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Technical Paper

Visualization of Mixture Preparation in a Port-Fuel Injection Engine During Engine Warm-up

The fuel injection process in the port of a firing 4-valve SI engine at part load and 25°C head temperature was observed by a high speed video camera. Fuel was injected when the valve was closed. The reverse blow-down flow when the intake valve opens has been identified as an important factor in the mixture preparation process because it not only alters the thermal environment of the intake port, but also strip-atomizes the liquid film at the vicinity of the intake valve and carries the droplets away from the engine. In a series of “fuel-on” experiments, the fuel injected in the current cycle was observed to influence the fuel delivery to the engine in the subsequent cycles.
Technical Paper

Virtual NOx sensor for Transient Operation in Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Currently, diesel engine-out exhaust NOx emission level prediction is a major challenge for complying with the stricter emission legislation and for control purpose of the after-treatment system. Most of the NOx prediction research is based on the Zeldovich thermal mechanism, which is reasonable from the physical point of view and for its simplicity. Nevertheless, there are some predictable range limitations, such as low temperature with high EGR rate operating conditions or high temperature with low EGR rates. In the present paper, 3 additional considerations, pilot burned gas mixing before the main injection; major NO formation area; concentration correction, were applied to the previously developed real-time NO estimation model based on in-cylinder pressure and data available from ECU. The model improvement was verified on a 1.6 liter EURO5 diesel engine in both steady and transient operation.
Journal Article

The Measurement of Penetration Length of Diesel Spray by Using Background Oriented Schlieren Technique

The measurement of spray penetration length is one of crucial tasks for understanding the characteristics of diesel spray and combustion. For this reason, many researchers have devised various measurement techniques, including Mie scattering, schlieren photography, and laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF). However, the requirements of expensive lasers, complicated optics, delicate setups, and tracers that affect fuel characteristics have been disadvantages of previous techniques. In this study, the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique is employed to measure the vapor penetration length of diesel spray for the first time. The BOS technique has a number of benefits over the previous techniques because of its quantitative, non-intrusive nature which does not require lasers, mirrors, optical filters, or fuel tracers.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Spray Angle and Piston Bowl Shape on Diesel Engine Soot Emissions Using 3-D CFD Simulation

In an HSDI Diesel engine, fuel can be injected to the combustion chamber earlier as a strategy to reduce NOx and soot emissions. However, in the case of early injection the in-cylinder pressure and temperature during injection are much lower than those of normal injection conditions. As a result, wall impingement can occur if the conventional spray angle and piston bowl shape are maintained. In this study, 3-D CFD simulation was used to modify the spray angle of the injector and the piston bowl shape so that wall impingement was minimized, and soot emissions were reduced. The wall impingement model was used to simulate the behavior of impinged droplets. In order to predict the performance and emissions of the engine, a flamelet combustion model with the kinetic chemical mechanism for NOx and soot was used. A reduction in soot emissions was achieved with the modification of the spray angle and piston bowl shape.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Crevices on the Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions in SI Engines

To understand the effects of crevices on the engine-out hydrocarbon emissions, a series of engine experiments was carried out with different piston crevice volumes and with simulated head gasket crevices. The engine-out HC level was found to be modestly sensitive to the piston crevice size in both the warmed-up and the cold engines, but more sensitive to the crevice volume in the head gasket region. A substantial decrease in HC in the cold-to-warm-up engine transition was observed and is attributed mostly to the change in port oxidation.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Liquid Fuel on the Cylinder Liner on Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions in SI Engines

The liquid fuel film on the cylinder liner is believed to be a major source of engine-out hydrocarbon emissions in SI engines, especially during cold start and warm-up period. Quantifying the liquid fuel film on the cylinder liner is essential to understand the engine-out hydrocarbon emissions formation in SI engines. In this research, two-dimensional visualization was carried out to quantify liquid fuel film on the quartz cylinder liner in an SI engine test rig. In addition, comparing visualization results with the trend of hydrocarbon emissions in this engine, the effect of cylinder wall-wetting during a simulated cold start and warmed-up condition was investigated with the engine experiment. The visualization was based on laser-induced fluorescence and total reflection. Using a quartz liner and a special lens, only the liquid fuel on the liner was visualized.
Technical Paper

The Development of Real-time NOx Estimation Model and its Application

To meet the stringent emission regulations on diesel engines, engine-out emissions have been lowered by adapting new combustion concepts such as low-temperature combustion and after-treatment systems have also been used to reduce tailpipe emissions. To optimize the control of both in-cylinder combustion and the efficiency of an after treatment system to reduce NOx, the amount of real-time NOx emissions should be determined. Therefore, in previous studies, the authors developed a real-time NO estimation model based on the in-cylinder pressure and the data available from the ECU during engine operation. The model was evaluated by comparing its results with a CFD model, which agreed well. Then, the model was implemented on an embedded system which allows real-time applications, and was verified on a 2.2-liter diesel engine. The model showed good agreement with the experimental results at various steady-state conditions and simple transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effects of the In-Cylinder EGR Stratification on NOx and Soot Emissions in Diesel Engines

