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Technical Paper

Whole Field Bonded Steel Tensile Test Using Digital Image Correlation System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0960
Adhesive bonding has many applications in the automotive industry. The single-lapped bonded joint is the most typically used among various bonding types. This paper presents experimental research for determining the strain field of the single-lapped joint under tensile loading. The materials for the joint are epoxy-based structural adhesive and low-carbon electrolytic zinc steel plate. In the study, a DIC (digital image correlation) system was adopted to measure the strain distribution of the bonded joint during a tensile test. The bonded steel coupons in the tensile test were prepared according to the ASTM standard. During the measurement, images of the coupon joint were taken before and after the deformation process. Then the DIC system measured the strain of bonded joint by comparing two consecutive images. The measured data from the DIC was compared to data taken simultaneously from a traditional extensometer.
Technical Paper

The Research on Edge Tearing with Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0593
Material formability is a very important aspect in the automotive stamping, which must be tested for the success of manufacturing. One of the most important sheet metal formability parameters for the stamping is the edge tear-ability. In this paper, a novel test method has been present to test the aluminum sheet edge tear-ability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) system. The newly developed test specimen and fixture design are also presented. In order to capture the edge deformation and strain, sample's edge surface has been sprayed with artificial speckle. A standard MTS tensile machine was used to record the tearing load and displacement. Through the data processing and evaluation of sequence image, testing results are found valid and reliable. The results show that the 3D DIC system with double CCD can effectively carry out sheet edge tear deformation. The edge tearing test method is found to be a simple, reliable, high precision, and able to provide useful results.
Technical Paper

The Research Progress of Dynamic Photo-Elastic Method

2014-04-01
2014-01-0829
With the rapid development of computing technology, high-speed photography system and image processing recently, in order to meet growing dynamic mechanical engineering problems demand, a brief description of advances in recent research which solved some key problems of dynamic photo-elastic method will be given, including:(1) New digital dynamic photo-elastic instrument was developed. Multi-spark discharge light source was replaced by laser light source which was a high intensity light source continuous and real-time. Multiple cameras shooting system was replaced by high-speed photography system. The whole system device was controlled by software. The image optimization collection was realized and a strong guarantee was provided for digital image processing. (2)The static and dynamic photo-elastic materials were explored. The new formula and process of the dynamic photo-elastic model materials will be introduced. The silicon rubber mold was used without the release agent.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Edge Quality on Edge Stretching Limit for Aluminum Alloy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0416
This paper presents the measurement and analysis of the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy using digital image correlation. The edge stretching limit, also known as the “edge thinning limit,” is the maximum thinning strain at a point of edge failure resulting from tension; which may be predisposed by edge quality. Edge fracture is a vital failure mode in sheet metal forming, however it is very difficult to measure. A previous study enabled the measurement of edge thinning strain by using advanced digital image correlation but it did not consider how the edge quality could affect the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy. This paper continues to measure edge thinning strain by comparing polished to unpolished AA5754, thus determining the effect edge quality has on the edge stretching limit. To enable the measurement by optical method for a very long and thin sample, a notch is used to localize where edge failure occurs.
Technical Paper

The Digital Image Correlation Technique Applied to Hole Drilling Residual Stress Measurement

2014-04-01
2014-01-0825
The residual stresses found in components are mainly due to thermal, mechanical and metallurgical changes of material. The manufacturing processes such as fabrication, assembly, welding, rolling, heat treatment, shot peening etc. generate residual stresses in material. The influence of residual stress can be beneficial or detrimental depending on nature and distribution of the residual stress in material. In general, the compressive residual stress can increase the fatigue life of material because it provides greater resistance for crack initiation and propagation. A significant number of improvements for residual stress measurement techniques have occurred in last few decades. The most popular technique of residual stress measurement is based on the principle of strain gage rosette and hole drilling (ASTM E837-01, destructive).
Technical Paper

Test of Inclined Double Beads on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1221
Draw beads are widely used in the binder of a draw die for regulating the restraining force and control the draw-in of a metal blank. Different sheet materials and local panel geometry request different local draw bead configurations. Even the majority of draw bead is single draw bead, the alternative double draw bead does have its advantages, such as less bending damage may be brought to the sheet material and more bead geometry features available to work on. In this paper, to measure the pulling force when a piece of sheet metal passing through a draw bead on an inclined binder, the AA5XXX and AA6XXX materials were tested and its strain were measured with a digital image correlation (DIC) system. Five different types of double bead configurations were tested. The beads are installed in a Stretch-Bend-Draw-System (SBDS) test device. The clearance between a male and a female bead is 10% thicker than the sheet material. A tensile machine was used to record the pulling force.
Technical Paper

