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Technical Paper

Visualization of Direct-Injection Gasoline Spray and Wall-impingement Inside a Motoring Engine

1998-10-19
982702
Two-dimensional pulse-laser Mie scattering visualization of the direct-injection gasoline fuel sprays and wall impingement processes was carried out inside a single-cylinder optically accessible engine under motoring condition. The injectors have been first characterized inside a pressurized chamber using identical technique, as well as high-speed microscopic visualization and phase Doppler measurement techniques. The effects of injector cone angle, location, and injection timings on the wall impingement processes were investigated. It was found that the fuel vaporization is not complete at the constant engine speed tested. Fuel spray droplets were observed to disperse wider in the motored engine when compared with an isothermal quiescent ambient conditions. The extent of wall-impingement varies significantly with the injector mounting position and spray cone angle; however, its effect can be reduced to some extent by optimizing the injection timing.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of the Impingement Processes of a Narrow-Cone DI Gasoline Spray

2001-05-07
2001-01-2023
The direct injection spray-wall interactions were investigated experimentally using high-speed laser-sheet imaging, shadowgraphy, wetted footprints and phase Doppler interferometry techniques. A narrow-cone high-pressure swirl injector is used to inject iso-octane fuel onto a plate, at three different impact angles inside a pressurized chamber. Heated air and plate conditions were compared with unheated cases. Injection interval was also varied in the heated case to compare dry- and wet- wall impingement behaviors. High-speed macroscopic Mie-scattering images showed that presence of wall and air temperature has only minor effect on the bulk spray structure and penetration speed for the narrow-cone injector tested. The overall bulk motions of the spray plume and its spatial position at a given time are basically unaffected until a few millimeters before impacting the wall.
Technical Paper

Ultrafast X-Ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process

2005-09-11
2005-24-093
Propagation-based and phase-enhanced x-ray imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the internal structure of high-pressure fuel injection nozzles. We have visualized the microstructures inside 200-μm fuel injection nozzles in a 3-mm-thick steel housing using this novel technique. Furthermore, this new x-ray-based metrology technique has been used to directly study the highly transient needle motion in the nozzles in situ and in real-time, which is virtually impossible by any other means. The needle motion has been shown to have the most direct effect on the fuel jet structure and spray formation immediately outside of the nozzle. In addition, the spray cone-angle has been perfectly correlated with the numerically simulated fuel flow inside the nozzle due to the transient nature of the needle during the injection.
Technical Paper

Transient Flow and Pressure Characteristics Inside a Closed-Coupled Catalytic Converter

1998-10-19
982548
An experimental study was carried out to characterize the exhaust flow structure inside the closed-coupled catalytic converter, which is installed on a firing four-cylinder 12-valve passenger car gasoline engine. Simultaneous velocity and pressure measurements were taken using cycle-resolved Laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) technique and pressure transducer. A small fraction of titanium (IV) iso-propoxide was dissolved in gasoline to generate titanium dioxide during combustion as seeding particles for the LDA measurements. It was found that the velocity is highly fluctuating due to the pulsating nature of the engine exhaust flow, which strongly depends on the engine operating conditions and the measuring locations. The pressure oscillation is correlated with the transient exhaust flow characteristics. The main exhaust flow event from each cylinder can only be observed at the certain region in front of the monolith brick.
Technical Paper

Transient Flow Characteristics Inside the Catalytic Converter of a Firing Gasoline Engine

1997-02-24
971014
An experimental study was performed, using cycle-resolved laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) technique, to characterize the exhaust flow structure inside a catalytic converter retro-fitted to a firing four-cylinder gasoline engine over different operating conditions. A small fraction of titanium (IV) isopropoxide was dissolved in gasoline to generate titanium dioxide during combustion as seeding particles for LDV measurements. It was found that in the front plane of the catalytic monolith, the velocity is highly fluctuating due to the pulsating nature of the engine exhaust flow, which strongly depends on the engine operating conditions. Under unloaded condition, four pairs of major peaks are clearly observed in the time history of the velocity, which correspond to the main exhaust events of each individual cylinder.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements in Transient Port Injector Sprays

