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Technical Paper

Use of Dissimilar Hardware Architecture to Mitigate Design Errors in a Flight Control System Application

2009-10-06
2009-36-0160
This paper aims at discussing the use of dissimilar hardware architecture to mitigate DESIGN ERRORS in a flight control system application, as one of the possible design techniques that, combined with the usage of development processes, will satisfy the safety objectives for airborne systems. To accomplish its purpose, the paper starts by understanding the origins of DESIGN ERRORS in micro-coded devices and the concerns of airworthiness certification authorities (or simply certification authorities from now on). After that, an overview of the aeronautical industry efforts in terms of development processes and certification requirements to mitigate DESIGN ERRORS will be presented. At this point, the dissimilar architecture is proposed as an effective mean to mitigate the problem of DESIGN ERRORS. Finally, a Flight Control System application using dissimilar architecture is proposed as a case study.
Technical Paper

The Application of a Requirements Traceability Automation Tool to the Documentation of a Satellite Project

2010-10-06
2010-36-0345
This paper presents the preliminary results of an "a posteriori" exercise of application of a Requirements Traceability Automation Tool (RT tool) to a set of documents. The documents have been prepared according to established Space System Engineering methodologies and with attention to text quality, but without attention to requirements traceability because the processes and methodologies used during their preparation predates the emergence of the processes and methodologies developed by Requirements Engineering (RE). This study is intended to determine some of the benefits of using a RT tool when compared with the previously used processes and methodologies. The set of documents under scrutiny have been prepared in the frame of the development of the CBERS-3 satellite (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) and is composed of system, subsystem and equipment specification and covering documents related to the Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) of the satellite.
Technical Paper

Study on a Fault-Tolerant System Applied to an Aerospace Control System

2010-10-06
2010-36-0330
On several engineering applications high Reliability is one of the most wanted features. The aspects of Reliability play a key role in design projects of aircraft, spacecraft, automotive, medical, bank systems, and so, avoiding loss of life, property, or costly recalls. The highly reliable systems are designed to work continuously, even upon external threats and internal Failures. Very convenient is the fact that the term 'Failure' may have its meaning tailored to the context of interesting, as its general definition refers to it as "any deviation from the specified behavior of a system". The above-mentioned 'deviation' may refer to: performance degradation, operational misbehavior, deviation of environmental qualification levels, Safety hazards, etc. Nevertheless, Reliability is not the only requirement for a modern system. Other features as Availability, Integrity, Security and Safety are always part of the same technical specification, in a same level of importance.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of a Satellite Propulsive Subsystem by Physical and Signal Flows

2013-10-07
2013-36-0105
Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of dynamic systems based on computers is a multidisciplinary field that involves several knowledge areas and tools, and is broadly used in all development areas of space industry such as rocket and satellite design and construction. Once space systems are divided into several subsystems for ease of engineering, their models are divided the same way for the same reason. Such models may be done using different computational tools that are based on either physical flows, informational flows, or hybrid flows, depending on the subsystem nature. This is specially true for a satellite propulsion subsystem, and its physical (volume, mass, energy, enthalpy, entropy, linear momentum, etc.) flows. This paper presents the modeling and simulation of a satellite propulsion subsystem by physical and signal flows. To accomplish this task, two different computational tools were used: AMESim and MatLab.
Technical Paper

Integral of Modulus of Error Control for Smoothing Signals when Switching Modes of Aerospace and Automotive Systems

2015-09-22
2015-36-0445
Control systems that can switch between control or plant modes have the advantage of being simpler to design than an equivalent system with a single mode. However, the transition between these modes can introduce steps or overshootings in the state variables, and this can degrade the performance or even damage the system. This is can be of extreme importance in fields such as aerospace and automobilistic, as the switching between manual and autopilot modes or the switching of gears In this work, we will use integral criteria in original ways, to determine a coefficient on the system which should optimize the trajectory of the control signal, during the switching between two modes. Effectively, each transition will be done by a subsystem specific for it, according to the selected criterion. The simulations will be made in MATRIXx, MatLab or both, using models chosen from aerospace or automobilistic fields.
Technical Paper

Influences of Data Bus Protocols on an Aircraft Fly-By-Wire Networked Control System

