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Technical Paper

Understanding Fuel Stratification Effects on Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) Combustion and Emissions Behaviors

2019-04-02
2019-01-1145
Fuel stratification effects on the combustion and emissions behaviors for partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion of a high reactivity gasoline (research octane number of 80) was investigated using the third generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen3 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The PPCI combustion mode was achieved through a double injection strategy. The extent of in-cylinder fuel stratification was tailored by varying the start of second fuel injection timing (SOIsecond) while the first fuel injection event was held constant and occurred during the intake stroke. Based on the experimental results, three combustion characteristic zones were identified in terms of the SOIsecond - CA50 (crank angle at 50% cumulative heat release) relationship: (I) no response zone (HCCI-like combustion); (II) negative CA50 slope zone: (early PPCI mode); and (III) positive CA50 slope zone (late PPCI mode).
Journal Article

The Impact of Spark Discharge Pattern on Flame Initiation in a Turbulent Lean and Dilute Mixture in a Pressurized Combustion Vessel

2013-04-08
2013-01-1627
An operational scheme with fuel-lean and exhaust gas dilution in spark-ignited engines increases thermal efficiency and decreases NOx emission, while these operations inherently induce combustion instability and thus large cycle-to-cycle variation in engine. In order to stabilize combustion variations, the development of an advanced ignition system is becoming critical. To quantify the impact of spark-ignition discharge, ignitability tests were conducted in an optically accessible combustion vessel to characterize the flame kernel development of lean methane-air mixture with CO₂ simulating exhaust diluent. A shrouded fan was used to generate turbulence in the vicinity of J-gap spark plug and a Variable Output Ignition System (VOIS) capable of producing a varied set of spark discharge patterns was developed and used as an ignition source. The main feature of the VOIS is to vary the secondary current during glow discharge including naturally decaying and truncated with multiple strikes.
Technical Paper

Spray-Wall Dynamics of High-Pressure Impinging Combustion

2019-01-15
2019-01-0067
The fuel spray impingement on the piston head and/or chamber often occurs in compact IC engines. The impingement plays one of the key roles in combustion because it affects the air-fuel mixing process. In this study, the impinged combustion has been experimentally investigated to understand the mechanism and dynamics of flame-wall interaction. The experiments were performed in a constant volume combustion chamber over a wide range of ambient conditions. The ambient temperature was varied from 800 K to 1000 K and ambient gas oxygen was varied from 15% to 21%. Diesel fuel was injected with an injection pressure of 150 MPa into ambient gas at a density of 22.8 kg/m3. The natural luminosity technique was applied in the experiments to explore the impinged combustion process. High-speed images were taken using a high-speed camera from two different views (bottom and side). An in-house Matlab program was used to post-process the images.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Visualization for Single-Hole Diesel Injector under Vaporizing Conditions with Numerical Validation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1406
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Emission Characteristics of High-Pressure Dimethyl Ether (DME) under Different Engine Ambient Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0319
Particular matter (PM) has been greatly concerned over the recent decades due to the constantly increasing restriction on its effect on environmental aspect. Oxygenated fuel such as dimethyl ether (DME) has been known to have beneficial impact on diesel engine emissions in terms of zero soot formation. In current study, under several ambient conditions including surrounding gas temperature and oxygen percentages, soot and emission formation of DME spray is investigated to provide a comparison with other diesel surrogate (n-heptane) and JP-8 surrogate fuels. One important work is to develop a number of chemical kinetic mechanisms with soot chemistry including the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitro oxides (NOx) formation. Using the developing detailed mechanisms, several numerical approaches were introduced to provide an integrated picture of emission formations.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Spark Ignition Events in Lean and Dilute Methane/Air Mixtures Using a Detailed Energy Deposition Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0609
It is beneficial but challenging to operate spark-ignition engines under highly lean and dilute conditions. The unstable ignition behavior can result in downgraded combustion performance in engine cylinders. Numerical approach is serving as a promising tool to identify the ignition requirements by providing insight into the complex physical/chemical phenomena. An effort to simulate the early stage of flame kernel initiation in lean and dilute fuel/air mixture has been made and discussed in this paper. The simulations are set to validate against laboratory results of spark ignition behavior in a constant volume combustion vessel. In order to present a practical as well as comprehensive ignition model, the simulations are performed by taking into consideration the discharge circuit analysis, the detailed reaction mechanism, and local heat transfer between the flame kernel and spark plug.
Technical Paper

