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Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery from Multiple Heat Sources in a HD Truck Diesel Engine Using a Rankine Cycle - A Theoretical Evaluation

2012-09-10
2012-01-1602
Few previous publications investigate the possibility of combining multiple waste heat sources in a combustion engine waste heat recovery system. A waste heat recovery system for a HD truck diesel engine is evaluated for utilizing multiple heat sources found in a conventional HD diesel engine. In this type of engine more than 50% of heat energy goes futile. The majority of the heat energy is lost through engine exhaust and cooling devices such as EGRC (Exhaust gas recirculation cooler), CAC (Charge air cooler) and engine cooling. In this paper, the potential of usable heat recuperation from these devices using thermodynamic analysis was studied, and also an effort is made to recuperate most of the available heat energy that would otherwise be lost. A well-known way of recuperating this heat energy is by employing a Rankine cycle circuit with these devices as heat sources (single loop or dual loop), and thus this study is focused on using a Rankine cycle for the heat recovery system.
Technical Paper

Using Oxygenated Gasoline Surrogate Compositions to Map RON and MON

2014-04-01
2014-01-1303
Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures which consist of more than 200 different hydrocarbon species. In order to decrease the chemical and physical complexity, oxygenated surrogate components were used to enhance the fundamental understanding of partially premixed combustion (PPC). The ignition quality of a fuel is measured by octane number. There are two methods to measure the octane number: research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON). In this paper, RON and MON were measured for a matrix of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, and ethanol (TERF) blends spanning a wide range of octane number between 60.6 and 97. First, regression models were created to derive RON and MON for TERF blends. The models were validated using the standard octane test for 17 TERF blends. Second, three different TERF blends with an ignition delay (ID) of 8 degrees for a specific operating condition were determined using a regression model.
Technical Paper

The Usefulness of Negative Valve Overlap for Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC

2012-09-10
2012-01-1578
Partially premixed combustion has the potential of high efficiency and simultaneous low soot and NOx emissions. Running the engine in PPC mode with high octane number fuels has the advantage of a longer premix period of fuel and air which reduces soot emissions, even at higher loads. The problem is the ignitability at low load and idle operating conditions. The objective is to investigate the usefulness of negative valve overlap on a light duty diesel engine running with gasoline partially premixed combustion at low load operating conditions. The idea is to use negative valve overlap to trap hot residual gases to elevate the global in-cylinder temperature to promote auto-ignition of the high octane number fuel. This is of practical interest at low engine speed and load operating conditions because it can be assumed that the available boost is limited. The problem with NVO at low load operating conditions is that the exhaust gas temperature is low.
Technical Paper

The Relevance of Different Fuel Indices to Describe Autoignition Behaviour of Gasoline in Light Duty DICI Engine under PPC Mode

2019-04-02
2019-01-1147
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) with gasoline fuels is a new promising combustion concept for future internal combustion engines. However, many researchers have argued the capabilities of research octane number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) to describe the autoignition behaviour of gasoline fuels in advanced combustion concepts like PPC. The objective of this study is to propose a new method, called PPC number, to characterize the auto ignition quality of gasoline fuels in a light-duty direct injected compression ignition engine under PPC conditions. The experimental investigations were performed on a 4-cylinder Volvo D4 2 litre engine. The ignition delay which was defined as the crank angle degrees between the start of injection (SOI) and start of combustion (SOC) was used to represent the auto ignition quality of a fuel.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Injection Pressure on the NOx Emission Rates in a Heavy-Duty DICI Engine Running on Methanol.

2017-10-08
2017-01-2194
Heavy-duty direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine running on methanol is studied at a high compression ratio (CR) of 27. The fuel is injected with a common-rail injector close to the top-dead-center (TDC) with two injection pressures of 800 bar and 1600 bar. Numerical simulations using Reynold Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS), Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT), and Well-Stirred-Reactor (WSR) models are employed to investigate local conditions of injection and combustion process to identify the mechanism behind the trend of increasing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions at higher injection pressures found in the experiments. It is shown that the numerical simulations successfully replicate the change of ignition delay time and capture variation of NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