1995-02-01
950509
A global characterization of the spray distribution of various current and development types of automotive fuel injectors was obtained. Axial and radial measurement of droplet sizes, velocities and volume fluxes were made with a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) for a transient port injector spray in quiescent atmospheric conditions. Time-resolved measurements involving the time-of-arrival of each droplet associated with its size and velocity components were also acquired. Additionally, the liquid sprays emanating from various types of port fuel injectors were visualized, through planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique, at different time instants. Such detailed study provides an improved understanding of the temporal or unsteady behavior of port injector spray.
Technical Paper

The Spray Characteristics of Dual-Stream Port Fuel Injectors for Applications to 4-Valve Gasoline Engines

1995-10-01
952487
An experimental study of sprayod structures from a regular dual-stream (RDS) injector and an air-shrouding dual-stream (ASDS) injector was carried out extensively to understand the spray characteristics of dual-stream (DS) port fuel injector for applications to 4-valve gasoline engines. The injectors were tested under steady and transient conditions at different injection pressures. The global spray structures were visualized using planar laser Mie scattering (PLMS) technique and spray atomization processes were quantified using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique. The experimental results showed that at the beginning of fuel injection, the spray tip penetration for the RDS injector decreases with an increase in injection pressure; however, at the later stage of fuel injection, it increases when the injection pressure is increased. It is also found that the ligaments are dominant near the injector tip for the RDS injector with threads connecting the two streams.
Technical Paper

The Spray Characteristics of Automotive Port Fuel Injection-A Critical Reviews

1995-02-01
950506
The requirement of meeting the emission standards for low emission vehicles (LEV) and ultra low emission vehicles (ULEV) has resulted in a more stringent examination of all elements of the automotive internal combustion engine that contribute to emission formation. The fuel system, as one of the key elements, is the subject of renewed and expanded research in an effort to understand and optimize the important parameters. Only through such enhanced understanding of the basic processes of fuel injection, metering, atomization, targeting, pulse-to-pulse variability and induction of fuel under cold, normal and elevated temperature conditions can the very low emissions of today's vehicles be further reduced to ULEV values.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel-Line Pressure Perturbation on the Spray Atomization Characteristics of Automotive Port Fuel Injectors

1995-10-01
952486
An experimental study was carried out to characterize the spray atomization process of automotive port fuel injectors retrofitted to a novel pressure modulation piezoelectric driver, which generates a pressure perturbation inside the fuel line. Unlike many other piezoelectric atomizers, this unit does not drive the nozzle directly. It has a small size and can be installed easily between regular port injector and fuel lines. There is no extra control difficulty with this system since the fuel injection rate and injection timing are controlled by the original fuel-metering valve. The global spray structures were characterized using the planar laser Mie scattering (PLMS) technique and the spray atomization processes were quantified using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique.
Technical Paper

Spray Targeting Inside a Production-Type Intake Port of a 4-Valve Gasoline Engine

1996-02-01
960115
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the spray behavior inside engine intake ports. Production-type intake ports of four-valve gasoline engines were modified for the optical access at directions. The global spray formation process was visualized through laser Mie scattering technique. The spray breakup and atomization processes, spray targeting and fuel dispersing characteristics were investigated as a function of elapse time after fuel injection. The spray interaction with the port wall and port air flow were examined with different types of port fuel injectors including single-stream, multi-stream, and air-shrouded ones. The spray targeting and dispersing characteristics inside two different intake ports were examined. It was found that spray targeting and fuel dispersion inside the intake port are strongly dependent on the spray characteristics, as a result of different injector designs and injector installation positions.
Technical Paper