Tensile Test for Polymer Plastics with Extreme Large Elongation Using Quad-Camera Digital Image Correlation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0418
Polymer plastics are widely used in automotive light weight design. Tensile tests are generally used to obtain material stress-strain curves. Due to the natural of the plastic materials, it could be elongated more than several hundred percent of its original length before breaking. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Analysis is a precise, full field, optical measurement method. It has been accepted as a practical in-field testing method by the industry. However, with the traditional single-camera or dual-camera DIC system, it is nearly impossible to measure the extreme large strain. This paper introduces a unique experimental procedure for large elongation measurement. By utilization of quad-camera DIC system and data stitch technique, the strain history for plastic material under hundreds percent of elongation can be measured. With a quad-camera DIC system, the correlation was conducted between two adjacent cameras.
Technical Paper

Study on Frictional Behavior of AA 6XXX with Three Lube Conditions in Sheet Metal Forming

2018-04-03
2018-01-0810
Light-weighting vehicles cause an increase in Aluminum Alloy stamping processes in the Automotive Industry. Surface finish and lubricants of aluminum alloy (AA) sheet play an important role in the deep drawing processes as they can affect the friction condition between the die and the sheet. This paper aims to develop a reliable and practical laboratory test method to experimentally investigate the influence of surface finish, lubricant conditions, draw-bead clearances and pulling speed on the frictional sliding behavior of AA 6XXX sheet metal. A new double-beads draw-bead-simulator (DBS) system was used to conduct the simulated test to determine the frictional behavior of an aluminium alloy with three surface lubricant conditions: mill finish (MF) with oil lube, electric discharge texture (EDT) finish with oil lube and mill finish (MF) with dry lube (DL).
Technical Paper

Study of Incremental Bending Test on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-0807
Bendability is one of the most important formability characteristics in sheet metal forming, so it has to be understood for robust aluminum stamping process designs. Crack is one of the major failure modes in aluminum sheet bending. In this study, a new “incremental bending” method is proposed to reduce the risk of bending failure. A novel laboratory test methodology is conducted to test the 5xxx series aluminum sheet bendability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) measurement system. The designs of test apparatus and test procedure are introduced in this paper. Through the data processing and evaluation of a sequence image acquisition, the major strain histories within the zone of the through thickness crack of test samples are measured. Testing results show that incremental bending is capable of reducing peak strain on the outer surface obviously compared with traditional non-incremental bending. The more step, more movement, the more peak strain reduction.
Journal Article

Spatial Phase-Shift Digital Shearography for Out-of-Plane Deformation Measurement

2014-04-01
2014-01-0824
Measuring deformation under dynamic loading is still a key problem in the automobile industry. The first spatial phase-shift shearography system for relative deformation measurement is reported. Traditional temporal phase-shift technique-based shearography systems are capable of measuring relative deformation by using a reference object. However, due to its low acquisition rate, the existing temporal phase-shift shearography system can be only used under static loading situations. This paper introduces a digital shearography system which utilizes the spatial phase-shift technique to obtain an extremely high acquisition rate. The newly developed spatial phase-shift shearography system uses a Michelson-Interferometer as the shearing device. A high power laser at 532nm wavelength is used as the light source. A one mega pixels high speed CCD camera is used to record the speckle pattern interference.
Technical Paper

Research on Shear Test of New Style Automotive Structural Adhesive

2014-04-01
2014-01-0828
In this paper, Digital Image Correlation Method (DICM) is employed to measure the shear mechanical property of the new style automotive structural adhesive specimens and traditional spot welded specimens under quasi static uniaxial shear tensile test. This experiment adopts a non-contact measuring method to measure the strain of specimens. A CCD and a computer image processing system are used to capture and record the real-time surface images of the specimens before and after deformation. Digital correlation software is used to process the imagines before and after deformation to obtain the specimen's strain of the moment. And then both the force-displacement curve and the stress-strain curve during the tensile process could be obtained. The test and analysis results show that the new style structural adhesive specimens have a great advantage with the spot welded specimens. It provides experimental evidence for further improvement of this structural adhesive.
Journal Article

Quality Inspection of Spot Welds using Digital Shearography

2012-04-16
2012-01-0182
Spot Welding is an important welding technique which is widely used in automotive and aerospace industry. One of the keys of checking the quality of the welds is measuring the size of the nugget. In this paper, the Shearographic technique is utilized to test weld joint samples under the thermal loading condition. The goal is to identify the different group of the nuggets (i.e. small, middle, and large sizes, which indicate the quality of spot welds). In the experiments, the sample under test is fixed by a magnet method from behind at the four edges. Thermal loading was applied in the back side and the sample is inspected using the digital Shearographic system in the front side. Results show the great possibility of classifying the nugget size into three groups and the measurement is well repeatable.
Technical Paper