System Simulations to Evaluate the Potential Efficiency of Humid Air Motors

2013-10-14
2013-01-2646
In the quest for efficiency improvement in heavy duty truck engines, waste heat recovery could play a valuable role. The evaporative cycle is a waste heat recovery technology aimed at improving efficiency and decreasing emissions. A humid air motor (HAM) uses the waste heat from the exhaust of the engine to humidify the inlet air; this humid air, with higher specific heat, reduces NOx emission to a greater extent [1] [2]. Despite this benefit of emission reduction, the increase or decrease in efficiency of the humid air motor compared to the conventional engine is not discussed in the literature [3] [4] [5]. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the efficiency of the HAM using system model simulations of a 13-liter heavy duty Volvo engine with a humidifier. The commercial software GT-SUITE is used to build the system model and to perform the simulations. The efficiency improvement of the HAM comes from the expansion of the vapor mass flow produced as a result of humidification.
Journal Article

SI Gas Engine: Evaluation of Engine Performance, Efficiency and Emissions Comparing Producer Gas and Natural Gas

2011-04-12
2011-01-0916
The Technical University of Denmark, DTU, has designed, built and tested a gasifier [1, 8] that is fuelled with wood chips and achieves a 93% conversion efficiency from wood to producer gas. By combining the gasifier with an ICE and an electric generator a co-generative system can be realized that produces electricity and heat. The gasifier uses the waste heat from the engine for drying and pyrolysis of the wood chips while the gas produced is used to fuel the engine. To achieve high efficiency in converting biomass to electricity an engine is needed that is adapted to high efficiency operation using the specific producer gas from the DTU gasifier. So far the majority of gas engines have been designed and optimized for operation on natural gas. The presented work uses a modern and highly efficient truck sized natural gas engine to investigate efficiency, emissions and general performance while operating on producer gas compared to natural gas operation.
Technical Paper

Review and Benchmarking of Alternative Fuels in Conventional and Advanced Engine Concepts with Emphasis on Efficiency, CO2, and Regulated Emissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0882
Alternative fuels have been proposed as a means for future energy-secure and environmentally sustainable transportation. This review and benchmarking show that several of the alternative fuels (e.g. methanol, ethanol, higher alcohols, RME, HVO, DME, and biogas/CNG) work well with several different engine concepts such as conventional SI, DICI, and dual fuel, and with the emerging concepts HCCI, RCCI, and PPC. Energy consumption is in most cases similar to that of diesel or gasoline, with the exception of methanol and ethanol that use less energy, especially in SI engines. Tailpipe emissions of CO2 with respect to engine work output (tank-to-output shaft) can be reduced by more than 15% compared to a highly efficient gasoline SI engine, and are the lowest with CNG / lean-burn SI and with alcohols in several engine concepts. Alternative fuels are considered safe and in most cases are associated with reduced risk with respect to cancer and other health and environmental issues.
Technical Paper

Pressure Sensitivity of HCCI Auto-Ignition Temperature for Gasoline Surrogate Fuels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1669
An index to relate fuel properties to HCCI auto-ignition would be valuable to predict the performance of fuels in HCCI engines from their properties and composition. The indices for SI engines, the Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are known to be insufficient to explain the behavior of oxygenated fuels in an HCCI engine. One way to characterize a fuel is to use the Auto-Ignition Temperature (AIT). The AIT can be extracted from the pressure trace. Another potentially interesting parameter is the amount of Low Temperature Heat Release (LTHR) that is closely connected to the ignition properties of the fuel. A systematic study of fuels consisting of gasoline surrogate components of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and ethanol was made. 21 fuels were prepared with RON values ranging from 67 to 97.
Technical Paper

Potential Levels of Soot, NOx, HC and CO for Methanol Combustion

2016-04-05
2016-01-0887
Methanol is today considered a viable green fuel for combustion engines because of its low soot emissions and the possibility of it being produced in a CO2-neutral manner. Methanol as a fuel for combustion engines have attracted interest throughout history and much research was conducted during the oil crisis in the seventies. In the beginning of the eighties the oil prices began to decrease and interest in methanol declined. This paper presents the emission potential of methanol. T-Φ maps were constructed using a 0-D reactor with constant pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio to show the emission characteristics of methanol. These maps were compared with equivalent maps for diesel fuel. The maps were then complemented with engine simulations using a stochastic reactor model (SRM), which predicts end-gas emissions. The SRM was validated using experimental results from a truck engine running in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode at medium loads.
Technical Paper

