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Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Cold Start Emissions from a Two-Stage Direct Injection Gasoline Engines Employing the Total Stoichiometric Ratio and Local Rich Mixture Start-up Strategy

To improve the cold start performance and to reduce the misfire occurrence at cold start, the start-up strategy of total stoichiometric ratio combined with local rich mixture was applied in the study. The effect of injection strategy (the 1st injection timing, 2nd injection timing, 1st and 2nd fuel injection proportion and ignition timing) on the cold start HC emissions in the initial 10 cycles were investigated in a Two stage direct injection (TSDI) gasoline engine. The transient HC and NO emissions in the initial 10 cycles were analyzed, when the fuels are injected in the only 1st cycle and in the followed all cycles. The transient misfiring HC emissions were compared between the single and two-stage injection modes. In addition, the unburned HC (UBHC) emissions in the 1st cycle are compared among the TSDI engine, Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, Port fuel injection (PFI) engine and Liquefied petroleum gaseous (LPG) engine at the stoichiometric ratio.
Technical Paper

The Social Economical Benefit Estimation by HEVs Application-Shanghai Case Study

In this paper, a case study of Shanghai HEVs application and its effects on the social and environmental benefits are presented based on the multi views on the different aspects, such as, not only for the fuel consumption saving, but also emissions reduction and health effect, agriculture loss and cleaning cost. The results show that the potential benefits for the society from HEVs application are markedly with the increase of the ratio of HEV in the population of vehicle. Based on this, the policy to promote the HEV purchased by consumers is very important at the beginning of HEV into market.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Intake Dilution and Combustion Phasing on the Combustion Stability of a Diesel Engine

Conventionally, the diesel fuel ignites spontaneously following the injection event. The combustion and injection often overlap with a very short ignition delay. Diesel engines therefore offer superior combustion stability characterized by the low cycle-to-cycle variations. However, the enforcement of the stringent emission regulations necessitates the implementation of innovative diesel combustion concepts such as the low temperature combustion (LTC) to achieve ultra-low engine-out pollutants. In stark contrast to the conventional diesel combustion, the enabling of LTC requires enhanced air fuel mixing and hence a longer ignition delay is desired. Such a decoupling of the combustion events from the fuel injection can potentially cause ignition discrepancy and ultimately lead to combustion cyclic variations.
Technical Paper

The Characteristic of Transient HC Emissions of the First Firing Cycle During Cold Start on an LPG SI Engine

The first firing cycle is very important for cold-start. Misfire of the first firing cycle can lead to significant HC emissions and affect the subsequent cycles. The first firing cycle for Gasoline SI engine have been reported in many studies. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel has been widely used in commercial vehicles during the last decade. However, the properties of the first firing cycle for LPG SI engine have been seldom reported. This paper presents an investigation of the characteristics of transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle during cold start on a LPG SI engine. A fast-response flame ionization detector (FFID) was applied to measure transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle in the exhaust port of the engine. At the same time, the transient cylinder pressure and instantaneous crankshaft speed of the engine were measured and recorded.
Technical Paper

Study on Fuel Economy Improvement by Low Pressure Water-Cooled EGR System on a Downsized Boosted Gasoline Engine

This research was concerned with the use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) improving the fuel economy over a wide operating range in a downsized boosted gasoline engine. The experiments were performed in a 1.3-Litre turbocharged PFI gasoline engine, equipped with a Low Pressure (LP) water-cooled EGR system. The operating conditions varied from 1500rpm to 4000rpm and BMEP from 2bar to 17bar. Meanwhile, the engine’s typical operating points in NEDC cycle were tested separately. The compression ratio was also changed from 9.5 to 10.5 to pursue a higher thermal efficiency. A pre-compressor throttle was used in the experiment working together with the EGR loop to keep enough EGR rate over a large area of the engine speed and load map. The results indicated that, combined with a higher compression ratio, the LP-EGR could help to reduce the BSFC by 9∼12% at high-load region and 3∼5% at low-load region.
Technical Paper

Study on Diesel Atomization Characteristics for Hot Exhaust Gas Burner

A hot exhaust gas burner system is applied to break through the limitations of the traditional diesel engine bench. Sufficient atomization is needed to realize spark ignition in a low-pressure burner system. Hence, the design of the atomization system is studied both experimentally and numerically. Through the reasonable optimization of the nozzle diameter, the air assist pressure, the angle among the four nozzles of four V-structures as well as the diameter and the angle of co-flow holes, an even distribution of small diesel droplets in the ignition area of the burner is realized. Consequently, diesel spray can be spark ignited in a low-pressure burner system, which can simulate the diesel exhaust. And the DPF can be installed downstream of the burner to quickly analyze the effect of ash accumulation on the DPF.
Technical Paper