Spray Dynamics of High Pressure Fuel Injectors for DI Gasoline Engines

1996-10-01
961925
An experimental study was made to investigate the spray characteristics of high pressure fuel injectors for direct-injection gasoline engines. The global spray development process was visualized using two-dimensional laser Mie scattering technique. The spray atomization process was characterized by Phase Doppler particle analyzer. The transient spray development process was investigated under different fuel injection conditions as a function of the time after the fuel injection start. The effects of injector design, fuel injection pressure, injection duration, ambient pressure, and fuel property on the spray breakup and atomization characteristics were studied in details. Two clear counter-rotating recirculation zones are observed at the later stage or after the end of fuel injection inside the fuel sprays with a small momentum. The circumferential distribution of the spray from the large-angle injector is quite irregular and looks like a star with several wings projected out.
Journal Article

Spray Characterization of Ethanol Gasoline Blends and Comparison to a CFD Model for a Gasoline Direct Injector

2010-04-12
2010-01-0601
Operation of flex fuel vehicles requires operation with a range of fuel properties. The significant differences in the heat of vaporization and energy density of E0-E100 fuels and the effect on spray development need to be fully comprehended when developing engine control strategies. Limited enthalpy for fuel vaporization needs to be accounted for when developing injection strategies for cold start, homogeneous and stratified operation. Spray imaging of multi-hole gasoline injectors with fuels ranging from E0 to E100 and environmental conditions that represent engine operating points from ambient cold start to hot conditions was performed in a spray chamber. Schlieren visualization technique was used to characterize the sprays and the results were compared with Laser Mie scattering and Back-lighting technique. Open chamber experiments were utilized to provide input and validation of a CFD model.
Technical Paper

Spectral Analysis and Chemiluminescence Imaging of Hydrogen Addition to HSDI Diesel Combustion Under Conventional and Low-Temperature Conditions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2919
Late-injection low-temperature diesel combustion is found to further reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The combustion phenomena and detail chemical kinetics are studied with high speed spray/combustion images and time-resolved spectroscopy analysis in a rapid compression machine (RCM) with a small bowl combustion chamber. High swirl and high EGR condition can be achieved in the RCM; variable injection pressure and injection timing is supplied by the high-pressure common-rail fuel injection system. Effect of small amount of premix hydrogen gas on diesel combustion is also studied in the RCM. A hydrogen injector is located in the upstream of air inlet for delivery small amount and premixed hydrogen gas into cylinder just before the compression stroke. The ignition delay is studied both from the pressure curves and the chemiluminescence images.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Direct-Injection Gasoline Fuel Sprays in Near-Nozzle Region Using Synchrotron X-Ray

2001-03-05
2001-01-1293
A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the dense spray structure of direct-injection (DI) gasoline sprays in near-nozzle region. This technique uses the line-of-sight absorption of monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source to measure the fuel mass with time resolution better than 1 μs. The small scattering cross-section of fuel at x-rays regime allows direct measurements of spray structure that are difficult with most visible-light optical techniques. Appropriate models were developed to determine the fuel density as a function of time.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulation of Hollow-Cone Sprays Interacting with Uniform Crossflow for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2011-09-11
2011-24-0007
The interaction of fuel sprays with in-cylinder air flow is crucially important for the mixture preparation and subsequent combustion processes in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. In the present work, the experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to study the dynamics and physical insight of hollow-cone sprays interacting with a uniform crossflow. The basis of the model is the standard Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach coupled to the Lagrangian treatment for statistical groups (parcels) representing the physical droplet population. The most physically suitable hybrid breakup models depicting the liquid sheet atomization and droplet breakup processes based on the linear instability analysis and Taylor analogy theory (LISA-TAB) are used. Detailed comparisons are made between the experiments and computations in terms of spray structure, local droplet diameter and velocity distributions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction and Validation of Fuel Spray Behavior in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3668
Analysis of flow field and charge distribution in a gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine is performed by a modified version of the KIVA code. A particle-based spray model is proposed to simulate a swirl-type hollow-cone spray in a GDI engine. Spray droplets are assumed to be fully atomized and introduced at the sheet breakup locations as determined by experimental correlations and energy conservation. The effects of the fuel injection parameters such as spray cone angle and ambient pressure are examined for different injectors and injection conditions. Results show reasonable agreement with the measurements for penetration, dispersion, global shape, droplet velocity and size distribution by Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry(PDPA) in a constant-volume chamber. The test engine is a 4-stroke 4-valve optically accessible single-cylinder engine with a pent-roof head and tumble ports.
Technical Paper

