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Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Simulation Associated with Pothole Encounters Using the HVE SIMON Program and Radial Spring Tire Model

Deteriorated roadway surfaces (potholes) encountered under everyday driving conditions may produce external vehicle disturbance inputs that are both destabilizing and highly transient. We examine vehicle behavior in response to such inputs through simulation. Idealized pothole geometry configurations are used to represent deteriorated roadway surfaces, and as environments in the HVE simulation suite of programs. Differences in vehicle response and behavior are cataloged, and the potential for destabilized vehicle behavior is examined, particularly under conditions in which only one side of the vehicle contracts the pothole. Vehicle types used in the simulation ensemble represent three classes of vehicles: a sedan, a sports car and an SUV. Results show that many combinations of vehicle speed, vehicle type and pothole configuration have essentially no destabilizing effects on the vehicle trajectory.
Technical Paper

The Simulation of Driver Inputs Using a Vehicle Driver Model

Traditional vehicle simulations use two methods of modeling driver inputs, such as steering and braking. These methods are broadly categorized as “Open Loop” and “Closed Loop”. Open loop methods are most common and use tables of driver inputs vs time. Closed loop methods employ a mathematical model of the driving task and some method of defining an attempted path for the vehicle to follow. Closed loop methods have a significant advantage over open loop methods in that they do not require a trial-and-error approach normally required by open loop methods to achieve the desired vehicle path. As a result, closed loop methods may result in significant time savings and associated user productivity. Historically, however, closed loop methods have had two drawbacks: First, they require user inputs that are non-intuitive and difficult to determine. Second, closed loop methods often have stability problems.
Technical Paper

Road Evaluation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Heavy Trucks

Coast down testing with full-scale vehicles on level and inclined roads offers an inexpensive approach to road load determination and, in particular, aerodynamic force evaluation, provided that drag component extractions can be accurately achieved under random instrumental disturbances and biased environmental conditions. Wind tunnel testing of large vehicles, especially truck/trailers, to establish their aerodynamic drag is costly and also may produce questionable results when the effects of the moving road, blockage, wake/diffuser interaction, and rotating tires are not properly simulated. On the road, testing is now conveniently and speedily carried out using GPS-based data acquisition and file storage on laptops, allowing instantaneous on-board data processing.

Race Car Vehicle Dynamics - Problems, Answers and Experiments

Written for the engineer as well as the race car enthusiast and students, this is a companion workbook to the original classic book, Race Car Vehicle Dynamics, and includes: Detailed worked solutions to all of the problems Problems for every chapter in Race Car Vehicle Dynamics, including many new problems The Race Car Vehicle Dynamics Program Suite (for Windows) with accompanying exercises Experiments to try with your own vehicle Educational appendix with additional references and course outlines Over 90 figures and graphs This workbook is widely used as a college textbook and has been an SAE International best seller since it's introduction in 1995. Buy the set and save! Race Car Vehicle Dynamics
Technical Paper

Oversteer/Understeer Characteristics of a Locked Differential

The type of differential used in a vehicle has an important and often-neglected effect on handling performance. This is particularly important in racing applications, such as in IndyCar racing, in which the type of differential chosen depends on the course being raced (superspeedway ovals, short ovals, temporary street courses and permanent road courses). In the present work, we examine the effect of a locked rear differential on oversteer/understeer behavior. Using a linear tire model, it is shown that employing a locked differential adds a constant understeer offset to the steering wheel angle (SWA) -v- lateral acceleration vehicle signature. A computer simulation of steady-state cornering behavior showed that the actual effect is much more complicated, and is strongly influenced by static weight distribution, front/rear roll couple distribution, available traction and the radius of the turn being negotiated.
Technical Paper

Evasive Maneuver Capability Without and In the Presence of a Flat Tire

The relatively fragile nature of racing tires, coupled with the inevitable track debris which results from racing accidents, ensures that racing drivers will routinely experience conditions involving flat tire vehicle dynamics. We define flat tire vehicle dynamics as a situation which requires the driver to provide steering and/or braking and acceleration control while the vehicle is running on one or more tires which have dramatically reduced tire pressure. In the present work, we simulate the handling and braking vehicle dynamics which occur in the presence of a single flat tire on the vehicle. The flat tire was simulated via drastically reduced cornering stiffness, partially reduced limiting frictional capability and increased rolling resistance, and was alternatively simulated on both the front and rear axle. No simulations were conducted with more than a single flat tire because multiple tire failures which do not involve an actual accident contact and/or damage are rare.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the SIMON Tractor-Semitrailer Model for Steady State and Transient Handling