Starting process control of a 2-cylinder PFI gasoline engine for range extender

With the increasing worldwide concern on environmental pollution, blade electrical vehicles (BEV) have attracted a lot attention. However, it still couldn’t satisfy the market requirements because of the low battery power density, high cost and long charging time. The range-extended electrical vehicle (REEV) got more attention because it could avoid the mileage anxiety of the BEVs with lower cost and potentially higher efficiency. When internal combustion engine (ICE) works as the power source of range extender (RE) for REEV, its NVH, emissions in starting process need to be optimized. In this paper, a 2-cylinder PFI gasoline engine and a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are coaxially connected. Meanwhile, batteries and load systems were equipped. The RE co-control system was developed based on Compact RIO, Labview and motor control unit (MCU).
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Biodiesel and Diesel Fuels under High Injection Pressure with a Common Rail System

Biodiesel has been paid more and more attention as a renewable fuel due to some excellent properties such as renewable, high cetane number, ultralow sulfur content, no aromatic hydrocarbon, high flash point, low CO2 emission when compared with diesel. While others physical properties like high viscosity, high surface tension, big density and bad volatility would spoil the spray characteristics of biodiesel fuel, which will affect the thermal efficiency when running in diesel engine. Accompanied with constant volume vessel and high speed video camera system, a high pressure common rail system, which could provide an injection pressure of 180 MPa, is used to investigate the characteristics of jatropha curcas biodiesel, palm oil biodiesel and diesel fuel. The effects of injection pressures and ambient densities on spray characteristics of these fuels are studied.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Intake Manifold Water Injection in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine for Performance and Emissions Enhancement

The present work discusses the effects of intake manifold water injection in a six-cylinder heavy duty natural gas (NG) engine through one-dimensional simulation. The numerical study was carried out based on GT-Power under different engine working conditions. The established simulation model was firstly calibrated in detail through the whole engine speed sweep under full load conditions before the model of intake manifold water injector was involved, and the calibration was based on experimental data. The intake manifold water injection mass was controlled through adjustment of intake water/gas (water/natural gas) ratio, a water/gas ratio swept from 0 to 4 was selected to investigate the effects of intake manifold water injection on engine performance and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, the enhancement potential of intake manifold water injection in heavy duty NG engine under lean and stoichiometric condition was also investigated by the alteration of air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Research into Autoignition Characteristics of Diesel Fuel in a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere

A novel method is applied to analysis the autoignition phenomenon. Experiments on the study of autoignition characteristics of diesel fuel were carried out with a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustor. The results show that the method for autoignition studying of liquid fuel is of feasibility. Autoignition delay time and autoignition height from the nozzle increase with the coflow temperature decreasing and autoignition delay time changes sensitively under lower coflow temperature. Liftoff height of diesel spray flame decreases with the increasing of coflow temperature. Lower temperature causes higher variance of liftoff height. It might be speculated that there are two different mechanisms of flame stabilization that the lower lift-off heights flames are related to a balance between the flow velocity and flame speed while the higher lift-off heights flames are stabilized by the mixture autoignition.
Technical Paper

Power Matching and Control Strategy of Plug-in Series Hybrid Electric Car

In this paper, based on the plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle development project, the vehicle technology solutions and the match of power system parameters were analyzed. The vehicle control strategies were identified and optimized according to plug-in hybrid vehicle features. The plug-in series hybrid, rule-based logic threshold switching control strategy, charge depleting (CD) mode and charge-sustaining (CS) mode are chosen according to the key factors, such as the environment, performance requirements, technical requirements and cost. And then the structure and model of vehicle control strategy were established to carry out vehicle energy management and power system control. The parameter selection, electric drive system matching, energy storage system design based on the requirement of vehicle performance, system architecture and control strategy are presented.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Control Strategy for Engine Start-stop in a Plug-in Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) provide significantly improvement in fuel economy over conventional vehicles as well as reductions in greenhouse gas and petroleum. Numerous recent reports regarding control strategy, power train configuration, driving pattern, all electric range (AER) and their effects on fuel consumption and electric energy consumption of PHEVs are reported. Meanwhile, the control strategy for engine start-stop and mileage between recharging events from the electricity grid also has an important influence on the petroleum displacement potential of PHEVs, but few reports are published. In this paper, a detailed simulation model is set up for a plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle (PSHEV) employing the AVL CRUISE. The model was employed to predict the AER of the baseline PSHEV using rule-based logical threshold switching control strategy.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Intake Manifold Water Injection on Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

The performances of heavy-duty natural gas engines have been limited by combustion temperature and NOx emissions for a long time. Recently, water injection technology has been widely considered as a technical solution in reducing fuel consumption and emissions simultaneously in both gasoline and diesel engines. This paper focuses on the impacts of intake manifold water injection on characteristics of combustion and emissions in a natural gas heavy-duty engine through numerical methods. A computational model was setup and validated with experimental data of pressure traces in a CFD software coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The simulation was mainly carried out in low-speed and full-load conditions, and knock level was also measured and calculated by maximum amplitude of pressure oscillations (MAPO).
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation and Optimization of the Underhood Fluid Field and Cooling Performance for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicle under Different Driving Conditions