2008-10-07
2008-36-0008
A major trend in modern aerospace and automotive systems is to integrate computing, communication and control into different levels of the vehicle and/or its supervision. A well fitted architecture adopted by this trend is the Common Bus Network Architecture. A Networked Control System (NCS) is called when the control loop is closed through a communication network. The presence of this communication network introduces new characteristics (sharing bus, delays, jitter etc.) to be considered at design time of a control system. This work focuses on the influences of data bus protocols on an aircraft Fly-By-Wire (FBW) networked control system. We intent to show, through simulations, the influences of sharing bus on a real time control system. To compare effects, we choose the CAN Bus protocol where the medium access control is event driven; and the TTP protocol where the medium access control is time driven.
Technical Paper

Generation and Customization of Real Time Code for Embedded Controllers Using a Modeling and Simulation Environment

2007-11-28
2007-01-2924
This works presents the generation and customization of real time code for embedded controllers using a modeling and simulation environment. When the controller model is considered satisfactory, the developers can use a code generation tool to build a real time source code capable to be migrated to an embedded target processor. The code generation tool used is capable to generate real time code in ANSI C or ADA 95 languages. This process can be customized to adequate to a target processor and/or a Real Time Operating System (RTOS). The code customization can be achieved using a specific Template Programming Language (TPL) that specifies how the code will be generated. This technique makes it possible the instantiation of real time embedded controllers code using the same controller model to a wide variety of target processors and/or RTOSs.
Technical Paper

Design of an Attitude Control System for the Multi-Mission Platform and its Migration to a Real Time Operating System

2007-11-28
2007-01-2857
This paper presents the first of four parts of the academic design of an Attitude Control System (ACS) for the Multi-Mission Platform (MMP) and its migration to a Real Time Operating System. The MMP is a three axis stabilized artificial satellite now under development at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE). Such design applied some software engineering concepts as: 1)visual modeling; 2)automatic code generation; 3)automatic code migration; 4)soft real time simulation; and 5)hard real time simulation. A block diagram based modeling and a virtual time simulation of the MMP ACS in its nominal operational mode were built in the MatrixX 7.1 environment satisfying the three axis pointing and stabilization requirements. After that, its AutoCode module was used to generate C ANSI code representing the block diagram model. Time characteristics were added to the ACS generated code to make it the real time control software of MMP nominal operational mode.
Technical Paper

Current Trends Driving the Aerospace and Automotive Systems Architectures

2011-10-04
2011-36-0387
In this work we discuss current trends driving the aerospace and automotive systems architectures. This includes trends as: 1) pos-globalization and regionalization; 2) the formation of knowledge oligopolies; 3) commonality, standardization and even synergy (of components, tools, development process, certification agents, standards); 4) reuse and scalability; 5) synergy of knowledge and tools convergence; 6) time, cost and quality pressures and innovation speed; 7) environmental and safety issues; and 8) abundance of new technologies versus scarcity of skilled manpower to apply them.
Technical Paper

Automatic Code Generation of an Attitude Control System for the Multi-Mission Platform

2008-10-07
2008-36-0362
This paper presents the automatic code generation process of the academic design of an Attitude Control System (ACS) for the Multi-Mission Platform (MMP). The MMP is a three axis stabilized artificial satellite now under development at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE). Such design applied some software engineering concepts as: 1)visual modeling; 2)automatic code generation; 3)automatic code migration; 4)soft real time simulation; and 5)hard real time simulation. A block diagram based modeling and a virtual time simulation of the MMP ACS in its nominal operational mode were built in the MatrixX 7.1 environment satisfying the three axis pointing and stabilization requirements. After that, its AutoCode module was used to generate C ANSI code representing the block diagram model. Four operating systems were used for code migration: 1)Windows 2000; 2)Mandrake Linux 10.1; 3)RedHawk Linux 2.1; and 4)RTEMS 4.6.2.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Models, Methods and Tools for Verification, Validation and Accreditation of Real Time Critical Software

