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Technical Paper

Study on Ignition Timing Control for Diesel Engines Using In-Cylinder Pressure Sensor

As technologies for simultaneously maintaining the current high thermal efficiency of diesel engines and reducing particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions, many new combustion concepts have been proposed, including premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and low-temperature combustion[1]. However, it is well known that since such new combustion techniques precisely control combustion temperatures and local air-fuel ratios by varying the amount of air, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio and the fuel injection timing, they have the issues of being less stable than conventional combustion techniques and of performance that is subject to variance in the fuel and driving conditions. This study concerns a system that addresses these issues by detecting the ignition timing with in-cylinder pressure sensors and by controlling the fuel injection timing and the amount of EGR for optimum combustion onboard.
Technical Paper

Study on Engine Management System Using In-cylinder Pressure Sensor Integrated with Spark Plug

There has been strong public demand for reduced hazardous exhaust gas emissions and improved fuel economy for automobile engines. In recent years, a number of innovative solutions that lead to a reduction in fuel consumption rate have been developed, including in-cylinder direct injection and lean burn combustion technologies, as well as an engine utilizing a large volume of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Furthermore, a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is under development for actual application. However, one of the issues common to these technologies is less stable combustion, which causes difficulty in engine management. Additionally, it is now mandatory to provide an onboard diagnosis (OBD) system. This requires manufacturers to develop a technology that allows onboard monitoring and control of the combustion state. This paper reports on an innovative combustion diagnostic method using an in-cylinder pressure sensor.
Technical Paper

Lubrication Technology and Analysis for Variable Valve Event and Lift (VVEL) System

A new Variable Valve Event and Lift (VVEL) system has been developed as an effective technology for reconciling environmental performance such as lowering the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions with driving performance. This system can continuously vary both the intake valve lift and event angle (valve opening duration) over a wide operating range to flexibly control the valve timing and lift for a substantial improvement in engine performance. In developing the variable valve lift control system, the essential merit is based on the fundmental configuration of multiple-link mechanism. However, it is required to resolve tribological issues for the specific mechnism. This paper describes the structure of the VVEL system and its operating and motion conversion principles. It also explains the mechanism analysis, dynamic stress analysis and lubrication simulation techniques used in developing the VVEL system, the materials adopted and the surface treatment techniques applied.
Technical Paper

Energy Balance of Low Energy House with Ground Source Heat Pump in Hokkaido

This study describes the construction and evaluation of a low energy house which should be in harmony with the environment and also be assisted by hybrid natural energy resources and unused energy. An experimental house with ground source heat pump (GSHP) was built in Hokkaido University, Japan in March, 1997. As a result of experiments, it was shown that approx. 80 % of the total energy was provided from PV modules, solar collectors, underground and exhaust heat. Annual energy consumption was 12.5 % of typical house’s one in Hokkaido. This report describes an outline of the low energy house and experimental energy balance.
Technical Paper

Development of the New THS-II Powertrain for Compact Vehicles

Reflecting on the world's trend on saving crude oil consumption and to create an economical fuel efficient vehicle for the increasing world population, a new THS-II HV powertrain has been developed for the compact vehicle class. The application of a THS type powertrain for the compact vehicle class was a first for the world and to achieve it, brand new hardware, and software needed to be developed. For the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), state of the art technologies such as the use of the Atkinson cycle with Variable Valve Timing (VVT), cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), an electric water pump, a compact exhaust manifold, a Low Friction chain, beltless system and exhaust heat recovery system were applied. For the electric motor, copper wire with a rectangular cross section and divided stator cores combined with a newly developed production process were applied for higher volumetric density.
Technical Paper

Application of a Variable Valve Event and Timing System to Automotive Engines

This paper describes a new variable valve system that enables continuous control of valve events, i.e. time periods when the valve is open. In this system, valve events are controlled by varying the camshaft angular speed by means of an offset between the center of the camshaft and that of the medium member that transfers crankshaft torque to the camshaft. The medium member, a rotating disk, has a drive pin to enable the transfer of torque. The system has a mechanism that produces an offset between the center of the rotating disk and that of the camshaft as well as an actuator that drives the mechanism. This makes it possible to develop a compact system that can be installed in existing DOHC direct-acting valve train engines without making any major cylinder head modifications.
Journal Article

