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Journal Article

Visualization of Diesel Spray Penetration, Cool-Flame, Ignition, High-Temperature Combustion, and Soot Formation Using High-Speed Imaging

2009-04-20
2009-01-0658
Shadowgraph/schlieren imaging techniques have often been used for flow visualization of reacting and non-reacting systems. In this paper we show that high-speed shadowgraph visualization in a high-pressure chamber can also be used to identify cool-flame and high-temperature combustion regions of diesel sprays, thereby providing insight into the time sequence of diesel ignition and combustion. When coupled to simultaneous high-speed Mie-scatter imaging, chemiluminescence imaging, pressure measurement, and spatially-integrated jet luminosity measurements by photodiode, the shadowgraph visualization provides further information about spray penetration after vaporization, spatial location of ignition and high-temperature combustion, and inactive combustion regions where problematic unburned hydrocarbons exist. Examples of the joint application of high-speed diagnostics include transient non-reacting and reacting injections, as well as multiple injections.
Journal Article

Two-Color Diffused Back-Illumination Imaging as a Diagnostic for Time-Resolved Soot Measurements in Reacting Sprays

2013-10-14
2013-01-2548
Despite ongoing research efforts directed at reducing engine-out emissions, diesel engines are known to be one of the largest sources of atmospheric particulate matter (i.e., soot). Quantitative measurements are of primary importance to address soot production during the combustion process in the cylinder of diesel engines. This study presents the capabilities of an extinction-based diagnostic developed to quantitatively measure the soot volume fraction in n-dodecane sprays injected in a high-pressure, high-temperature vessel. Coupled with high-speed imaging, the technique yields time-resolved measurements of the soot field by relying on a diffused back-illumination scheme to improve extinction quantification in the midst of intense beam steering. The experiments performed in this work used two wavelengths, which, when combined with the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory, provide information about the optical and physical properties of soot.
Technical Paper

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles sampled directly from a Biodiesel Spray Flame

2011-08-30
2011-01-2046
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in a biodiesel spray flame, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in a spray flame fuelled with soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at different axial locations in the spray flame, 40, 50 and 70 mm from injector nozzle, which correspond to soot formation, peak, and oxidation zones, respectively. The biodiesel spray flame was generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and temperature condition (6.7 MPa, 1000K). Density, diameter of primary particles and radius of gyration of soot aggregates reached a peak at 50 mm from the injector nozzle and was lower or smaller in the formation or oxidation zones of the spray.
Journal Article

Transient Liquid Penetration of Early-Injection Diesel Sprays

2009-04-20
2009-01-0839
Diesel low-temperature combustion strategies often rely on early injection timing to allow sufficient fuel-ambient mixing to avoid NOx and soot-forming combustion. However, these early injection timings permit the spray to penetrate into a low ambient temperature and density environment where vaporization is poor and liquid impingement upon the cylinder liner and piston bowl are more likely to occur. The objective of this study is to measure the transient liquid and vapor penetration at early-injection conditions. High-speed Mie-scatter and shadowgraph imaging are employed in an optically accessible chamber with a free path of 100 mm prior to wall impingement and using a single-spray injector. The ambient temperature and density within the chamber are well-controlled (uniform) and selected to simulate in-cylinder conditions when injection occurs at -40 crank-angle degrees (CAD) or fewer before top-dead center (TDC).
Technical Paper

The Influence of Charge Dilution and Injection Timing on Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion and Emissions

2005-10-24
2005-01-3837
The effects of charge dilution on low-temperature diesel combustion and emissions were investigated in a small-bore single-cylinder diesel engine over a wide range of injection timing. The fresh air was diluted with additional N2 and CO2, simulating 0 to 65% exhaust gas recirculation in an engine. Diluting the intake charge lowers the flame temperature T due to the reactant being replaced by inert gases with increased heat capacity. In addition, charge dilution is anticipated to influence the local charge equivalence ratio ϕ prior to ignition due to the lower O2 concentration and longer ignition delay periods. By influencing both ϕ and T, charge dilution impacts the path representing the progress of the combustion process in the ϕ-T plane, and offers the potential of avoiding both soot and NOx formation.
Journal Article

