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Technical Paper

Virtual Powertrain Installation for Diesel Engine Sound Quality Development in a Light Duty Vehicle Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-0024
Increased customer expectation for NVH refinement creates a significant challenge for the integration of Diesel powertrains into passenger vehicles that might have been initially developed for gasoline engine applications. A significant factor in the refinement of Diesel powertrain sound quality is calibration optimization for NVH, which is often constrained by performance, emissions and fuel economy requirements. Vehicle level enablers add cost and weight to the vehicle and are generally bounded by vehicle architecture, particularly when dealing with a carry-over vehicle platform, as is often the case for many vehicle programs. These constraints are compounded by the need to make program critical sound package content decisions well before the availability of prototype vehicles with the right powertrain. In this paper, a case study on NVH development for integration of a light duty Diesel powertrain is presented.
Technical Paper

Vehicle NVH Evaluations and NVH Target Cascading Considerations for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2015-06-15
2015-01-2362
The increasing trend toward electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has created unique challenges for NVH development and refinement. Traditionally, characterization of in-vehicle powertrain noise and vibration has been assessed through standard operating conditions such as fixed gear engine speed sweeps at varied loads. Given the multiple modes of operation which typically exist for HEVs, characterization and source-path analysis of these vehicles can be more complicated than conventional vehicles. In-vehicle NVH assessment of an HEV powertrain requires testing under multiple operating conditions for identification and characterization of the various issues which may be experienced by the driver. Generally, it is necessary to assess issues related to IC engine operation and electric motor operation (running simultaneously with and independent of the IC engine), under both motoring and regeneration conditions.
Technical Paper

The NVH Behavior of Internal Combustion Engines used in Range Extended Electric Vehicles

2013-05-13
2013-01-2002
The electrification of vehicle propulsion has changed the landscape of vehicle NVH. Pure electric vehicles (EV) are almost always quieter than those powered by internal combustion engines. However, one of the key challenges with the development of range extended electric vehicles (ReEV) is the NVH behavior of the vehicle. Specifically, the transition from the EV mode to one where the range extender engine is operational can cause significant NVH issues. In addition, the operation of the range extender engine relative to various driving conditions can also pose significant NVH concerns. In this paper internal combustion engines are examined in terms of their acoustic behavior when used as range extenders. This is done by simulating the vibrations at the engine mounting positions as well as the intake and exhaust orifice noise. By using a transfer path synthesis, interior noise components of the range extenders are calculated from these excitations.
Technical Paper

Target Development for Transmission and Electric Motor NVH

2019-06-05
2019-01-1554
It is a common practice to conduct NVH fingerprinting and benchmarking assessments at the powertrain level, to understand source level noise and vibration. To assess the NVH influence of engine, e-motor, and transmission, sub-system testing is often conducted in addition to full powertrain testing. These powertrain or sub-system investigations provide valuable information regarding the status of “source” level excitations relative to targets and / or competitive powertrains. In the case of transmissions and e-machines, it is particularly important to understand source level tonal content and how this will be perceived at the vehicle level. However, variation in component design results in differences in order content, which complicates the process of objectively comparing multiple products. Multiple methods are presented here for characterizing tonal content of transmission and e-machines, based on assessments conducted in a component hemi-anechoic dynamometer test cell.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality and Engine Performance Development Utilizing Air-to-Air Simulation and Interior Noise Synthesis

2003-05-05
2003-01-1652
The sound quality and performance of an automotive engine are both significantly influenced by the “air-to-air” system, i.e., the intake system, the exhaust system, and the engine gas dynamics. Only a full systems approach can result in an optimized air-to-air system, which fulfills engine performance requirements, overall sound pressure level targets for airborne vehicle noise, as well as sound quality demands. This paper describes an approach, which considers the intake system, engine, and exhaust system within one CAE model that can be utilized for engine performance calculations as well as acoustic simulations. Examples comparing simulated and measured sound are discussed. Finally, the simulated sound (e.g., at the tailpipe of the exhaust system) is combined with an interior noise simulation technique to evaluate its influence inside the vehicle's interior.
Technical Paper

Sound Character of Electric Vehicles

2011-05-17
2011-01-1728
The electrification of vehicle propulsion has caused a significant change in many areas including the world of vehicle acoustics. Comments from the media currently range from “silently hums the future” to “electric car roars with V8 sound”. Decades of experience in designing brand-specific vehicle sound based on noise and vibration generated by combustion engines cannot be simply transferred to the upcoming vehicles driven purely by electric powertrains. Although electric vehicles are almost always considerably quieter than those powered by internal combustion engines, the interior noise is characterized by high-frequency noise components which can be subjectively perceived as annoying and unpleasant. Moreover, such disturbing noise is no longer masked by combustion engine noise. Fundamental questions regarding the sound design of electric vehicles have yet to be answered: it remains unclear what exactly the interior noise of an electric vehicle should sound like.
Technical Paper