Numerical Evaluation of Gasoline Compression Ignition at Cold Conditions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0778
Achieving robust ignitability for compression ignition of diesel engines at cold conditions is traditionally challenging due to insufficient fuel vaporization, heavy wall impingement, and thick wall films. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has shown good potential to offer enhanced NOx-soot tradeoff with diesel-like fuel efficiency, but it is unknown how the volatility and reactivity of the fuel will affect ignition under very cold conditions. Therefore, it is important to investigate the impact of fuel physical and chemical properties on ignition under pressures and temperatures relevant to practical engine operating conditions during cold weather. In this paper, 0-D and 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of GCI combustion at cold conditions were performed.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Heat Transfer and Thermophysical Properties on Dynamics of Droplet-Wall Interaction

2019-04-02
2019-01-0296
Fuel spray-wall interaction frequently occurs on intake manifold wall in the port fuel injection engine and on the piston in the direct injection engine, especially during the cold start. The heat transfer between the spray and wall is involved in this interaction process and influences the dynamics of the impinged spray which can further affect the engine performance. The physics of impact dynamics of a single droplet serves as a fundamental for better comprehension of spray impingement. In our previous studies, we have focused on diesel droplets, at ambient temperature, impinging on both heated and non-heated wall and found impinged droplet morphology differences. To understand the effect of heat transfer and thermophysical properties on dynamics of droplet-wall interaction better, droplet temperature variation was introduced in this study. Therefore, different conditions were framed to explore the impact of thermophysical properties of the droplet.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Geometry of a Diesel Single-Hole Injector on Liquid and Vapor Phase Distributions at Engine-Like Conditions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0038
The paper describes an experimental activity on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel at engine-like conditions. The influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio) has been studied by spraying fuel in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. A high-speed imaging system, capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and Schlieren images in a near simultaneous fashion mode along the same line of sight, has been developed at the Michigan Technological University using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies have been performed at three injection pressures (70, 120 and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Impinged Diesel Spray Combustion Evaluation for Indirect Air-Fuel Mixing Processes and Its Comparison with Non-Vaporing Impinging Spray Under Diesel Engine Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0267
Under low-temperature combustion for the high fuel efficiency and low emissions achievement, the fuel impingement often occurs in diesel engines with direct injection especially for a short distance between the injector and piston head/cylinder wall. Spray impingement plays an important role in the mixing-controlled combustion phase since it affects the air-fuel mixing rate through the disrupted event by the impingement. However, the degree of air entrainment into the spray is hard to be directly evaluated. Since the high spray expansion rate could allow more opportunity for fuel to mix with air, in this study, the expansion rate of impinged flame is quantified and compared with the spray expansion rate under non-vaporizing conditions. The experiments were conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber with an ambient density of 22.8 kg/m3 and the injection pressure of 150 MPa.
Technical Paper

High Pressure Impinging Spray Film Formation Characteristics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0312
Fuel film formed in the spray-piston or cylinder wall impingement plays a critical role in engine performance and emissions. In this paper, the fuel film formation and the relevant film characteristics resulting from the liquid spray impinging on a flat plate were investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel by Refractive Index Matching (RIM) technique. The liquid film thickness was firstly calibrated with two different proportional mixtures (5% n-dodecane and 95% n-heptane; 10% n-dodecane and 90% n-heptane by volume) pumped out from a precise syringe to achieve an accurate calibration. After calibration, n-heptane fuel from a side-mounted single-hole diesel injector was then injected on a roughened glass with the same optical setup. The ambient temperature and the plate temperature are set to 423 K with the fuel temperature of 363 K.
Technical Paper