Analysis of Oil Film Generation on the Main Journal Bearing Using a Thin-Film Sensor and Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) Model

Reducing friction in the crankshaft main bearings is an effective means of improving the fuel efficiency of reciprocating internal combustion engines. To realize these improvements, it is necessary to understand the lubricating conditions, in particular the oil film pressure distributions between crankshaft and bearings. In this study, we developed a thin-film pressure sensor and applied it to the measurement of engine main bearing oil film pressure in a 4-cylinder, 2.5 L gasoline engine. This thin-film sensor is applied directly to the bearing surface by sputtering, allowing for measurement of oil film pressure without changing the shape and rigidity of the bearing. Moreover, the sensor material and shape were optimized to minimize influence from strain and temperature on the oil film pressure measurement. Measurements were performed at the No. 2 and 5 main bearings.
Journal Article

A Study of a Multiple-link Continuously Variable Valve Event and Lift (VVEL) System

A new variable valve event and lift (VVEL) system has been developed by applying a multiple-link mechanism. This VVEL system can continuously vary the valve event angle and lift over a wide range from an exceptional small event angle and small lift and to a large event angle and large lift. This capability offers the potential to improve fuel economy, power output, emissions and other parameters of engine performance. The valve lift characteristics obtained with the VVEL system consist of a synthesis of the oscillatory motion characteristics of the multiple-link mechanism and the oscillating cam profile. With the multiple-link mechanism, the angular velocity of the oscillating cams varies during valve lift, but the valve lift characteristics incorporate both gentle ramp sections and sharp lift sections, the same as a conventional engine.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Continuous Variable Valve Event and Lift (VEL) System

A new variable valve actuation system that varies valve lift and timing events continuously has been devised and confirmed to substantially improve power and reduce fuel consumption when applied to a SI engine. The variable valve event and lift (VEL) system is a simple mechanism consisting of oscillating cams and linkages, enabling it to operate the valves smoothly even at high speed. Its compact size facilitates application to direct-acting valve trains and its ability to vary valve lift from a deactivated state (0) to a large lift amount allows the system to be used with a wide range of engine concepts. In this study, VEL was combined with a phase shifting function to enable the valve lift characteristic to be varied virtually arbitrarily, and test results showed that fuel consumption of a SI engine was reduced by nearly 10%.
Technical Paper

A Study of Friction Characteristics of Continuously Variable Valve Event & Lift (VEL) System

A continuously variable valve event and lift (VEL) system, actuated by oscillating cams, can provide optimum lift and event angles matching the engine operating conditions, thereby improving fuel economy, exhaust emission performance and power output. The VEL system allows small lift and event angles even in the engine operating region where the required intake air volume is small and the influence of valvetrain friction is substantial, such as during idling. Therefore, the system can reduce friction to lower levels than conventional valvetrains, which works to improve fuel economy. On the other hand, a distinct feature of oscillating cams is that their sliding velocity is zero at the time of peak lift, which differs from the behavior of conventional rotating cams. For that reason, it is assumed that the friction and lubrication characteristics of oscillating cams may differ from those of conventional cams.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Technical Paper

A Continuous Variable Valve Event and Lift Control Device (VEL) for Automotive Engines

This paper describes a new variable valve control device called VEL (Variable Valve Event and Lift Control Device), which enables continuous control of both valve events (opening duration) and valve lifts, from the lowest lift or deactivation state (0) to a long event and high lift state. VEL is composed of two subsystems. One is a mechanical valve train system, which converts crankshaft rotation into output cam oscillation via a transmission mechanism involving a rocker arm. The valves are moved by the output cam oscillation. The other is an electric powered actuator system, which varies valve events and lifts according to driving conditions by controlling the angular positions of a control shaft. This control shaft has a eccentric control cam inserted into the fulcrum cylinder of the rocker arm, so as to change the state of the transmission mechanism and the output cam.