Much research has been devoted to reducing NOx and soot emissions simultaneously in diesel engines. The low temperature combustion (LTC) concept has the potential to reduce these emissions at the same time, but it has limitations to its commercialization. In-cylinder EGR stratification is another combustion concept meant to reduce both types of emissions simultaneously using non-uniform in-cylinder EGR gas distribution. The EGR stratification concept uses a locally high EGR region of the in-cylinder so that the emissions can be reduced without increasing the overall EGR rate. In this study, the EGR stratification concept was improved with a CFD-based analysis. First, a two-step piston was developed to maximize the stratified EGR effect. Then, the feasibility of combustion and emission control by stratified EGR was evaluated under cases of artificially distributed EGR stratification and conventional diesel engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effect of Injection Strategies on Particulate Emission Characteristics under Cold Start Using In-cylinder Visualization

Due to the direct injection of fuel into a combustion chamber, particulate emission is a challenge in DISI engines. Specifically, a significant amount of particulate emission is produced under the cold start condition. In this research, the main interest was to investigate particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition because it is one of the significant particulate-emissionproducing stages under the cold start condition. A single-cylinder optically accessible engine was used to investigate the effect of injection strategies on particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition. The split injection strategy was applied during intake stroke with various injection pressures and injection timings. Using luminosity analysis of the soot radiation during combustion, the particulate formation characteristics of each injection strategy were studied. Moreover, the factors that affect PM formation were analyzed via fuel injection visualization.
Technical Paper

Study on the Correlation between the Heat Release Rate and Vibrations from a Diesel Engine Block

In this study, a correlation between the maximum heat release rate and vibrations from a diesel engine block was derived, and a methodology to determine the maximum heat release rate is presented. To investigate and analyze the correlation, an engine test and an actual road vehicle test were performed using a 1.6-L diesel engine. By varying the engine speed, load and main injection timing, the vibration signals from the engine block were measured and analyzed using a continuous wavelet transform (CWT). The results show that the maximum heat release rate has a strong correlation with the magnitude of the vibrations. A specific bandwidth, the vibration signals between 0.3∼1.5 kHz, was affected by the variation in the heat release rate. The vibrations excited by combustion lasted over 50 CAD; however, the signals during the period of 35 CAD after the start of injection had a dominant effect on the maximum heat release rate.
Technical Paper

Study of a Stratification Effect on Engine Performance in Gasoline HCCI Combustion by Using the Multi-zone Method and Reduced Kinetic Mechanism

A gasoline homogeneous charged compression ignition (HCCI) called the controlled auto ignition (CAI) engine is an alternative to conventional gasoline engines with higher efficiency and lower emission levels. However, noise and vibration are currently major problems in the CAI engine. The problems result from fast burning speeds during combustion, because in the CAI engine combustion is controlled by auto-ignition rather than the flame. Thus, the ignition delay of the local mixture has to vary according to the location in the combustion chamber to avoid noise and vibration. For making different ignition delays, stratification of temperature or mixing ratio was tested in this study. In charge stratification, which determines the difference between the start of combustion among charges with different properties, two kinds of mixtures with different properties flow into two intake ports.
Technical Paper

Study of LES Quality Criteria in a Motored Internal Combustion Engine

In recent years, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is spotlighted as an engineering tool and severe research efforts are carried out on its applicability to Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). However, there is a general lack of definitive conclusions on LES quality criteria for ICE. This paper focuses on the application of LES quality criteria to ICE and to their correlation, in order to draw a solid background on future LES quality assessments for ICE. In this paper, TCC-III single-cylinder optical engine from University of Michigan is investigated and the analysis is conducted under motored condition. LES quality is mainly affected by grid size and type, sub-grid scale (SGS) model, numeric schemes. In this study, the same grid size and type are used in order to focus on the effect on LES quality of SGS models and blending factors of numeric scheme only.
Technical Paper

Reduced Chemical Kinetic Model of DME for HCCI Combustion

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition combustion engines could have a thermal efficiency as high as that of conventional compression-ignition engines and the production of low emissions of ultra-low oxides of NOx and PM. HCCI engines can operate on most alternative fuels, especially, dimethyl ether which has been tested as possible diesel fuel for its simultaneously reduced NOx and PM emissions. However, to adjust HCCI combustion to practical engines, the main problem about the HCCI engine must be solved; control of its ignition timing and burn rate over a range of engine speeds and loads. Detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been used to predict the combustion characteristics. But it is difficult to apply detailed chemical kinetic mechanism to simulate practical engines because of its high complexity coupled with multidimensional fluid dynamic models. Thus, reduced chemical kinetic modeling is desirable.
Technical Paper