HEUI Injector Modeling and ROI Experiments for High Injection Pressure of Diesel and Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0855
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is considered a clean alternative fuel to diesel due to its soot-free combustion characteristics and its capability to be produced from renewable energy sources rather than fossil fuels such as coal or petroleum. To mitigate the effect of strong wave dynamics on fuel supply lines caused due to the high compressibility of DME and to overcome its low lubricity, a hydraulically actuated electronic unit injector (HEUI) with pressure intensification was used. The study focuses on high pressure operation, up to 2000 bar, significantly higher than pressure ranges reported previously with DME. A one-dimensional HEUI injector model is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK graphical software environment, to predict the rate of injection (ROI) profile critical to spray and combustion characterization.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of Water Spray Injection at Engine-Relevant Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0250
Water spray characterization of a multi-hole injector under pressures and temperatures representative of engine-relevant conditions was investigated for naturally aspirated and boosted engine conditions. Experiments were conducted in an optically accessible pressure vessel using a high-speed Schlieren imaging to visualize the transient water spray. The experimental conditions included a range of injection pressures of 34, 68, and 102 bar and ambient temperatures of 30 - 200°C, which includes flash-boiling and non-flash-boiling conditions. Transient spray tip penetration and spray angle were characterized via image processing of raw Schlieren images using Matlab code. The CONVERGE CFD software was used to simulate the water spray obtained experimentally in the vessel. CFD parameters were tuned and validated against the experimental results of spray profile and spray tip penetration measured in the combustion vessel (CV).
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Study of Flame Kernel Formation Processes of Propane-Air Mixture in a Pressurized Combustion Vessel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0696
Fuel lean combustion and exhaust gas dilution are known to increase the thermal efficiency and reduce NOx emissions. In this study, experiments are performed to understand the effect of equivalence ratio on flame kernel formation and flame propagation around the spark plug for different low turbulent velocities. A series of experiments are carried out for propane-air mixtures to simulate engine-like conditions. For these experiments, equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.9 are tested with 20 percent mass-based exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Turbulence is generated by a shrouded fan design in the vicinity of J-spark plug. A closed loop feedback control system is used for the fan to generate a consistent flow field. The flow profile is characterized by using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. High-speed Schlieren visualization is used for the spark formation and flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Compression Ignition Process of High Reactivity Gasoline Fuels and E10 Certification Gasoline using a High-Pressure Direct Injection Gasoline Injector

2020-04-14
2020-01-0323
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) technology shows potential to obtain high thermal efficiencies while maintaining relatively low soot and NOx emissions in light-duty engine applications. Recent experimental studies and numerical simulations have indicated that high reactivity gasoline-like fuels can further enable the benefits of GCI combustion. However, there is limited combustion data in the literature studying the gasoline compression ignition process at relevant in-cylinder conditions which are required for further optimizing combustion system designs. This study investigates the temporal and spatial evolution of the compression ignition process of various high reactivity gasolines with research octane numbers (RON) of 71, 74 and 82, as well as conventional RON 97 E10 gasoline fuel. Combustion visualizations were conducted in an optically accessible constant volume combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Diesel Spray-Wall Interaction and Morphology around Impingement Location