Soot Volume Fraction and Morphology of Conventional, Fischer-Tropsch, Coal-Derived, and Surrogate Fuel at Diesel Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0678
Future fuels will come from a variety of feed stocks and refinement processes. Understanding the fundamentals of combustion and pollutants formation of these fuels will help clear hurdles in developing flex-fuel combustors. To this end, we investigated the combustion, soot formation, and soot oxidation processes for various classes of fuels, each with distinct physical properties and molecular structures. The fuels considered include: conventional No. 2 diesel (D2), low-aromatics jet fuel (JC), world-average jet fuel (JW), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic fuel (JS), coal-derived fuel (JP), and a two-component surrogate fuel (SR). Fuel sprays were injected into high-temperature, high-pressure ambient conditions that were representative of a practical diesel engine. Simultaneous laser extinction measurement and planar laser-induced incandescence imaging were performed to derive the in-situ soot volume fraction.
Technical Paper

Soot Formation in Diesel Combustion under High-EGR Conditions

2005-10-24
2005-01-3834
Experiments were conducted in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion vessel to investigate soot formation at diesel combustion conditions in a high exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) environment. The ambient oxygen concentration was decreased systematically from 21% to 8% to simulate a wide range of EGR conditions. Quantitative measurements of in-situ soot in quasi-steady n-heptane and #2 diesel fuel jets were made by using laser extinction and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) measurements. Flame lift-off length measurements were also made in support of the soot measurements. At constant ambient temperature, results show that the equivalence ratio estimated at the lift-off length does not vary with the use of EGR, implying an equal amount of fuel-air mixing prior to combustion. Soot measurements show that the soot volume fraction decreases with increasing EGR.
Technical Paper

Relationship Between Ignition Processes and the Lift-Off Length of Diesel Fuel Jets

2005-10-24
2005-01-3843
The reaction zone of a diesel fuel jet stabilizes at a location downstream of the fuel injector once the initial autoignition phase is over. This distance is referred to as flame lift-off length. Recent investigations have examined the effects of a wide range of parameters (injection pressure, orifice diameter, and ambient gas temperature, density and oxygen concentration) on lift-off length under quiescent diesel conditions. Many of the experimental trends in lift-off length were in agreement with scaling laws developed for turbulent, premixed flame propagation in gas-jet lifted flames at atmospheric conditions. However, several effects did not correlate with the gas-jet scaling laws, suggesting that other mechanisms could be important to lift-off stabilization at diesel conditions. This paper shows experimental evidence that ignition processes affect diesel lift-off stabilization.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Mixing Measurements in a Vaporizing Diesel Spray by Rayleigh Imaging

2007-04-16
2007-01-0647
This paper details the development and application of a Rayleigh imaging technique for quantitative mixing measurements in a vaporizing diesel spray under engine conditions. Experiments were performed in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion vessel that simulated the ambient conditions in a diesel engine. Two-dimensional imaging of Rayleigh scattering from a diesel spray of n-heptane and well-characterized ambient was accomplished by using a 532 nm Nd:YAG laser sheet and a low-noise back-illuminated CCD camera. Methods to minimize interference from unwanted elastic scattering sources (e.g. windows, particles) were investigated and are discussed in detail. The simultaneous measurement of Rayleigh scattering signal from the ambient and from the diesel spray provides important benefits towards making the technique quantitative and accurate.
Technical Paper

Penetration and combustion characterization of cavitating and non-cavitating fuel injectors under diesel engine conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0860
This work investigates the effects of cavitation on spray characteristics by comparing measurements of liquid and vapor penetration as well as ignition delay and lift-off length. A smoothed-inlet, converging nozzle (nominal KS1.5) was compared to a sharp-edged nozzle (nominal K0) in a constant-volume combustion vessel under thermodynamic conditions consistent with modern compression ignition engines. Within the near-nozzle region, the K0 nozzle displayed larger radial dispersion of the liquid as compared to the KS1.5 nozzle, and shorter axial liquid penetration. Moving downstream, the KS1.5 jet growth rate increased, eventually reaching a growth rate similar to the K0 nozzle while maintaining a smaller radial width. The increasing spreading angle in the far field creates a virtual origin, or mixing offset, several millimeters downstream for the KS1.5 nozzle.
Journal Article