Prediction of In-Cylinder Pressure for Light-Duty Diesel Engines

In recent years, emission regulations have been getting increasingly strict. In the development of engines that comply with these regulations, in-cylinder pressure plays a fundamental role, as it is necessary to analyze combustion characteristics and control combustion-related parameters. The analysis of in-cylinder pressure data enables the modelling of exhaust emissions in which characteristic temperature can be derived from the in-cylinder pressure, and the pressure can be used for other investigations, such as optimizing efficiency and emissions through controlling combustion. Therefore, a piezoelectric pressure sensor to measure in-cylinder pressure is an essential element in the engine research field. However, it is difficult to practice the installation of this pressure sensor on all engines and on-road vehicles owing to cost issues.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on the Multiple Injection Strategy in Diesel Engines using a Modified 2-D Flamelet Model

The flamelet model is a widely used combustion model that demonstrates a good prediction of non-premixed combustion. In this model, the chemical time scales are considered to be smaller compared to those of the turbulence, which allows the heat and mass transfer equation to be decoupled from the flow equation. However, the model's dependency on the mixture fraction limits the combustion analysis to a single injection. To overcome this limitation, a two dimensional flamelet model, which uses two mixture fraction variables, was introduced to represent the non-premixed combustion of multiple injections. However, the model's computational time drastically increased due to the expansion of the solution domain. Thus, a modified 2-D flamelet model was introduced to reduce the computational time of the two dimensional flamelet model.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Wall Impingement and Film Formation in Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Condition

Since the amount of emitted CO2 is directly related to car fuel economy, attention is being drawn to DISI (Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition) engines, which have better fuel economy than conventional gasoline engines. However, it has been a problem that the rich air-fuel mixtures associated with fuel films during cold starts due to spray impingement produce particulate matter (PM). In predicting soot formation, it is important to predict the mixture field precisely. Thus, accurate spray and film models are a prerequisite of the soot model. The previous models were well matched with low-speed collision conditions, such as those of diesel engines, which have a relatively high ambient pressure and long traveling distances. Droplets colliding at low velocities have an order of magnitude of kinetic energy similar to that of the sum of the surface tension energy and the critical energy at which the splash occurs.
Technical Paper

New Index for Diagnosis of Abnormal Combustion Using a Crankshaft Position Sensor in a Diesel Engine

Most research of internal combustion engine focuses on improving the fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions to satisfy regulations and marketability. Engine combustion is a key factor in determining engine performance. Generally, engine operating parameters are optimized for the best performance and less exhaust emissions. However, abnormal combustion results in engine conditions that are far from an optimized operation. Abnormal combustion, including a misfire, can happen for a variety of reasons, such as superannuated vehicles, extreme changes in the driving environment, etc. Abnormal combustion causes serious deterioration of not only noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), but also the fuel economy and exhaust emission. NVH stands for unwanted noise, vibration and harshness from the vehicle. The misfiring especially deteriorates vehicle comfortability. Abnormal combustion at one cylinder breaks the exciting force balance between cylinders and causes unexpected vibration.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Unburned Hydrocarbon Oxidation in Engine Conditions using Modified One-step Reaction Model

Modeling of unburned hydrocarbon oxidation in an SI engine was performed in engine condition using modified one-step oxidation model. The new one-step equation was developed by modifying the Arrhenius reaction rate coefficients of the conventional one-step model. The modified model was well matched with the results of detailed chemical reaction mechanism in terms of 90 % oxidation time of the fuel. In this modification, the effect of pressure and intermediate species in the burnt gas on the oxidation rate investigated and included in developed one-step model. The effect of pressure was also investigated and included as an additional multiplying factor in the reaction equation. To simulate the oxidation process of piston crevice hydrocarbons, a computational mesh was constructed with fine mesh density at the piston crevice region and the number of cell layers in cylinder was controlled according to the motion of piston.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Combustion Process of Multiple Injection in HSDI Diesel Engines using Modified Two-Dimensional Flamelet

Ignition delay of the second injection of HSDI diesel engines is generally much shorter than that of the first injection because of the interaction between the radicals generated during the combustion process and the mixed gas of the second injection. Although previous Diesel combustion models could not explain this reaction, Hasse and Peters described the mass and heat transfer of the second injection and estimated the ignition delay of the second injection using two-dimensional flamelet equations. But a simulation of the two-dimensional flamelet equations requires enormous computational time. Thus, to analyze the combustion phenomena of the multiple injection mode in HSDI diesel engines effectively, the two-dimensional flamelet combustion model was modified in this study. To reduce the calculation time, two-dimensional flamelet equations were only applied near the stoichiometric region.
Technical Paper

Measurements and Modeling of Residual Gas Fraction in SI Engines

The residual gas in SI engines is one of important factors on emission and performance such as combustion stability. With high residual gas fractions, flame speed and maximum combustion temperature are decreased and there are deeply related with combustion stability, especially at Idle and NOx emission at relatively high engine load. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the residual gas fraction as a function of the engine operating parameters. A model for predicting the residual gas fraction has been formulated in this paper. The model accounts for the contribution due to the back flow of exhaust gas to the cylinder during valve overlap and it includes in-cylinder pressure prediction model during valve overlap. The model is derived from the one dimension flow process during overlap period and a simple ideal cycle model.