Multi Cylinder Partially Premixed Combustion Performance Using Commercial Light-Duty Engine Hardware

2014-10-13
2014-01-2680
This work investigates the performance potential of an engine running with partially premixed combustion (PPC) using commercial diesel engine hardware. The engine was a 2.01 SAAB (GM) VGT turbocharged diesel engine and three different fuels were run - RON 70 gasoline, RON 95 Gasoline and MK1 diesel. With the standard hardware an operating range for PPC from idle at 1000 rpm up to a peak load of 1000 kPa IMEPnet at 3000 rpm while maintaining a peak pressure rise rate (PPRR) below 7 bar/CAD was possible with either RON 70 gasoline and MK1 diesel. Relaxing the PPRR requirements, a peak load of 1800 kPa was possible, limited by the standard boosting system. With RON 95 gasoline it was not possible to operate the engine below 400 kPa. Low pressure EGR routing was beneficial for efficiency and combined with a split injection strategy using the maximum possible injection pressure of 1450 bar a peak gross indicated efficiency of above 51% was recorded.
Technical Paper

Loss Analysis of a HD-PPC Engine with Two-Stage Turbocharging Operating in the European Stationary Cycle

2013-10-14
2013-01-2700
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has demonstrated substantially higher efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and gasoline engines (SI). By combining experiments and modeling the presented work investigates the underlying reasons for the improved efficiency, and quantifies the loss terms. The results indicate that it is possible to operate a HD-PPC engine with a production two-stage boost system over the European Stationary Cycle while likely meeting Euro VI and US10 emissions with a peak brake efficiency above 48%. A majority of the ESC can be operated with brake efficiency above 44%. The loss analysis reveals that low in-cylinder heat transfer losses are the most important reason for the high efficiencies of PPC. In-cylinder heat losses are basically halved in PPC compared to CDC, as a consequence of substantially reduced combustion temperature gradients, especially close to the combustion chamber walls.
Journal Article

Laser-Induced Phosphorescence and the Impact of Phosphor Coating Thickness on Crank-Angle Resolved Cylinder Wall Temperatures

2011-04-12
2011-01-1292
In order to further improve the energy conversion efficiency in reciprocating engines, detailed knowledge about the involved processes is required. One major loss source in internal combustion engines is heat loss through the cylinder walls. In order to increase the understanding of heat transfer processes and to validate and generate new heat transfer correlation models it is desirable, or even necessary, to have crank-angle resolved data on in-cylinder wall temperature. Laser-Induced Phosphorescence has proved to be a useful tool for surface thermometry also in such harsh environments as running engines. However, the ceramic structure of most phosphor coatings might introduce an error, due to its thermal insulation properties, when being exposed to rapidly changing temperatures. In this article the measurement technique is evaluated concerning the impact from the thickness of the phosphorescent layer on the measured temperature.
Journal Article

Investigation of Particle Number Emission Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO)

2018-04-03
2018-01-0909
Diesel engines are one of the most important power generating units these days. Increasing greenhouse gas emission level and the need for energy security has prompted increasing research into alternative fuels for diesel engines. Biodiesel is the most popular among the alternatives for diesel fuel as it is biodegradable and renewable and can be produced domestically from vegetable oils. In recent years, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) has also gained popularity due to some of its advantages over biodiesel such as higher cetane number, lower deposit formation, storage stability, etc. HVO is a renewable, paraffinic biobased alternative fuel for diesel engines similar to biodiesel. Unlike biodiesel, the production process for HVO involves hydrogen as catalyst instead of methanol which removes oxygen content from vegetable oil.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Partially Premixed Combustion Characteristics in Low Load Range with Regards to Fuel Octane Number in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0684
The impact of ignition quality and chemical properties on engine performance and emissions during low load partially premixed combustion (PPC) in a light-duty diesel engine were investigated. Four fuels in the gasoline boiling range, together with Swedish diesel (MK1), were operated at loads between 2 and 8 bar IMEPg at 1500 rpm, with 50% heat released located at 6 crank angle degrees (CAD) after top dead center (TDC). A single injection strategy was used, wherein the start of injection (SOI) and the injection duration were adjusted to achieve desired loads with maintained CA50, as the injection pressure was kept constant at 1000 bar. The objective of this work was to examine the low-load limit for PPC at approximately 50% EGR and λ=1.5, since these levels had been suggested as optimal in earlier studies. The low-load limits with stable combustion were between 5 and 7 bar gross IMEP for the gasoline fuels, higher limit for higher RON values.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Strategies on Engine Efficiency for a Methanol PPC Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0116
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is one of several advanced combustion concepts for the conventional diesel engine. PPC uses a separation between end of fuel injection and start of combustion, also called ignition dwell, to increase the mixing of fuel and oxidizer. This has been shown to be beneficial for simultaneously reducing harmful emissions and fuel consumption. The ignition dwell can be increased by means of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or lower intake temperature. However, the most effective means is to use a fuel with high research octane number (RON). Methanol has a RON of 109 and a recent study found that methanol can be used effectively in PPC mode, with multiple injections, to yield high brake efficiency. However, the early start of injection (SOI) timings in this study were noted as a potential issue due to increased combustion sensitivity. Therefore, the present study attempts to quantify the changes in engine performance for different injection strategies.
Technical Paper

