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Technical Paper

Vehicle Driving Load Estimation for Longitudinal Motion Control

2000-06-12
2000-05-0249
An estimation algorithm for vehicle driving load has been proposed in this paper. Driving load is an important factor in a vehicle's longitudinal motion control. An approach using an observer is introduced to estimate driving load based on inexpensive RPM sensors currently being used in production vehicles. Also, the new torque estimation technique using neural network has been incorporated in this estimation algorithm to achieve better performance over variations in the automotive power transmissions process. The effectiveness of the observer-based method is demonstrated through the use of a nonlinear full vehicle simulation model in various scenarios. The proposed method using an observer has good performance, both over modeling error in powertrain system and under the uncertain environment of a running vehicle.
Technical Paper

Torque Distribution Algorithm of Six-Wheeled Skid-Steered Vehicles for On-Road and Off-Road Maneuverability

2013-04-08
2013-01-0628
This paper is concerned with the torque distribution problem including slip limitation and actuator fault tolerance to improve vehicle lateral stability and maneuverability of six-wheeled skid-steered vehicles. The torque distribution algorithm to distribute wheel torque to each wheel of a skid-steered vehicle consists of an upper level control layer, a lower level control layer and an estimation layer. The upper level control layer is designed to obtain longitudinal net force and desired yaw moment, while the lower level control layer determines distributed driving and braking torques to six wheels. The algorithm takes vehicle speed, slip ratio and tire load information from the estimation layer, as well as actuator fault information from each in-wheel motor controller unit.
Journal Article

Skid Steering based Driving Control of a Robotic Vehicle with Six In-Wheel Drives

2010-04-12
2010-01-0087
This paper describes a driving control algorithm based on a skid steering for a Robotic Vehicle with Articulated Suspension (RVAS). The RVAS is a kind of unmanned ground vehicle based on a skid steering using independent in-wheel drive at each wheel. The driving control algorithm consists of four parts: a speed controller for following a desired speed, a lateral motion controller that computes a yaw moment input to track a desired yaw rate or a desired trajectory according to the control mode, a longitudinal tire force distribution algorithm that determines an optimal desired longitudinal tire force and a wheel torque controller that determines a wheel torque command at each wheel in order to keep the slip ratio at each wheel below a limit value as well as to track the desired tire force. The longitudinal and vertical tire force estimators are required for the optimal tire force distribution and wheel slip control.
Journal Article

Skid Steering Based Maneuvering of Robotic Vehicle with Articulated Suspension

2009-04-20
2009-01-0437
This paper describes a driving control algorithm based on skid steering for a Robotic Vehicle with Articulated Suspension (RVAS). The driving control algorithm consists of four parts; speed controller for tracking of the desired speeds, yaw rate controller which computes a yaw moment input to track desired yaw rates, longitudinal tire force distribution which determines an optimal desired longitudinal tire force and wheel torque controller which determines a wheel torque command at each wheel to keep slip ratio at each wheel below a limit value as well as track the desired tire force. Longitudinal and vertical tire force estimators are designed for optimal tire force distribution and wheel slip control. The dynamic model of RVAS for simulation study is validated using vehicle test data.
Technical Paper

Rear-Wheel Steering Control for Enhanced Maneuverability of Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1238
This paper proposes a rear-wheel steering control method that can modify and improve the vehicle lateral response without tire model and parameter. The proposed control algorithm is a combination of steady-state and transient control. The steady state control input is designed to modify steady-state yaw rate response of the vehicle, i.e. understeer gradient of the vehicle. The transient control input is a feedback control to improve the transient response when the vehicle lateral behavior builds up. The control algorithm has been investigated via computer simulations. Compared to classical control methods, the proposed algorithm shows good vehicle lateral response such as small overshoot and fast response. Specifically, the proposed algorithm can alleviate stair-shaped response of the lateral acceleration.
Technical Paper

Integrated Chassis Control for Vehicle Stability under Various Road Friction Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0552
This paper presents an integrated chassis control method for vehicle stability under various road friction conditions without information on tire-road friction. For vehicle stability, vehicle with an integrated chassis control needs to cope with the various road friction conditions. One of the chassis control method under various road conditions is to determine and/or limit control inputs based on tire-road friction coefficient. The tire-road friction coefficient, however, is difficult to estimate and still a challenging task. The key idea for the proposed method without the estimation of the tire-road friction coefficient is to analyze and control vehicle states based on a tire slip angle - tire force phase plane, i.e. based on these vehicle responses: tire forces and tire slip angles of front/rear wheels.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Side Slip Angle Interacting Multiple Bicycle Models Approach for Vehicle Stability Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-0445
This paper presents an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) based side slip angle estimation method to estimate side slip angle under various road conditions for vehicle stability control. Knowledge of the side slip angle is essential enhancing vehicle handling and stability. For the estimation of the side slip angles in previous researches, prior knowledge of tire parameters and road conditions have been employed, and sometimes additional sensors have been needed. These prior knowledge and additional sensors, however, necessitates many efforts and make an application of the estimation algorithm difficult. In this paper, side slip angle has been estimated using on-board vehicle sensors such as yaw rate and lateral acceleration sensors. The proposed estimation algorithm integrates the estimates from multiple Kalman filters based on the multiple models with different parameter set.
Technical Paper

