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Technical Paper

Yaw/Roll Stability Modeling and Control of HeavyTractor-SemiTrailer

2007-08-05
2007-01-3574
This paper sets up a simplified dynamic model for simulating the yaw/roll stability of heavy tractor-semitrailer using Matlab/Simulink. A linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based on partial-state feedback controller is used to optimize the roll stability of the vehicle. The control objective for optimizing roll stability is to be reducing the lateral load transfer rate while keeping the suspension angle less than the maximum allowable angle. The simulation result shows that the LQR controller is effective in the active roll stability control of the heavy tractor-semitrailer.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Mass Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicle

2015-09-29
2015-01-2742
Aiming at estimating the vehicle mass and the position of center of gravity, an on-line two-stage estimator, based on the recursive least square method, is proposed for buses in this paper. Accurate information of the center of gravity position is crucial to vehicle control, especially for buses whose center of gravity position can be varied substantially because of the payload onboard. Considering that the buses start and stop frequently, the first stage of the estimator determines the bus total mass during acceleration, and the second stage utilizes the recursive least-square methods to estimate the position of the center of gravity during braking. The proposed estimator can be validated by the co-simulation with MATLAB/Simulink and TruckSim software, simulation results exhibit good convergence and stability, so the center of gravity position can be estimated through the proposed method in a certain accuracy range.
Technical Paper

Variable Yaw Rate Gain for Vehicle Steer-by-wire with Joystick

2013-04-08
2013-01-0413
Steering-By-Wire (SBW) system has advantages of advanced vehicle control system, which has no mechanical linkage to control the steering wheel and front wheels. It is possible to control the steering wheel actuator and front wheels actuator steering independently. The goal of this paper is to use a joystick to substitute the conventional steering wheel with typical vehicle SBW system and to study a variable steering ratio design method. A 2-DOF vehicle dynamic reference model is built and focused on the vehicle steering performance of drivers control joystick. By verifying the results with a hardware-in-the-loop simulation test bench, it shows this proposed strategy can improve vehicle maneuverability and comfort.
Journal Article

UniTire Model for Tire Forces and Moments under Combined Slip Conditions with Anisotropic Tire Slip Stiffness

2013-09-24
2013-01-2362
The tire mechanics characteristics are essential for analysis, simulation and control of vehicle dynamics. This paper develops the UniTire model for tire forces and moments under combined slip conditions with anisotropic tire slip stiffness. The anisotropy of tire slip stiffness, which means the difference of tire longitudinal slip stiffness and cornering stiffness, will cause that the direction of tire resultant shear stress in adhesion region is different from that in sliding region. Eventually the tire forces and moments under combined slip conditions will be influenced obviously. The author has proposed a “direction factor” before to modify the direction of resultant force in the tire-road contact patch, which can describe tire forces at cornering/braking combination accurately. However, the aligning moments which are very complicated under combined slip conditions are not considered in previous analysis.
Technical Paper

UniTire Model for Tire Cornering Properties under Varying Traveling Velocities

2016-09-27
2016-01-8037
The tire mechanics characteristics are essential for analysis and control of vehicle dynamics. Basically, the effects of sideslip, longitudinal slip, camber angle and vertical load are able to be represented accurately by current existing tire models. However, the research of velocity effects for tire forces and moments are still insufficient. Some experiments have demonstrated that the tire properties actually vary with the traveling velocity especially when the force and moment are nearly saturated. This paper develops an enhanced brush tire model and the UniTire semi-physical model for tire forces and moments under different traveling velocities for raising need of advanced tire model. The primary effects of velocity on tire performances are the rubber friction distribution characteristics at the tire-road interface.
Technical Paper

Traction Control Logic Based on Extended Kalman Filter for Omni-directional Electric Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-0251
Omni-directional electric vehicle built by our research group is an advanced electric vehicle whose four wheels can drive, steer and brake independently. The vehicle chassis system is composed of four in-wheel motors, four independent steer motors and electromagnetic brake system, and its control system is divided into logical control layer and underlying execution layer. The information exchange between these two layers is implemented by CAN bus. In this paper, the traction control logic for Omni-directional electric vehicle is developed. The study mainly involves two aspects: the vehicle states estimation and the traction control logic design. The vehicle states, including vehicle longitudinal velocity, lateral speed, side slip angle and yaw rate, etc, are estimated based on Extended Kalman Estimation and multiple degrees of freedom vehicle model.
Technical Paper

Tire Roller Contact Model for Simulation of Vehicle Vibration Input

1993-11-01
932008
To improve the quantitative accuracy of vehicle vibration studies, a roller contact tire model with the geometric filtering concept and a method to determine the effective road input are proposed. Computer simulation with the 13 DOF vehicle model for a light truck, based on two different tire models, and relevant outdoor tests for measuring the vehicle accelerations of both sprung and unsprung masses are presented. Comparisons of test data and simulation results show that the roller contact tire model renders much better simulation accuracy than the single point contact tire model. It is concluded that the roller contact tire model is a powerful concept which acts as a geometric filter, giving a simple method to calculate the enveloping effects of tires and the effective road elevation input.
Technical Paper