Humid Air Motor: A Novel Concept to Decrease the Emissions Using the Exhaust Heat

2017-10-08
2017-01-2369
Humid air motor (HAM) is an engine operated with humidified inlet charge. System simulations study on HAM showed the waste heat recovery potential over a conventional system. An HAM setup was constructed, to comprehend the potential benefits in real-time, the HAM setup was built around a 13-litre six cylinder Volvo diesel engine. The HAM engine process is explained in detail in this paper. Emission analysis is also performed for all three modes of operation. The experiments were carried out at part load operating point of the engine to understand the effects of humidified charge on combustion, efficiency, and emissions. Experiments were conducted without EGR, with EGR, and with humidified inlet charge. These three modes of operation provided the potential benefits of each system. Exhaust heat was used for partial humidification process. Results show that HAM operation, without compromising on efficiency, reduces NOx and soot significantly over the engine operated without EGR.
Technical Paper

Heat Loss Analysis for Various Piston Geometries in a Heavy-Duty Methanol PPC Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1726
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) in internal combustion engine as a low temperature combustion strategy has shown great potential to achieve high thermodynamic efficiency. Methanol due to its unique properties is considered as a preferable PPC engine fuel. The injection timing to achieve methanol PPC conditions should be set very close to TDC, allowing to utilize spray-bowl interaction to further improve combustion process in terms of emissions and heat losses. In this study CFD simulations are performed to investigate spray-bowl interaction for a number of different piston designs and its impact on the heat transfer and the overall piston performance. The validation case is based on a single cylinder heavy-duty Scania D13 engine with a compression ratio 15. The operation point is set to low load 5.42 IMEPg bar with SOI -3 aTDC.
Technical Paper

HCCI Gas Engine: Evaluation of Engine Performance, Efficiency and Emissions - Comparing Producer Gas and Natural Gas

2011-04-12
2011-01-1196
The Technical University of Denmark, DTU, has constructed, built and tested a gasifier [1, 11] that is fueled with wood chips and achieves a 93% conversion efficiency from wood to producer gas. By combining the gasifier with an internal combustion engine and a generator, a co-generative system can be realized that produces electricity and heat. The gasifier uses the waste heat from the engine for drying and pyrolysis of the wood chips while the produced gas is used to fuel the engine. To achieve high efficiency in converting biomass to electricity it necessitates an engine that is adapted to high efficiency operation using the specific producer gas from the DTU gasifier. So far the majority of gas engines of today are designed and optimized for SI-operation on natural gas.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Surrogate Fuels for Partially Premixed Combustion, of Toluene Ethanol Reference Fuels

2013-10-14
2013-01-2540
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is intended to improve fuel efficiency and minimize the engine-out emissions. PPC is known to have the potential to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot, but often at the expense of increased emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). PPC has demonstrated remarkable fuel flexibility and can be operated with a large variety of liquid fuels, ranging from low-octane, high-cetane diesel fuels to high-octane gasolines and alcohols. Several research groups have demonstrated that naphtha fuels provide a beneficial compromise between functional load range and low emissions. To increase the understanding of the influence of individual fuel components typically found in commercial fuels, such as alkenes, aromatics and alcohols, a systematic experimental study of 15 surrogate fuel mixtures of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene and ethanol was performed in a light-duty PPC engine using a design of experiment methodology.
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