2013-10-07
2013-36-0530
Real-time critical systems are those whose failures may cause loss of transactions/data, missions/batches, vehicles/properties, or even people/human life. Accordingly, some regulations prescribe their maximum acceptable probability of failures to range from about 10−4 to 10−10 failures per hour. Examples of such systems are the ones involving nuclear plants, aircrafts, satellites, automobiles, or traffic controls. They are becoming increasingly complex and/or highly integrated as prescribed by the SAE-ARP-4754A Standard. Those systems include, most of the time, real time critical software that must be specified, designed, implemented, validated, verified and accredited (VVA). To do that, models, specially the V-Model, are frequently adopted, together with methods and tools which perform software VVA to ensure compliance (of correctness, reliability, robustness, etc.) of software to several specific standards such as DO178-B/DO-178C (aviation) or IEC 26262 (automotive) among others.
Technical Paper

A discussion on fault prognosis/prediction and health monitoring techniques to improve the reliability of aerospace and automotive systems

2018-09-03
2018-36-0316
Currently, aerospace and automotive industries are developing complexand/or highly integrated systems, whose services require greater confidence to meet a set of specifications that are increasingly demanding, such as successfully operating a communications satellite, a commercial airplane, an automatic automobile, and so on. To meet these requirements and expectations, there is a growing need for fault treatment, up to predict faults and monitor the health of the components, equipment, subsystems or systems used. In the last decades, the approaches of 1) Fault Prevention, 2) Fault Detection/Tolerance and 3) Fault Detection/Correction have been widely studied and explored.
Technical Paper

A New Tool to Help Filling Requirements Documents

2008-10-07
2008-36-0287
Nowadays, given the shrinking budgets and deadlines of the aerospace and automotive industries, the importance and need of the requirements engineering is becoming more and more evident. This means that progressively more users face a difficult task on the different environments of project development: 1) to write better requirements; and 2) to do it faster than ever. It would be nice if they had some tools to help them and abbreviate such a difficult task. This work summarizes the development of a new tool that does exactly that. Its wizard guides the user through the steps necessary to create good requirements when writting a requirements document, depending on the kind of requirements document desired. For example: there are significant differences between user requirements and system requirements documents. The wizard script is composed by a serie of questions related to the parts of the scheme to build a complete and effective requirement.
Technical Paper

A New Procedure For Customizing A Requirements Engineering Environment To Generate Requirements Reports Automatically

2007-11-28
2007-01-2680
In this work we present a new procedure for customizing, in the desired format, requirements reports generated by a Requirements Engineering Environment. This environment includes tools for: 1- capturing textual and pictoric requirements; 2- templating requirements documents that can be adjustable to the formats required by the certification authorities or system engineering groups; 3- translating features from/to the main word processors used in the industry (Word, Excel, etc. formats); 4- managing requirements configuration. It provides gains of productivity, correctness, reusability, traceability, coverage, etc, improving the efficiency of the projects. The procedure emphasizes items 2 and 3, and is illustrated with some examples driven from the aerospace industry.
Technical Paper

A First Strategy for Smoothing Transients in Switching Controls of Aerospace and Automotive Systems

2016-10-25
2016-36-0402
Switching controls are those that can switch between control or plant modes to perform their functions. They have the advantage of being simpler to design than an equivalent control system with a single mode. However, the transients between those modes can introduce steps or overshootings in the state variables, and this can degrade the performance or even damage the control or the plant. So, the smoothing of such transients is vital for their reliability and mantainability. This is can be of extreme importance in the aerospace and automotive fields, plenty of switchings between manual and autopilot modes via relays, or among gears via clutches, for example. In this work, we present a first strategy for smoothing transients in switching controls of aerospace and automotive systems.
Technical Paper

A Discussion on the Process of Eliciting and Validating Requirements to Handle Single Event Upsets in Avionic Systems

2012-10-02
2012-36-0519
Avionics Systems are increasingly used to perform safety-critical functions at high altitudes. But their increasing capacity and concentration of memory and logics leads to more frequent occurrences of single event upsets, especially in high altitudes. In this work we discuss the process of eliciting and validating requirements to handle single events upsets in avionic systems. To do that we initially summarize and update the concepts of radiation environment of the atmosphere, radiation induced errors, single event upsets, etc. presented in a previous paper. Then, we discuss some of their effects on avionic systems and ways of mitigation, reported in the literature. Finally, we discuss provisions to demand the adoption of such mitigation measures, and their sufficiency by transforming them into requirements, according to recommendations of compliance described in standards as SAE ARP 4754A and RTCA DO-254.
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