Tire Carcass Camber and its Application for Overturning Moment Modeling

2013-04-08
2013-01-0746
The properties of contact patch are key factors for tire modeling. Researchers have paid more attention to the contact patch shape and vertical pressure distribution. Some innovative concepts, such as Local Carcass Camber, have been presented to explain special tire modeling phenomena. For a pragmatic tire model, a concise model structure and fewer parameters are considered as the primary tasks for the modeling. Many empirical tire models, such as the well-known Magic Formula model, would become more complex to achieve satisfactory modeling accuracy, due to increasing number of input variables, so the semi-empirical or semi-physical modeling method becomes more attractive. In this paper, the concept of Tire Carcass Camber is introduced first. Different from Local Carcass Camber, Tire Carcass Camber is an imaginary camber angle caused only by lateral force on the unloaded tire.
Technical Paper

Study on Steering Effort Preference of Drivers Based on Driving Simulator

2007-08-05
2007-01-3575
This paper presents a study on steering effort preference of Chinese drivers based on ADSL Driving Simulator. The results of the simulation test demonstrates that Chinese drivers' steering effort preference increases with vehicle speed, which is similar to European and Japanese drivers', but the mean preference effort level itself is lower than that of European and Japanese drivers' and this same steering effort preference increases obviously with lateral acceleration in linear region (lateral acceleration level lower than 0.3g) while not as evidently in nonlinear region (lateral acceleration level higher than 0.3g).
Technical Paper

Study on Dynamic Characteristics and Control Methods for Drive-by-Wire Electric Vehicle

2014-09-30
2014-01-2291
A full drive-by-wire electric vehicle, named Urban Future Electric Vehicle (UFEV) is developed, where the four wheels' traction and braking torques, four wheels' steering angles, and four active suspensions (in the future) are controlled independently. It is an ideal platform to realize the optimal vehicle dynamics, the marginal-stability and the energy-efficient control, it is also a platform for studying the advanced chassis control methods and their applications. A centralized control system of hierarchical structure for UFEV is proposed, which consist of Sensor Layer, Identification and Estimation Layer, Objective Control Layer, Forces and Motion Distribution Layer, Executive Layer. In the Identification and Estimation Layer, identification model is established by utilizing neural network algorithms to identify the driver characteristics. Vehicle state estimation and road identification of UFEV based on EKF and Fuzzy Logic Control methods is also conducted in this layer.
Technical Paper

Simulations of Tire Cornering Properties in Non-Steady State Conditions

1998-02-01
980254
Simulations of tire cornering properties with small-amplitude lateral inputs are carried out in non-steady state conditions. The simulation algorithm is derived and the discrete expressions are presented in detail. Based on the simulations, lateral force and aligning moment can be calculated numerically with time-varying yaw angle and lateral displacement as inputs in spatial domain. The flexibility of both tread and carcass along with tire width is taken into account effectively in the simulations, in which the flexibility of carcass includes translating, bending and twisting flexibility. The simulations in non-dimensional form are associated with four tire structure parameters only, which are non-dimensional parameters reflecting the characteristics of tire stiffness, tire width and contact length. Simulation results are validated by test data from step lateral inputs tests. Several typical simulation results are provided.
Technical Paper

Research on the Dynamic Integration Control for Distributed-Traction Electric Vehicle with Four-Wheel-Distributed Steering System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0814
With rapid development of the automobile industry and the growing maturity of the automotive electronic technologies, the distributed-traction electric vehicle with four-wheel-distributed steering/braking/traction systems is regarded as an important development direction. With its unique chassis structure, it is the ideal benchmark platform used to evaluate active safety systems. The distributed-traction electric vehicle with four-wheel-distributed steering system is essentially full drive-by-wire vehicle. With its flexible chassis layout and high control degrees-of-freedom, the full drive-by-wire electric vehicle acted as a kind of redundant system is an ideal platform for the research of integrated control. In this treatise, the longitudinal dynamics of the electric vehicle as well as its lateral and yaw motions are controlled simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Height Adjustment Control of Electronically Controlled Air Suspension

2015-09-29
2015-01-2750
Electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) systems have been widely used in commercial vehicles to improve the ride comfort and handling stability of vehicles, as it can adjust vehicle height according to the driving conditions and the driver's intent. In this paper, the vehicle height adjustment process of ECAS system is studied. A mathematical model of vehicle height adjustment is derived by combining vehicle dynamics theory and thermodynamics theory of variable mass system. Reasons lead to the problems of “over-charging”, “over-discharging” and oscillation during the process of height adjustment are analyzed. In order to solve these problems, a single neuron proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is proposed to realize the accurate control of vehicle height. By simulation and semi-physical rig test, the effectiveness and performance of the proposed control algorithm are verified.
Technical Paper