Liquid Penetration of Diesel and Biodiesel Sprays at Late-Cycle Post-Injection Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0610
The liquid and vapor-phase spray penetrations of #2 diesel and neat (100%) soybean-derived biodiesel have been studied at late expansion-cycle conditions in a constant-volume optical chamber. In modern diesel engines, late-cycle staged injections may be used to assist in the operation of exhaust stream aftertreatment devices. These late-cycle injections occur well after top-dead-center (TDC), when post-combustion temperatures are relatively high and densities are low. The behavior of diesel sprays under these conditions has not been well-established in the literature. In the current work, high-speed Mie-scatter and schlieren imaging are employed in an optically accessible chamber to characterize the transient and quasi-steady liquid penetration behavior of diesel sprays under conditions relevant for late-cycle post injections, with very low densities (1.2 - 3 kg/m 3 ) and moderately high temperatures (800 - 1400 K).
Technical Paper

Laser Ignition of Multi-Injection Gasoline Sprays

2011-04-12
2011-01-0659
Laser plasma ignition has been pursued by engine researchers as an alternative to electric spark-ignition systems, potentially offering benefits by avoiding quenching surfaces and extending breakdown limits at higher boost pressure and lower equivalence ratio. For this study, we demonstrate another potential benefit: the ability to control the timing of ignition with short, nanosecond pulses, thereby optimizing the type of mixture that burns in rapidly changing, stratified fuel-air mixtures. We study laser ignition at various timings during single and double injections at simulated gasoline engine conditions within a controlled, high-temperature, high-pressure vessel. Laser ignition is accomplished with a single low-energy (10 mJ), short duration (8 ns) Nd:YAG laser beam that is tightly focused (0.015 mm average measured 1/e₂ diameter) at a typical GDI spark plug location.
Technical Paper

Jet-Wall Interaction Effects on Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation

2005-04-11
2005-01-0921
The effects of wall interaction on combustion and soot formation processes of a diesel fuel jet were investigated in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel at experimental conditions typical of a diesel engine. At identical ambient and injector conditions, soot processes were studied in free jets, plane wall jets, and “confined” wall jets (a box-shaped geometry simulating secondary interaction with adjacent walls and jets in an engine). The investigation showed that soot levels are significantly lower in a plane wall jet compared to a free jet. At some operating conditions, sooting free jets become soot-free as plane wall jets. Possible mechanisms to explain the reduced or delayed soot formation upon wall interaction include an increased fuel-air mixing rate and a wall-jet-cooling effect. However, in a confined-jet configuration, there is an opposite trend in soot formation.
Journal Article

Influence of Diesel Injection Parameters on End-of-Injection Liquid Length Recession

2009-04-20
2009-01-1356
Diesel injection parameters effect on liquid-phase diesel spray penetration after the end-of-injection (EOI) is investigated in a constant-volume chamber over a range of ambient and injector conditions typical of a diesel engine. Our past work showed that the maximum liquid penetration length of a diesel spray may recede towards the injector after EOI at some conditions. Analysis employing a transient jet entrainment model showed that increased fuel-ambient mixing occurs during the fuel-injection-rate ramp-down as increased ambient-entrainment rates progress downstream (i.e. the entrainment wave), permitting complete fuel vaporization at distances closer to the injector than the quasi-steady liquid length. To clarify the liquid-length recession process, in this study we report Mie-scatter imaging results near EOI over a range of injection pressure, nozzle size, fuel type, and rate-of-injection shape. We then use a transient jet entrainment model for detailed analysis.
Journal Article

In-Flame Soot Sampling and Particle Analysis in a Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0912
In-flame soot sampling based on the thermophoresis of particles and subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging has been conducted in a diesel engine to study size, shape and structure of soot particles within the reacting diesel jet. A direct TEM sampling is pursued, as opposed to exhaust sampling, to gain fundamental insight about the structure of soot during key formation and oxidation stages. The size and shape of soot particles aggregate structure with stretched chains of spherical-like primary particles is currently an unknown for engine soot modelling approaches. However, the in-flame sampling of soot particles in the engine poses significant challenges in order to extract meaningful data. In this paper, the engine modification to address the challenges of high-pressure sealing and avoiding interference with moving valves and piston are discussed in detail.
Journal Article