Near-Nozzle Structure of Diesel Sprays Affected by Internal Geometry of Injector Nozzle: Visualized by Single-Shot X-ray Imaging

2010-04-12
2010-01-0877
By taking advantage of high-intensity and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), ultrafast (150 ps) propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed to visualize high-pressure high-speed diesel sprays in the optically dense near-nozzle region. The sub-ns temporal and μm spatial resolution allows us to capture the morphology of the high-speed fuel sprays traveling at 500 m/s with a negligible motion blur. Both quality and quantitative information about the spray feature can be readily obtained. In the experiment, two types of single-hole nozzles have been used, one with a hydroground orifice inlet and the other with a sharp one. Within 3 mm from the nozzle, the sprays from these nozzles behave differently, ranging from laminar flow with surface instability waves to turbulent flow. The sprays are correlated with the nozzle internal geometry, which provides practical information for both nozzle design and supporting numerical simulation models.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation and Combustion Processes of Multi-Hole Nozzle with Micro Orifices for D.I. Diesel Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4049
In order to investigate effects of the multi-hole nozzle with micro orifices on mixture formation processes in Direct-Injection Diesel engines, mixture characteristics were examined via an ultraviolet-visible laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique under various injectors. The injection quantity per orifice per cycle was reduced by nozzle hole sizes. The LAS technique can provide the quantitative and simultaneous measurements of liquid and vapor phases concentration distributions inside of the fuel spray. Mass of ambient gas entrained into the spray, liquid/ vapor mass and mean equivalence ratio of total fuel were obtained based on Lambert Beer's law. As a result, the leaner and more homogeneous fuel-gas mixture can be achieved by reducing the nozzle hole diameter, in the meanwhile more ambient gas were entrained into the spray. Moreover, relationships between mixture formation and D.I.
Technical Paper

Microscopic Characterization of Diesel Sprays at VCO Nozzle Exit

1998-10-19
982542
A long-distance microscope with pulse-laser as optical shutter up to 25kHz was used to magnify the diesel spray at the nozzle hole vicinity onto 35-mm photographic film through a still or a high-speed drum camera. The injectors examined are high-pressure valve-covered-orifice (VCO) nozzles, from unit injector and common rail injection systems. For comparison, a mini-sac injector from a hydraulic unit injector is also investigated. A phase-Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) system with an external digital clock was also used to measure the droplet size, velocity and time of arrival relative to the start of the injection event. The visualization results provide very interesting and dynamic information on spray structure, showing spray angle variations, primary breakup processes, and spray asymmetry not observed using conventional macroscopic visualization techniques.
Journal Article

Methods of Evaluating and Mitigating NVH when Operating an Engine in Dynamic Skip Fire

2014-04-01
2014-01-1675
Cylinder deactivation is a technology seeing increased automotive deployment in light of more demanding fuel economy and emissions requirements. Examples of current production systems include GM's Active Fuel Management and Chrysler's Multi-Displacement System, both of which provide one fixed level of deactivation. Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF), in which the number of fired cylinders is continuously varied to match the torque demand, offers significantly increased fuel savings over a wider operating range than the current production systems. One of the biggest challenges in implementing cylinder deactivation is developing strategies to provide acceptable Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH); this paper discusses those challenges and the methodologies developed. This work covers theoretical root causes; proposed metrics to quantify the NVH level; algorithmic and physical mitigation methods; and both subjective and objective evaluation results.
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