Research on Closed-Loop Comprehensive Evaluation Method of Vehicle Handling and Stability

2000-03-06
2000-01-0694
A closed-loop comprehensive evaluation and a test method for vehicle handling and stability have been studied by using development driving simulator. Simulator test scheme has been designed and carried out with 14 vehicle configurations, and subjective evaluation has been made for easy handling of vehicle by drivers. A closed-loop comprehensive evaluation index has been put forward considering the factors affecting vehicle handling and stability. The reliability of the index has been validated by driver's subjective evaluation. A driver/vehicle/ road closed-loop system model has been established, and the theoretical predictive evaluation has been carried out with 14 vehicle configurations. Simulation showed that similar result for both theoretical predictive evaluation and subjective evaluation.
Technical Paper

Passive Fault-Tolerant Performance of 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles Based on MPC and Control Allocation

2013-09-08
2013-24-0145
The passive fault-tolerant performance of the integrated vehicle controller (IVC) applied on 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles has been investigated in this study. The 4WID/4WIS EV is driven independently by four in-wheel motors and steered independently by four steering motors. Thanks to increased control flexibility of the over-actuated architecture, Control Allocation (CA) can be applied to control the 4WID/4WIS EVs so as to improve the handling and stability. Another benefit of the over-actuated architecture is that the 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle has sufficient redundant actuators to fight against the safety critical situation when one or more actuators fail.
Journal Article

Modeling Combined Braking and Cornering Forces Based on Pure Slip Measurements

2012-09-24
2012-01-1924
A novel predictable tire model has been proposed for combined braking and cornering forces, which is based on only a few pure baking and pure cornering tests. It avoids elaborate testing of all kinds of combinations of braking and side forces, which are always expensive and time consuming. It is especially important for truck or other large size tires due to the capability constraints of tire testing facilities for combined shear forces tests. In this paper, the predictive model is based on the concept of slip circle and state stiffness method. The slip circle concept has been used in the COMBINATOR model to obtain the magnitude of the resultant force under combined slip conditions; however the direction assumption used in the COMBINATOR is not suitable for anisotropic tire slip stiffness.
Technical Paper

Key Items in Tire Non-Steady State Test

2002-07-09
2002-01-2231
In the paper, the Flat Plank Tire Tester of Changchun Automobile Institute is introduced. This paper, according to practical experiences, generalizes some issues in the tire's non-steady state test. In the non-steady state test, it must be assured that the footprint centerline of tire coincides with that of slid platform, which guarantees no sliding motion between tire and slid platform during the movement. Due to tire taper effect and inhomogeneous tire material, when its side slip angle is zero, side force and aligning torque are not zeros, but have initial values. Here two approaches are discussed to eliminate the side force and aligning torque. Besides, other factors in the test are put forward for discussion. Eliminating the interference can obviously improve the test accuracy. This paper also provides test curves of both pure side slip angle input and pure yaw angle input.
Technical Paper

Friction Compensation Control Method Research of Electric Power Steering System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1545
A new electric power steering system (EPS) dynamic friction model based on normalized Bouc-Wen model is given, as well as its structure form and model features. In addition, experimental method is used to identify corresponding parameters. In order to improve road feel feedback, this paper analyzes the shortcoming of traditional constant friction compensation control method and proposes a variable friction compensation control method which the friction compensation current changes according to the assist characteristic gain. Through simulation and real vehicle test verification, variable friction compensation control method eliminates the effect of basic assist characteristic, and improves the driver’s road feel under high speed.
Technical Paper

Direct yaw moment control of electric vehicle with 4 in-wheel motors to improve handling and stability

2020-04-14
2020-01-0993
More and more OEMs are studying the in-wheel motor driven vehicle. One of the in-wheel motor driven vehicle key technologies is multi-motor torque distribution and control. This paper proposes a direct yaw moment control strategy to improve 4 in-wheel electric vehicle handling and stability. The control method consists of three components: feedback control based on target yaw rate, feedforward control based on current lateral acceleration and deceleration control based on under/oversteer situation. Feedback control is used to follow the driver’s target yaw rate and improve the vehicle yaw rate response and stability. The target yaw rate is calculated by two-freedom vehicle model and limited by lateral acceleration and vehicle current steering condition. So we don’t need the vehicle side slip angle or road adhesion coefficient information to prevent excessive target yaw rate, which are very different to obtain.
Technical Paper

Development of Simulation Platform and Control Strategy of Electronic Braking System for Commercial Vehicles

2014-09-30
2014-01-2286
Pneumatic Electric Braking System (EBS) is getting widely spread for commercial vehicles. Pneumatic EBS improves the problem of slow response of traditional pneumatic braking system by implementing brake-by-wire. However, the time-delay response and hysteresis of some electro-pneumatic components and some other issues decrease the response and control accuracy of the pneumatic EBS.
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