2018-04-03
2018-01-0276
The necessity to study spray-wall interaction in internal combustion engines is driven by the evidence that fuel sprays impinge on chamber and piston surfaces resulting in the formation of wall films. This, in turn, may influence the air-fuel mixing and increase the hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions. This work reports an experimental and numerical study on spray-wall impingement and liquid film formation in a constant volume combustion vessel. Diesel and n-heptane were selected as test fuels and injected from a side-mounted single-hole diesel injector at injection pressures of 120, 150, and 180 MPa on a flat transparent window. Ambient and plate temperatures were set at 423 K, the fuel temperature at 363 K, and the ambient densities at 14.8, 22.8, and 30 kg/m3. Simultaneous Mie scattering and schlieren imaging were carried out in the experiment to perform a visual tracking of the spray-wall interaction process from different perspectives.
Technical Paper

Empirical Modeling of Electrical Discharge in an Inert Medium at High-speed Flows

2020-04-14
2020-01-1120
Energy discharge models have been used to gain insights into the spark discharge process and early flame kernel development in spark-ignition engines. However, the existing models are reported to be applicable for a limited range of gas pressures and flow fields. This study aims to evaluate these models and propose an improved one to predict the spark ignition at pressurized conditions up to 45 bar and high-speed flows up to 32 m/s. The model captures the spark discharge behavior that has been observed experimentally in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. This includes discharge characteristics and the occurrence of the spark blowouts and re-strikes. Results indicate that the voltage and current waveforms of the spark discharge are correlated to the flow velocity across the spark plug gap. Further investigations were performed to study the stretching rate of the spark channel under the high crossflow.
Technical Paper

Effect of Combustion on Diesel Spray Penetrations in Relation to Vaporizing, Non-Reacting Sprays

2016-10-17
2016-01-2201
Extensive studies have addressed diesel sprays under non-vaporizing, vaporizing and combusting conditions respectively, but further insights into the mechanism by which combustion alters the macroscopic characteristics including the spray penetration and the shape of the spray under diesel engine conditions are needed. Contradictory observations are reported in the literature regarding the combusting diesel spray penetration compared to the inert conditions, and it is an objective of this study to provide further insights and analyses on the combusting spray characteristics by expanding the range of operating parameters. Parameters varied in the studies are charge gas conditions including oxygen levels of 0 %, 15%, 19%, charge densities of 22.8 & 34.8 kg/m3, and charge temperatures of 800, 900 & 1050 K for injection pressures of 1200, 1500, and 1800 bar with a single-hole injector with a nozzle diameter of 100 μm.
Technical Paper

Development of a Transient Spray Cone Angle Correlation for CFD Simulations at Diesel Engine Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0304
The accurate modeling of fuel spray behavior under diesel engine conditions requires well-characterized boundary conditions. Among those conditions, the spray cone angle is important due to its impact on the spray mixing process, flame lift-off locations and subsequent soot formation. The spray cone angle is a highly dynamic variable, but existing correlations have been developed mainly for diesel fuels at quasi-steady state and relatively low injection pressures. The objective of this study was to develop spray cone angle correlations for both diesel and a light-end gasoline fuel over a wide range of diesel-engine operating conditions that are capable of capturing both the transient and quasi-steady state processes. Two important macroscopic characteristics of solid cone sprays, the spray cone angle and spray penetration, were measured using a single-hole heavy-duty injector using two fuels at diesel engine conditions in an optical constant volume vessel.
Technical Paper

Development of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism for Dimethyl Ether (DME) with Comprehensive Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and NOx Chemistry

2015-04-14
2015-01-0807
Dimethyl ether (DME) appears to be an attractive alternative to common fossil fuels in compression ignition engines due to its smokeless combustion and fast mixture formation. However, in order to fully understand the complex combustion process of DME, there is still a remaining need to develop a comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism that includes both soot and NOx chemistry. In this study, a detailed DME mechanism with 305 species is developed from the basic DME mechanism of Curran et al. (2000) with addition of soot and NOx chemistry from Howard's mechanism et al. (1999), and GRI 3.0 mechanism, respectively. Soot chemistry in Howard mechanism consisting hydrogen abstraction acetylene addition (HACA) and growth of small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), assesses over a wide range of temperature and is able to predict good to fair the formation of PAH up to coronene.
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