fuels. Moreover, numerical analyses for the DME injection were performed while changing the fuel parameters and the injection system parameters in order to estimate the effects of these parameters on the fuel injection characteristics. The effects of some of these parameters were evaluated by experimental results conducted in a constant volume vessel. Furthermore, the spray tip penetration was calculated using the computed results of the injection pressure. As a result of this study, the injection characteristics of the DME fuel are basically confirmed. By the macroscopic analyses of these spray characteristics, the DME spray behavior in a combustion chamber can be estimated.