Fundamental Spray and Combustion Measurements of JP-8 at Diesel Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1083
For logistical reasons, the military requires that jet fuel (JP-8, F-34) be used in both jet engines and diesel engines. While JP-8-fueled diesel engines appear to operate successfully in many cases, negative impacts, including engine failures, are occasionally reported. As diesel combustion with JP-8 has not been explored in great detail, fundamental information about JP-8 fuel spray combustion is needed. In this study, we report measurements of liquid-phase penetration length, vapor penetration, and ignition delay made in an optically-accessible combustion vessel over a range of high-temperature, high-pressure operating conditions applicable to a diesel engine. Results show that the liquid-phase penetration of JP-8 is less than that of diesel, owing to the lower boiling point temperatures of JP-8. Despite the more rapid vaporization, the vapor penetration rate of JP-8 matches that of diesel and ignition does not advance.
Technical Paper

Formaldehyde Visualization Near Lift-off Location in a Diesel Jet

2006-10-16
2006-01-3434
Formaldehyde (HCHO) near the lift-off location in a reacting diesel jet was visualized using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). Simultaneous imaging of OH chemiluminescence identified the high-temperature combustion region (lift-off). Experiments were performed in a constant-volume combustion vessel at ambient gas conditions (temperature and oxygen concentration) that generate no-soot, low-soot and moderate-soot diesel jets during mixing-controlled combustion. For no-soot conditions, results show that HCHO is formed upstream of the lift-off location and is consumed downstream of the lift-off length in fuel-rich premixed reaction zones at the jet center. Despite the fuel-rich combustion, and downstream regions that are surrounded by a high-temperature diffusion flame, there is no detectable PAH formation in the no-soot condition.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of DI Gasoline Injection Processes

2015-09-01
2015-01-1894
This work investigates the injection processes of an eight-hole direct-injection gasoline injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) effort on gasoline sprays (Spray G). Experiments are performed at identical operating conditions by multiple institutions using standardized procedures to provide high-quality target datasets for CFD spray modeling improvement. The initial conditions set by the ECN gasoline spray community (Spray G: Ambient temperature: 573 K, ambient density: 3.5 kg/m3 (∼6 bar), fuel: iso-octane, and injection pressure: 200 bar) are examined along with additional conditions to extend the dataset covering a broader operating range. Two institutes evaluated the liquid and vapor penetration characteristics of a particular 8-hole, 80° full-angle, Spray G injector (injector #28) using Mie scattering (liquid) and schlieren (vapor).
Technical Paper

End-of-Injection Over-Mixing and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions in Low-Temperature-Combustion Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0907
Although low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for compression-ignition engines can achieve very low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) at high efficiency, they typically have increased emissions of other pollutants, including unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). In the current study, the equivalence ratio of mixtures near the injector are quantified under non-combusting conditions by planar laser-Rayleigh scattering (PLRS) in a constant-volume combustion chamber and by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer (toluene) in a single-cylinder direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine at typical LTC conditions. The optical diagnostic images show that the transient ramp-down at the end of fuel injection produces a low-momentum, fuel-lean mixture in the upstream region of the jet, which persists late in the cycle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Oxygenates on Soot Processes in DI Diesel Engines: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

2003-05-19
2003-01-1791
This paper explores soot and soot-precursor formation characteristics of oxygenated fuels using experiments and numerical simulations under direct-injection diesel engine conditions. The paper strives to achieve four goals: 1)to introduce the “oxygen ratio” for accurate quantification of reactant-mixture stoichiometry for both oxygenated and non-oxygenated fuels; 2) to provide experimental results demonstrating that some oxygenates are more effective at reducing diesel soot than others; 3) to present results of numerical simulations showing that detailed chemical-kinetic models without complex fluid mechanics can capture some of the observed trends in the sooting tendencies of different oxygenated fuels; and 4) to provide further insight into the underlying mechanisms by which oxygenate structure and in-cylinder processes can affect soot formation in DI diesel engines. The oxygenates that were studied are di-butyl maleate (DBM) and tri-propylene glycol methyl ether (TPGME).
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