Property and Fiber Orientation Determination for Carbon Fiber Composite

2018-04-03
2018-01-1216
Unexpected severe failures occur during the warm forming procedure of carbon fiber material due to the existence of extremely large deformation/strain. To evaluate this failure, a good understanding the accurate material property under certain loading is important to evaluate the forming feasibility of carbon fiber material. Also, a clear connection between the fiber orientation and the material property helps to increase the accuracy of the forming prediction. Therefore, an experimental test is needed to evaluate the material property as well as the fiber orientation. In this paper, a uniaxial tension test for the prepreg carbon fiber under the warm forming condition is performed. A halogen lamp is used to heat the specimen to reach the warm forming condition. A 3D Digital Image Correlation (3D-DIC) is utilized to measure the material property and the fiber orientation in this test, along with a DIP system.
Technical Paper

Non-Destructive Evaluation of Spot Weld Using Digital Shearography

2005-04-11
2005-01-0491
Spot Welding is now widely used in the fabrication of sheet metals, mainly due to the cost and time considerations. Spot welds are found in nearly all products where sheet metal is joined. Examples range from a single metal toolbox to nearly 10,000 spot welds found in a typical passenger car. Obviously the quality of the spot weld has a direct impact on the quality of the product. The problem of estimating the spot-weld quality is an important component in quality control. If the weld nuggets are improperly or incompletely formed, or the area surrounding the nugget is smaller than required, the structural integrity of the entire part may be uncertain. Furthermore these inconsistencies are usually internal and are seldom visible to Optical Inspection. This study is focused on the non-destructive evaluation of the spot welds using “Digital Shearography”.
Technical Paper

NDT of Weld Joints Using Shearographic Interferometry and Dynamic Exciation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0996
Weld Joints are widely used in automotive and aerospace industry. The main issue in the weld joints is the quality inspection to detect the disconnection in the welded area. In this paper, Shearographic technique with dynamic excitation is introduced to test the weld joints. In the experiments, the coupons are of 4 very thin layers of metal sheets welded together. The goal is to find out if there are any disconnections between the layers. They are clamped and then excited by a PZT actuator from behind. A real time digital Shearographic system with a self-refreshed reference image technology has been developed to display the measuring result, i.e. shearogram. A big range of driving frequencies is scanned to find the proper frequency and amplitude that can help to identify the disconnections. The results show that when the driving frequency reaches the resonance frequency, there will be big amplitude and thus a fringe pattern becomes visible on the coupon surface.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Thermal Residual Strain Induced During the Hardening of a Sheet Metal and Reinforced Composite by Digital Shearography

2005-04-11
2005-01-0895
Shearography is an interferometric, non-contact and full field method for direct measurement of first derivatives of deformation (strain). It is relatively insensitive to environmental disturbances and has been proven to be a practical measuring tool for nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT/NDE). In this paper it has been employed to study the thermal residual strains produced during the reinforcement of a composite to a sheet metal. The reinforced composite is used as an additive to provide extra strength to the sheet metal. The reinforcement process involves gradual heating of the glued composite to a temperature of around 175°C - 180°C and then allowing it cool down to room temperature. During the heating process both the composite and the sheet metal are strained, but during the cooling process some amount of strain is left behind in the sheet metal and it has a key role to play when the product is used for critical parts in automobile and aircraft industries.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Strain Distribution for Hole Expansion with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0993
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are increasingly used in automotive industry. A major issue for AHSS stamping is edge cracking. This failure mode is difficult to predict by conventional forming limit curve (FLC). The material edge stretchability is mainly evaluated using the hole expansion test. In this study, digital Image Correlation (DIC) is applied for strain measurement. DIC is a non-contact, full field, high accuracy and direct measurement technique that provides more detailed information for the evolution of strains on the sheet surface. Tests were conducted for five AHSS and nine cases. This paper will explain in detail the DIC technique and its results.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Aluminum Edge Stretching Limit Using 3D Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0594
This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens systems are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that refer to the notched coupon thickness, pre-tension does not affect the fracture limit; refer to the virgin sheet thickness, the average edge stretch thinning limits show a consistent increasing trend as the pre-stretch strain increased.
Technical Paper

Measure of Forming Limit Strain on the Aluminum Sheets Passed Through Draw-Bead by Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0598
Accurate determination of the forming limit strain of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by industry. Also, the effects of draw beads (enhanced forming limit behaviors), normally reported on steel sheet metals, on aluminum sheet metal is not fully understood. This paper introduces an experimental study on draw bead effects on aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0) of the sheet metal. Two kinds of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material conditions are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests were performed to create a plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to record and measure the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
Technical Paper

Improving Material Property Measurement by Using Multi-Camera Digital Image Correlation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1428
In this work, a multi-camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is applied to measure the material properties of aluminum (5754) specimens. Such tests are usually done using 2D (one-camera) or 3D (two-camera) DIC systems. A multi-camera DIC system includes three or more cameras and inherits all the advantages of a conventional 3D DIC system (with two cameras) such as, full-field measurement, high accuracy and high speed. In addition, this system further improves the measured results by including redundant data. In this work, we will show the potential of this system to measure a variety of material properties at one time.
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