Shifter Cable Vibration Transfer and Kinematic Simulation: Case Study

2005-05-16
2005-01-2379
The shifter lever is one of the main customer contact points in the vehicle. Vibration levels at this contact point have an effect on perceived vehicle quality. For this reason, shifter lever vibration and the corresponding transfer paths from the transmission to the shifter lever need to be considered during vehicle development. On a recent program, experimental measurements identified the shifter cable to be a significant transfer path for shifter lever vibration. An integrated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) and experimental effort was undertaken to model and optimize the shifter lever and cable assembly for reduced vibration. Experimental data was used to better understand the vibration phenomenon, set boundary conditions for the CAE modeling, and for correlation. The CAE model contains the shifter lever assembly and a detailed cable assembly model.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Level Target Setting for Impulsive Noise based on Interior Noise Levels

2015-06-15
2015-01-2295
The definition of vehicle and powertrain level NVH targets is one of the first tasks toward establishing where a vehicle's NVH behavior will reside with respect to the current or future state of industry. Realization of vehicle level NVH targets relies on a combination of competitive powertrain (source) and vehicle (path) NVH performance. Assessment of vehicle NVH sensitivity is well understood, and can be accomplished through determination of customer interface NVH response to measured excitations at the source input locations. However, development of appropriate powertrain source targets can be more difficult, particularly related to sound quality. This paper discusses various approaches for definition of powertrain targets for sound quality, with a specific focus on impulsive noise.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Electric Vehicle Exterior Noise for Pedestrian Safety and Sound Quality

2017-06-05
2017-01-1889
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles do not typically utilize IC engines for low-speed operation. Under these low-speed operating conditions, the vehicles are much quieter than conventional IC engine-powered vehicles, making their approach difficult to detect by pedestrians. To mitigate this safety concern, many manufacturers have synthesized noise (using exterior speakers) to increase detection distance. Further, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has provided recommendations pursuant to the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 for such exterior noise signatures to ensure detectability.
Technical Paper

NVH Target Cascading from Customer Interface to Vehicle Subsystems

2013-05-13
2013-01-1980
The definition of vehicle and powertrain level targets is one of the first tasks toward establishing where a vehicle will reside with respect to the current or future state of industry. Though development of sound quality metrics is ongoing to better correlate objective data with subjective assessments, target setting at the vehicle level is relatively straightforward. However, realization of these targets depends on effective cascading to system and component levels. Often, component level targets are derived based on experience from earlier development programs, or based on selected characteristics observed during component level benchmarking. An approach is presented here to complement current strategies for component level target definition. This approach involves a systematic concept for definition of component NVH targets based on desired vehicle level performance and a consequent target break down.
Technical Paper

NVH Refinement of Diesel Powered Sedans with Special Emphasis on Diesel Clatter Noise and Powertrain Harshness

2007-05-15
2007-01-2378
NVH refinement of passenger vehicles is crucial to customer acceptance of contemporary vehicles. This paper describes the vehicle NVH development process, with specific examples from a Diesel sedan application that was derived from gasoline engine-based vehicle architecture. Using an early prototype Diesel vehicle as a starting point, this paper examines the application of a Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) technique in the development process. Accordingly, structureborne and airborne noise shares are analyzed in the time-domain under both steady-state and transient test conditions. The results are used to drive countermeasure development to address structureborne and airborne noise refinement. Examples are provided to highlight the refinement process for “Diesel knocking” under idle as well as transient test conditions. Specifically, the application of VINS to understanding the influence of high frequency dynamic stiffness of hydro-mounts on Diesel clatter noise is examined.
Technical Paper

NVH Aspects of Electric Drive Unit Development and Vehicle Integration

2019-06-05
2019-01-1454
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. This will also include a strong growth in the global demand for electric drive units (EDUs). The change from conventional vehicles to vehicles propelled by EDUs leads to a reduction in overall vehicle exterior and interior noise levels, especially during low-speed vehicle operation. Despite the overall noise levels being low, the NVH behavior of such vehicles can be objectionable due to the presence of tonal noise coming from electric machines and geartrain components as well as relatively high shares of road/wind noise. In order to ensure customer acceptance of electrically propelled vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges are understood and solved.
Journal Article

Integration of Engine Start/Stop Systems with Emphasis on NVH and Launch Behavior

2013-05-13
2013-01-1899
Automatic engine start/stop systems are becoming more prevalent and increasing market share of these systems is predicted due to demands on improving fuel efficiency of vehicles. Integration of an engine start/stop system into a “conventional” drivetrain with internal combustion engine and 12V board system is a relatively cost effective measure to reduce fuel consumption. Comfort and NVH aspects will continue to play an important role for customer acceptance of these systems. Possible delay during vehicle launch due to the engine re-start is not only a safety relevant issue but a hesitating launch feel characteristic will result in reduced customer acceptance of these systems. The engine stop and re-start behavior should be imperceptible to the driver from both a tactile and acoustic standpoint. The lack of masking effects of the engine during the engine stop phases can cause other “unwanted” noise to become noticeable or more prominent.
Journal Article

Impact of the Future Fuel Economy Targets on Powertrain, Driveline and Vehicle NVH Development