Development of a Motor Torque Distribution Strategy of Six-wheel-Driven Electric Vehicles for Optimized Energy Consumption

2013-04-08
2013-01-1746
This paper describes a driving motor torque distribution strategy of six-wheel-driven electric vehicles for optimized energy consumption. In this research, this strategy minimizes motoring power consumption and maximizes regenerative braking power under given required power condition. The torque distribution controller consists of total required motor torque calculation part, upper and optimal torque calculation part, lower level controller. The upper level controller determines total required torque of vehicle. And the torque is determined by acceleration pedal input of driver and vehicle velocity. The lower level controller calculates energy consumption in given condition and distributes motor torque to driving motor minimizing energy consumption. In distributing optimal motor torque, it is important to get accurate characteristics of driving motor and performance constraint.
Technical Paper

Development of a Driving Control Algorithm and Performance Verification Using Real-Time Simulator for a 6WD/6WS Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0262
This paper describes development and performance verification of a driving control algorithm for a 6 wheel driving and 6 wheel steering (6WD/6WS) vehicle using a real-time simulator. This control algorithm is developed to improve vehicle stability and maneuverability under high speed driving conditions. The driving controller consists of stability decision, upper, lower level and wheel slip controller. The stability decision algorithm determines desired longitudinal acceleration and reference yaw rate in order to maintain lateral and roll stability using G-vectoring method. Upper level controller is designed to obtain reference longitudinal net force, yaw moment and front/middle steering angles. The longitudinal net force is calculated to satisfy the reference longitudinal acceleration by the PID control theory. The reference yaw moment is determined to satisfy the reference yaw rate using sliding control theory. Lower level controller determines distributed tractive/braking torques.
Technical Paper

Development of Integrated Chassis Control for Limit Handling

2016-04-05
2016-01-1638
This paper presents the integrated chassis control(ICC) of four-wheel drive(4WD), electronic stability control(ESC), electronic control suspension(ECS), and active roll stabilizer(ARS) for limit handling. The ICC consists of three layers: 1) a supervisor determines target vehicle states; 2) upper level controller calculates generalized forces; 3) lower level controller, which is contributed in this paper, optimally allocates the generalized force to chassis modules. The lower level controller consists of two integrated parts, 1) longitudinal force control part (4WD/ESC) and 2) vertical force control part (ECS/ARS). The principal concept of both algorithms is optimally utilizing the capability of the each tire by monitoring tire saturation, with tire combined slip. By monitoring tire saturation, 4WD/ESC integrated system minimizes the sum of the tire saturation, and ECS/ARS integrated system minimizes the variance of the tire saturation.
Journal Article

Development of Driving Control System Based on Optimal Distribution for a 6WD/6WS Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0091
This paper describes a driving controller to improve vehicle lateral stability and maneuverability for a six wheel driving / six wheel steering (6WD/6WS) vehicle. The driving controller consists of upper and lower level controller. The upper level controller based on sliding control theory determines front, middle steering angle, additional net yaw moment and longitudinal net force according to reference velocity and steering of a manual driving, remote control and autonomous controller. The lower level controller takes desired longitudinal net force, yaw moment and tire force information as an input and determines additional front steering angle and distributed longitudinal tire force on each wheel. This controller is based on optimal distribution control and has considered the friction circle related to vertical tire force and friction coefficient acting on the road and tire.
Journal Article

Design and Evaluation of Emergency Driving Support Using Motor Driven Power Steering and Differential Braking on a Virtual Test Track

2013-04-08
2013-01-0726
This paper presents the design and evaluation of an emergency driving support (EDS) algorithm. The control objective is to assist driver's collision avoidance maneuver to overcome a hazardous situation. To support driver, electrically controllable chassis components such as motor driven power steering (MDPS) and differential braking and surrounding sensor systems such as radar and camera are used. The EDS algorithm is designed for 3 parts: monitoring, decision, and control. The proposed EDS algorithm recognizes a collision danger using minimum lateral acceleration to avoid collision and time-to-collision (TTC) and driver's intention using sensor systems. The control mode is determined using the indices from monitoring process and the collision avoidance trajectory is derived with trapezoidal acceleration profile (TAP).
Technical Paper