As the commercial vehicle increases staggeringly in China, environmental pollution and excessively fuel consumption can't be neglected anymore. Vehicle thermal management has been adopted by many vehicle manufactures as an ideal alternative to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emission by its cost-efficient and effective merit. In addition, the components in heavy duty commercial vehicle engine hood may suffer overheat harm. Hence investigating the thermal characteristics in engine hood can be an effective way to identify and dismiss the potential overheat harm. In terms of this, the paper has adopted CFD simulation method to obtain the comprehensive thermal flow field characteristics of engine hood in a heavy commercial vehicle. Then by analyzing the thermal flow field in engine hood, concerning optimization strategies were put forward to improve the thermal environment.
Technical Paper

Material Compatibilities of Biodiesels with Elastomers, Metals and Plastics in a Diesel Engine

The effects of biodiesel on the swelling of the elastomers and plastics and the corrosion of metals are studied by the immersion tests. The results indicate that biodiesels make little corrosion effect on aluminum, steel and little swelling impact on plastics, but a significant corrosion may be taken place on cooper and brass for some sourced biodiesels. For nitrile-butadiene rubber, the variation of swelling properties in biodiesels is slightly higher than that in diesel. For the non-diesel-resistant elatomers, the variation of swelling properties is lower than those in diesel. The production process and biodiesel source have an influence on the result of elastomer swelling and corrosion. The relationship between the impact of biodiesel on materials and biodiesels properties are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Matching Optimum for Low HC and CO Emissions at Warm-up Phase in an LPG EFI Small SI Engine

Based on a 125cm3 single cylinder SI engine, the designated idle speed was controlled by adjusting of cycle ignition advance angle. By analyzing the effects of different idle speed and throttle open position on three way catalyst (TWC) light-off time and conversion efficiency of HC and CO emissions, combined with the corresponding total HC and CO emissions level, the optimum idle speed and throttle open position at engine's warm-up phase were found by the matching optimum. The present method for engine control strategy is helpful to optimize the warm-up phase emission levels in SI engine with LPG fuel.
Technical Paper

Knock and Pre-Ignition Detection Using Ion Current Signal on a Boosted Gasoline Engine

In order to meet the ever more stringent demands on the CO2 emission reduction, downsized modern gasoline engine with highly boosted turbo charger meets new challenges such as super knock and pre-ignition, which will influence the engine combustion efficiency, smooth operation and even cause mechanical failure. A spark plug type ion current detection sensor was used in a 1.8L turbo charged gasoline engine. The ion-current wave signal differed greatly under different engine operating conditions such as without knock, with knock of different knock intensities. The frequency spectrum of ion-current was also studied, by the method of discrete Fourier transform (DFT). In knocking cycles, there were fluctuations of frequency 8-13 kHz both in the combustion pressure signal and in the ion current signal, proving the existence of knock information.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Measurement of Diluted Combustion Using a Multi-Electrode Spark Plug

Close-loop feedback combustion control is essential for improving the internal combustion engines to meet the rigorous fuel efficiency demands and emission legislations. A vital part is the combustion sensing technology that diagnoses in-cylinder combustion information promptly, such as using cylinder pressure sensor and ion current measurement. The promptness and fidelity of the diagnostic are particularly important to the potential success of using intra-cycle control for abnormal cycles such as super knocking and misfiring. Many research studies have demonstrated the use of ion-current sensing as feedback signal to control the spark ignition gasoline engines, with the spark gap shared for both ignition and ion-current detection. During the spark glow phase, the sparking current may affect the combustion ion current signal. Moreover, the electrode gap size is optimized for sparking rather than measurement of ion current.
Technical Paper

In-Cycle Knocking Detection and Feedback Control Based on In-Cylinder Pressure and Ion Current Signal in a GDI Engine

Due to much higher pressure and pressure rising rate, knocking is always of potential hazards causing damages in the engine and high NOX emissions. Therefore, the researchers have focused on knocking diagnosis and control for many years. However, there is still lack of fast response sensor detecting in-cycle knocking. Until now, the feedback control based on knocking sensor normally adjusts the injection and ignition parameters of the following cycles after knocking appears. Thus in-cycle knocking feedback control which requires a predictive combustion signal is still hard to see. Ion current signal is feasible for real-time in-cylinder combustion detection, and can be employed for misfiring and knocking detection. Based on incylinder pressure and ion current signals, the in-cycle knocking feedback control is investigated in this research. The 2nd-order differential of in-cylinder pressure, which means the response time of pressure rising rate dPR, is employed for knocking prediction.
Technical Paper

In Cycle Pre-ignition Diagnosis and Super-knock Suppression by Employing Ion Current in a GDI Boosted Engine

A low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) diagnostic strategy is designed based on the ion current signal. A novel diagnostic and additional fuel injection strategy is proposed to suppress super-knock induced by pre-ignition within the detected combustion cycle. A parallel controller system that integrates a regular engine control unit (ECU) and NI CompactRIO (cRIO) was employed. Based on this system, the diagnostic and suppression strategy can be implemented without any adaptions to the regular ECU. Experiments were investigated in a 1.5-liter four-cylinder, turbocharged, direct-injected gasoline engine. The experimental results show two kinds of pre-ignition, one occurs spontaneously, and another is induced by carbon deposits. Carbon deposits on the spark plug can strongly interfere with the ion current signal. By applying ion current signal, approximately 14.3% of spontaneous and 90% of carbon induced pre-ignition cycles can be detected.