This research compares the responses of a vehicle modeled in the 3D vehicle simulation program SIMON in the HVE simulation operating system against instrumented responses of a 3-axle tractor, 2-axle semi-trailer combination. The instrumented tests were previously described in SAE 2001-01-0139 and SAE 2003-01-1324 as part of a continuous research effort in the area of vehicle dynamics undertaken at the Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC). The vehicle inertial and mechanical parameters were measured at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). The tire data was provided by Smithers Scientific Services, Inc. and UMTRI. The series of tests discussed herein compares the modeled and instrumented vehicle responses during quasi-steady state, steady state and transient handling maneuvers, producing lateral accelerations ranging nominally from 0.05 to 0.5 G's.
Technical Paper

Dynamics of Four-Wheel-Steer Off-Highway Vehicles

Off road vehicle dynamics present fundamental differences to the engineer than those of highway vehicles. In this work, we examine off-road dynamics for a class of industrial vehicles: front-end loaders. After a review of terramechanics and off-road tire behavior, equations of motion for a front-end loader are developed. Kinematic steering relationships, steady-state performance and understeer and oversteer characteristics are also derived. Off-road front-end loader characteristics and performance in terms of vehicle handling, overturn behavior and obstacle avoidance are presented, and some design characteristics and parameter values for a typical vehicle are given to aid the designer in analysis and synthesis.
Technical Paper

Controllability and Stability Aspects of Actively Controlled 4WS Vehicles

Four wheel steering (4WS) of passenger cars has become a topic of interest in recent vehicle dynamics literature. In the present work, a linear two-degree of freedom model (L2DF) has been used to examine controllability and stability aspects of various 4WS algorithms. Yaw rate r and lateral velocity v were used as model degrees of freedom, and as state feedback variables for the implementation of 4WS controllers of various types. With controllers developed using the L2DF model, investigations were performed into the performance of such controllers when implemented using a nonlinear three-degree of freedom model (N3DF) which included roll and the possibility of tire saturation. Desirable steady-state properties for v and r can be obtained using the robust controllers developed through the use of the L2DF model. Finally, the stability of the system is shown to depend upon tire cornering stiffness, and is examined both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Linear Roll Dynamics Properties for Various Vehicle Configurations

The ability to categorize, compare and segregate the roll dynamical behavior of various vehicles from one another is a subject of considerable research interest. A number of comparison paradigms have been developed (static stability index, roll couple methods, etc.), but all suffer from lack of robustness: results developed on the basis of a particular comparison metric are often not able to be generalized across vehicle lines and types, etc., or they simply do not segregate vehicles at all. In addition, most models do not describe vehicle dynamics in sufficient detail, and some contain no dynamics at all (e.g., static stability index = t/2h). In the present work, static stability index, a two-degree-of-freedom roll model and a three-degree-of-freedom roll and handling model were used to locate eigenvalues for a sample of 43 vehicles consisting of (1) passenger cars, (2) light trucks, (3) sport/utility vehicles and (4) minivans.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Dirt Track Sprint Car Accident

Open-wheel dirt-track racing represents one of the most dangerous forms of motor racing. The potential for touching and/or interlocking of rotating wheels, combined with the frangible and rutted nature of the track surface itself, makes the occurrence of x-axis [8] rollovers routine. In addition, the rollovers themselves are usually at a high enough speed so that very violent dynamics and occupant accelerations occur. The accelerative vectors present an unusual set of challenges to the restraint systems employed. In this work, we examine a single dirt-track rollover event.
Technical Paper

Analysis of 1994 Indianapolis 500-Mile Race and Practice Accidents

During the month of May, 1994, there were a total of 15 accidents at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway (IMS). Of this total, six accidents occurred during practice and/or Qualifications Attempts and nine occurred during the 78th running of the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race. All six practice accidents were analyzed through the use of videography, skidmark measurements, photographs, angle of wall impact (if a wall impact occurred), vehicle damage and yaw angle measurements. The accidents were categorized according to type and severity, mechanical failure or driver error, speed at the initiation of the accident sequence, driver injury (if injuries occurred), weather, track and traffic conditions. Race accidents were also analyzed. The study represents the continuation of a long-term program to catalog, analyze and reconstruct accidents at IMS.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Properties of Indy Cars

A. brief survey of vehicle dynamics and aerodynamics papers pertinent to open wheeled racing cars is presented. In this work, the aerodynamics of Indy cars have been studied from both a lift and drag point of view. A standardized definition of lifting area for ground effects vehicles and performance observations made through the use of radar and track simulations were used. Values for negative lift magnitude were determined, lifting area was photogrammetrically measured, and a lift coefficient appropriate for Indy cars was developed. Drag area, also obtained photogrammetrically, and drag coefficients were developed. Mechanical measurements of vehicles and wind tunnel experiments were used to estimate total drag and subsequent values for drag coefficients. These values correspond with energy balance calculations based on available engine power. A sensitivity study of the performance parameters of Indy cars was performed, with emphasis on enhancing top speed.