Closed-Loop Evaluation of Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) Systems using a Combined Vehicle and Human Driving Model

2004-03-08
2004-01-0763
This paper presents a closed-loop evaluation of the Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) systems using a vehicle simulator. Human driver-VSC interactions have been investigated under realistic operating conditions in the laboratory. Braking control inputs for vehicle stability enhancement have been directly derived from the sliding control law based on vehicle planar motion equations with differential braking. A driving simulator which consists of a three-dimensional vehicle dynamic model, interface between human driver and vehicle simulator, three-dimensional animation program and a visual display has been validated using actual vehicle driving test data. Real-time human-in-the loop simulation results in realistic driving situations have shown that the proposed controller reduces driving effort and enhances vehicle stability.
Journal Article

Automated Driving Control in Safe Driving Envelope based on Probabilistic Prediction of Surrounding Vehicle Behaviors

2015-04-14
2015-01-0314
This paper presents an automated driving control algorithm for the control of an autonomous vehicle. In order to develop a highly automated driving control algorithm, one of the research issues is to determine a safe driving envelope with the consideration of probable risks. While human drivers maneuver the vehicle, they determine appropriate steering angle and acceleration based on the predictable trajectories of the surrounding vehicles. Therefore, not only current states of surrounding vehicles but also predictable behaviors of that should be considered in determining a safe driving envelope. Then, in order to guarantee safety to the possible change of traffic situation surrounding the subject vehicle during a finite time-horizon, the safe driving envelope over a finite prediction horizon is defined in consideration of probabilistic prediction of future positions of surrounding vehicles.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into Unified Chassis Control based on Correlation with Longitudinal/Lateral Tire Force Behavior

2009-04-20
2009-01-0438
This paper presents a Unified Chassis Control (UCC) strategy to improve vehicle stability and maneuverability by integrating Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Active Front Steering (AFS). The UCC architecture consists of two parts: an estimator and a controller. The estimator is designed to estimate longitudinal and lateral tire forces and the controller is designed in two stages, namely, an upper level controller and a lower level controller. The upper level controller, provides the desired yaw moment for vehicle lateral stability by adopting a sliding control method. The lower level controller, provides the integration method of the AFS and ESC strategies for the desired yaw moment and is designed by optimal tire force coordination.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of a CW/CA System for Automobiles

1999-03-01
1999-01-1238
CW/CA (Collision Warning /Collision Avoidance) Systems have been an active research and development area as interests and demands for the advanced vehicle increase. A CW/CA ‘Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation (HiLS)’ system has been designed and used to test a CW/CA algorithm, radar sensors, and warning displays under realistic operating conditions in the laboratory. A CW/CA algorithm has two parts. One is a distance decision algorithm that determines the critical warning and braking distance and the other is a brake control algorithm for collision avoidance. The CW/CA HiLS system consists of a controller in which a DSP chip is installed, a preceding vehicle simulator, a radar sensor and a warning display. The controller calculates velocities of the preceding and following vehicles, relative distance and relative velocity of the vehicles using vehicle simulation models. The relative distance and velocity are applied to the vehicle simulator that is controlled by a DC motor.
Technical Paper

A throttle/brake control law for vehicle intelligent cruise control

2000-06-12
2000-05-0369
A throttle/brake control law for the intelligent cruise control (ICC) system has been proposed in this paper. The ICC system consists of a vehicle detection sensor, a controller and throttle/brake actuators. For the control of a throttle/brake system, we introduced a solenoid-valve-controlled electronic vacuum booster (EVB) and a step-motor-controlled throttle actuator. Nonlinear computer model for the electronic vacuum booster has been developed and the simulations were performed using a complete nonlinear vehicle model. The proposed control law in this paper consists of an algorithm that generates the desired acceleration/deceleration profile in an ICC situation, a throttle/brake switching logic and a throttle and brake control algorithm based on vehicle dynamics. The control performance has been investigated through computer simulations and experiments.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle-Simulator-based Evaluation of Combined State Estimator and Vehicle Stability Control Algorithm

2005-04-11
2005-01-0383
The performance of an integrated Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) system depends on not only control logic itself, but also the performance of state estimator and control threshold. In conventional VSCs, a control threshold is designed by vehicle characteristics and is centered on average drivers. A VSC algorithm with variable control threshold has been investigated in this study. The control threshold can be determined by phase plane analysis of side slip angle and angular velocity. Vehicle side slip angle estimator has been evaluated using test data. Estimated side slip angle has been used in the determination of the control threshold. The performance of the proposed VSC algorithm has been investigated by human-in-the-loop simulation using a vehicle simulator. The simulation results show that the control threshold has to be determined with respect to the driver steering characteristics.
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