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Journal Article

New Development of a Gas Cavitation Model for Evaluation of Drag Torque Characteristics in Disengaged Wet Clutches

2016-04-05
2016-01-1137
A significant reduction of C02 emission can be achieved by improving the efficiency of transmission of cars. A reduction of drag torque or spin loss of disengaged clutches can improve the efficiency of transmissions. Generally, the drag torque is measured by conducting drag test which needs making samples, manpower, power and wastage of raw materials. In this paper, an analytical model is proposed to predict the drag torque of a disengaged wet clutch at different rotation speeds, clearances, disk sizes and oil temperatures without making any samples and conducting any drag tests. Various assumptions are made from the results of visualization investigations. Visualization results show that the volume of oil existed in between the clutch disk and clutch plate decreases with increasing speed due to centrifugal force. It is also noticed that several visible air bubbles are formed in the oil film at lower speeds and the size of the bubbles increase with increasing speeds.
Journal Article

Multiphase Drag Modeling for Prediction of the Drag Torque Characteristics in Disengaged Wet Clutches

2014-09-30
2014-01-2333
The undesired Drag Torque (DT) which is developed due to the shearing of fluid film in between the disk and separator plate reduces the efficiency of a transmission and increases the fuel consumption of a car. In order to minimize the transmission loss, the physics of the fluid flow mechanism inside the clutch should be understood well and the factors influencing the DT should be identified. In this paper, a model is proposed to predict the drag torque of a disengaged wet clutch at different rotation speeds, clearances, disk sizes and oil temperatures. The model explains well how the DT changes for the no groove disk, grooved disk and different ATF properties. The proposed model is validated by several experimental results conducted by a visualization tester and images of the fluid film taken during the test. Results show that there is a good degree of agreement between the DT trends derived from the proposed model and the test results for the same condition.
Technical Paper

Multi-Phase Simulation for Studying the Effect of Different Groove Profiles on the Drag Torque Characteristics of Transmission Wet Clutch

2016-04-05
2016-01-1144
Drag torque reduction is one of the key targets to improve the efficiency of transmission. Drag torque is generated by the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) that is circulated in the gap between the friction disks and separator plates for cooling purpose. Due to the relative motion between the friction disks and separator plates in disengaged mode, a shear stress is developed on the disks’ wall which gives rise to drag loss. The most conventional technique to suppress the drag loss is to cut grooves on the friction disk to facilitate smooth and faster discharge of the ATF. The shape of the grooves also plays a substantial role on the drag torque characteristics. Previously, we presented a simplified simulation model to predict the drag torque behavior of different grooves. However, the simplified model doesn’t include the oil inflow and outflow behavior from the oil inlet and outlet holes respectively.
Technical Paper

Multi-Phase Simulation for Predicting Better Groove Pattern of the Clutch Disk for Low Drag Torque

2015-09-01
2015-01-1977
In this research, we presented a simulation model based on hexahedral mesh, Laminar and Volume of fluid (VOF) flow models to predict the better groove pattern of transmission clutch plate. Significance of Hexahedral (Hex) mesh over Polyhedral-Prism layer (PPL) mesh model has been explained as well. Simulation results reflect close similarity with the test results. The difference of drag torque characteristics for different groove shape has been explained via particle tracking and scalar plots. Test and simulation results show that around 50% drag loss reduction is possible by effective design of the grooves. Therefore, our proposed simulation model offers a cost-effective and time-saving means to select the best groove profile and optimize the groove shape to minimize transmission drag loss
Technical Paper

Development of an Analytical Model for Prediction of Drag Torque Characteristics of Disengaged Wet Clutches in High Speed Region

2017-03-28
2017-01-1132
Reduction of the drag torque and longevity of the clutch assembly are the most important factors for vehicle transmission improvement. The decreasing trend of the drag torque with speed after its peak is a common characteristic of the clutch assembly. Several theoretical models have been presented by the researchers describing the drag torque characteristics at lower clutch speed region. However, very little study has been made on the drag torque behavior at very high clutch speed region (6000~10000+ rpm). The unwanted occurrence of drag torque jump up at high speed operating condition remains unexplained till date. In this paper, we have investigated the possible reasons of torque jump up at high rotation speed and solution to overcome this problem. We have presented an analytical correlation of torque jump up with the excessive decrease of local static pressure and assumed that vacuum formation is one of the possible reasons of high speed torque rising and associated vibration.
Technical Paper

Development of New Groove Design for Reduction of Drag Torque or Spin Loss of Disengaged Wet Clutches in the High Speed Region

2018-04-03
2018-01-1300
The typical graph of a drag torque or spin loss vs. speed of disengaged wet clutch of automotive transmission shows 4 types of trends. First one is increasing until a peak level, next decreasing to the lowest level, next saturating or being no change, and last again increasing. If the absolute value of drag torque at high speed (6000-20,000rpm) is high, the possibility of fluttering of friction disk, chipping, burning and delamination of friction materials will be high. Moreover, the efficiency of a transmission will be dropped and the life of it become shorter. Therefore, it is important to understand the physics behind the torque jump up at high speed. In our previous study, we investigated the possible reasons of torque jump up at high rotation speed. In this paper, we have extended our previous study and developed new groove design to reduce the drag toque in the high speed range.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Model for Predicting High Speed Torque Jump Up Phenomena of Disengaged Transmission Wet Clutch

2017-03-28
2017-01-1139
Reduction of drag torque is a crucial demand for improvement of transmission efficiency and fuel economy. In the low speed range, the drag torque at first increases with speed until it reaches a peak point, and then it starts decreasing sharply and finally stays at a minimum level until certain speed limit. Several analytical and simulation models have been presented by the researchers describing the drag torque characteristics at lower clutch speed. However, under certain conditions, the drag torque again starts to rise sharply in the high speed range (6000~10000+ rpm) and even exceeds the peak torque magnitude of low speed. The alarming jump of the drag torque at high rotational speed remains indeterminate to date. In this paper, we presented a simulation model that can predict the high speed torque jump up at different conditions. Simulation result shows that the static pressure decreases very sharply in the oil outlet region as the speed rises beyond 5000 rpm.
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