2017-06-05
2017-01-1777
The automotive industry continues to develop new technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle level fuel consumption. Powertrain and driveline related technologies will play a key role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Specifically, use of technologies such as downsized engines, idle start-stop systems, aggressive torque converter lock-up schedules, wide-ratio spread transmissions, and electrified propulsion systems are vital towards meeting aggressive fuel economy targets. Judicious combinations of such powertrain and driveline technology packages in conjunction with measures such as the use of low rolling resistance tires and vehicle lightweighting will be required to meet future OEM fleet CO2 targets. Many of the technologies needed for meeting the fuel economy and CO2 targets come with unique NVH challenges. In order to ensure customer acceptance of new vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges be understood and solved.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Source and Path Contributions to Sound Quality Using Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation

2011-05-17
2011-01-1685
It is commonly accepted that refined “powertrain sound quality” is essential to the development of a vehicle which will be well received by today's discriminating automotive customer. However, though there are several metrics which correlate well with a subjective impression of powertrain level inputs, what is ultimately important is the sound quality at driver's ear. Vehicle level powertrain sound quality is influenced by the powertrain noise and vibration (source) as well as the vehicle airborne and structureborne transfer functions (path). In development as well as benchmarking activities, it can be difficult to separate the influence of source and path on overall vehicle sound quality.
Technical Paper

Driveline Boom Interior Noise Prediction Based on Multi Body Simulation

2011-05-17
2011-01-1556
It is important to develop powertrain NVH characteristics with the goal of ultimately influencing/improving the in-vehicle NVH behavior since this is what matters to the end customer. One development tool called dB(VINS) based on a process called Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) is used for determining interior vehicle noise based on powertrain level measurements (mount vibration and radiated noise) in combination with standardized vehicle transfer functions. Although this method is not intended to replace a complete transfer path analysis and does not take any vehicle specific sensitivity into account, it allows for powertrain-induced interior vehicle noise assessments without having an actual test vehicle available. Such a technique allows for vehicle centric powertrain NVH development right from an early vehicle development stage.
Technical Paper

Conditioned NExT Analysis, A Technique for Estimation of Modal Damping Ratios of Operating Piston Engines

1999-05-17
1999-01-1751
A new approach of estimating the modal parameters of operating piston engines is presented. The developed approach represents a combination of concepts from currently existing analyses such as the natural excitation technique (NExT), conditioned input analysis (CIA), and conditioned source analysis (CSA), and is hence termed “conditioned NExT analysis (CNA)”. NExT analysis can be employed to estimate modal parameters of structures in their naturally excited states. However, the existence of strong combustion induced periodic forcing makes the application of NExT analysis to operating engines difficult, if not impossible. CIA and CSA, built on concepts of partial and virtual coherence respectively, can effectively condition operating engine vibration data so as to remove any periodic energy associated with the process of combustion.
Technical Paper

Cold Start Engine Clatter Noise Evaluations

2005-05-16
2005-01-2455
Internal combustion engine noise is primarily composed of combustion and mechanical noise shares. Mechanical noise contributions in engines have increased relevance at low load conditions when combustion related noise is not significant. Current literature on mechanical noise in engines includes: piston pin ticking, piston secondary motion, and valvetrain impacts. A mechanical noise source from excitation of piston tertiary motion is described here in the form of a case study on an engine exhibiting a cold start “clatter” noise. Targeted experimental measurements were initially used to rule out potential mechanisms such as impacts resulting from piston pin ticking and piston secondary motion. Experimental modification studies and piston load and kinematics modeling led to discovery of instability of the piston which is understood to excite tertiary motion of the piston and result in impulsive “clatter” noise under certain low load/speed conditions.
Journal Article

Automobile Powertrain Sound Quality Development Using a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Approach

2015-06-15
2015-01-2336
Automotive companies are studying to add extra value in their vehicles by enhancing powertrain sound quality. The objective is to create a brand sound that is unique and preferred by their customers since quietness is not always the most desired characteristic, especially for high-performance products. This paper describes the process of developing a brand powertrain sound for a high-performance vehicle using the DFSS methodology. Initially the customer's preferred sound was identified and analyzed. This was achieved by subjective evaluations through voice-of-customer clinics using vehicles of similar specifications. Objective data were acquired during several driving conditions. In order for the design process to be effective, it is very important to understand the relationship between subjective results and physical quantities of sound. Several sound quality metrics were calculated during the data analysis process.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Lightweight Automotive Glass Solutions on Interior Noise Levels & Sound Quality

2017-06-05
2017-01-1814
The automotive industry continues to develop technologies for reducing vehicle fuel consumption. Specifically, vehicle lightweighting is expected to be a key enabler for achieving fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Hybrid glass laminates that incorporate fusion draw and ion exchange innovations are thinner and thereby, offer more than 30% weight reduction compared to conventional automotive laminates. These lightweight hybrid laminates provide additional benefits, including improved toughness and superior optics. However, glazing weight reduction leads to an increase in transmission of sound through the laminates for certain frequencies. This paper documents a study that uses a systematic test-based approach to understand the sensitivity of interior vehicle noise behavior to changes in acoustic attenuation driven by installation of lightweight glass.
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