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Technical Paper

Whistling Potential for Duct Components

Components in ducts systems that create flow separation can for certain conditions and frequencies amplify incident sound waves. This vortex-sound phenomena is the origin for whistling, i.e., the production of tonal sound at frequencies close to the resonances of a duct system. One way of predicting whistling potential is to compute the acoustic power balance, i.e., the difference between incident and scattered sound power. This can readily be obtained if the scattering matrix is known for the object. For the low frequency plane wave case this implies knowledge of the two-port data, which can be obtained by numerical and experimental methods. In this paper the procedure to experimentally determine whistling potential will be presented and some examples are given to show how this procedure can be used in some applications for automotive intake and exhaust system components.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Noise - Generation and Control

An important part of modern engine design is the concept of downsizing where a key role is carried by the charging devices. These devices are effective aero-acoustic sources forming a coupled acoustic system with the connected flow-channel components. At KTH a unique test facility for determination of the complete acoustic Two-port for turbochargers has been built. Using this facility both the passive (transmission & reflection) as well as the active (sound generation) data for turbochargers can be measured at a given operating point. One important issue which has been studied in detail using this data is the coupling between the aerodynamic and acoustic fields close to “surge”. In addition, the control of compressor noise is an increasing concern. For instance heavy duty diesels and light duty engines with screw (roots) compressors can create strong charging harmonics well below 10 kHz. The standard noise control solution for these cases is to build a series of resonators.
Journal Article

Systematic Optimization of an Exhaust System to Meet Noise Radiation Criteria at Idle

Exhaust noise is a major contributor to the radiated noise level of a vehicle, especially at idle. The radiated noise level has to meet a certain criteria based on regulation and consumer demand. In many cases, the problem appears after the vehicle is manufactured and the tailpipe noise measurement is performed indicating a high noise level that needs to be reduced. This paper describes one of those cases where the radiated noise level of a certain passenger car at idle was required to be reduced by 6 dB(A). The exhaust system consists of one main muffler and one auxiliary muffler. A 1D two-port model of the exhaust system including the two mufflers was built using commercial software. This model was validated against the measurement of the two-port matrix of both mufflers. The model was then used together with tailpipe noise measurements to estimate the characteristics of the source strength and impedance.
Technical Paper

Study of Thermoacoustic Engine for Automotive Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

In this paper, the travelling-wave thermoacoustic engine (TAE) and its application for recovery of waste heat from automotive exhaust systems is investigated. The aim is to give some insight into the potential, but also limitations of the technique for practical applications. This includes packaging, physical boundary conditions as heating and cooling available, but also system perspectives as influence of legislative drive cycles and degree of hybridization. First, the travelling-wave TAE is described as a low-order acoustic network in the frequency domain. Models, including non-linear effects, are set up for every component in the network to describe the propagation and dissipation of acoustic waves. For a TAE with looped structure, the continuity of pressure and volumetric velocity is employed to determine the saturation pressure, as well as the stable operating point. These models are validated against experimental data available in the literature [1].
Technical Paper

Sound Transmission in Automotive Turbochargers

Turbochargers are common parts of a modern automotive engine. This paper presents an overview of the recent studies performed in the competence center for gas exchange studies at KTH on the sound transmission in turbochargers. The compressor and turbine of the turbochargers are treated as acoustic 2-ports and the scattering matrix for these devices are determined. A unique experimental facility established in the competence center for gas exchange research at KTH has been utilized to study the turbochargers at a variety of operating conditions systematically selected from compressor and turbine charts. A description of the experimental procedures to determine the acoustic 2-port data including techniques implemented to improve the quality of the results is presented. Results from a number of experiments on various modern automotive turbochargers including a unit with variable turbine geometry (VTG) are included.
Technical Paper

Predicting Fluid Driven Whistles in Automotive Intake and Exhaust Systems

This work explores how fluid driven whistles in complex automotive intake and exhaust systems can be predicted using computationally affordable tools. Whistles associated with unsteady shear layers (created over for example side branches or perforates in resonators) are studied using vortex sound theory; vorticity in the shear layer interacts with the acoustic field while being convected across the orifice. If the travel time of a hydrodynamic disturbance over the orifice reasonably matches a multiple of the acoustic period of an acoustic feedback system, energy is transferred from the flow field to the acoustic field resulting in a whistle. The actual amplitude of the whistle is set by non-linear saturation phenomena and cannot be predicted here, but the frequency and relative strength can be found. For this not only the mean flow and acoustic fields needs to be characterized separately, but also the interaction of the two.
Journal Article

Particle Number Reduction in Automotive Exhausts Using Acoustic Metamaterials

Air pollution caused by exhaust particulate matter (PM) from vehicular traffic is a major health issue. Increasingly strict regulations of vehicle emission have been introduced and efforts have been put on both the suppression of particulate formation inside the engine cylinders and the development of after-treatment technologies such as filters. With modern direct injected engines that produce a large number of really small sub-micron particles, the focus has increased even further and now also includes a number count. The problem of calculating particle trajectories in flow ducts like vehicle exhaust systems is challenging but important to further improve the technology. The interaction between particles and oscillating flows may lead to the formation of particle groups (regions where the particle concentration is increased), yielding a possibility of realizing particle agglomeration.
Technical Paper

Flow Noise Generation in a Pipe Bend

Noise generated by low Mach number flow in duct networks is important in many industrial applications. In the automotive industry the two most important are the ventilation duct network and the engine exhaust system. Traditionally, design is made based on rule-of thumb or slightly better by simple semi-empirical scaling laws for flow noise. In many cases, strong curvatures and local deviations from circular cross-sections are created due to outer geometry restrictions. This can result in local relatively high flow velocities and complex flow separation patterns and as a result, rule-of thumb and scaling law methods can become highly inaccurate and uncertain. More advanced techniques based on time domain modelling of the fluid dynamics equations together with acoustic analogies can offer a better understanding of the local noise generation, the propagation and interaction with the rest of the system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Facility for the Complete Determination of Sound Transmission in Turbochargers

In this paper a unique experimental facility designed for a complete determination of the sound transmission in turbochargers is introduced. The facility can be used to characterize the passive acoustic effect for turbocharger compressors and turbines working in realistic operating conditions by extracting the acoustic two-port data. The acoustic pressure transmission loss results for a passenger car turbocharger compressor and turbine measured in up- and downstream directions regarding the mean flow are presented. The data are obtained for various operating points of the turbocharger and the influence of operating conditions on the sound transmission is discussed.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis on the ‘Exact’ Cremer Impedance in Rectangular Ducts

Cremer impedance, first proposed by Cremer (Acustica 3, 1953) and then improved by Tester (JSV 28, 1973), refers to the locally reacting boundary condition that can maximize the attenuation of a certain acoustic mode in a uniform waveguide. One limitation in Tester’s work is that it simplified the analysis on the effect of flow by only considering high frequencies or the ‘well cut-on’ modes. This approximation is reasonable for large duct applications, e.g., aero-engines, but not for many other cases of interest, with the vehicle intake and exhaust system included. A recent modification done by Kabral et al. (Acta Acustica united with Acustica 102, 2016) has removed this limitation and investigated the ‘exact’ solution of Cremer impedance for circular waveguides, which reveals an appreciable difference between the exact and classic solution in the low frequency range. Consequently, the exact solution can lead to a much higher low-frequency attenuation level.
Technical Paper

Acoustics of Turbochargers

Noise from turbo-chargers is increasingly becoming an issue. Partly due to improved noise control of other components and partly due to increased specific mass flows. Despite that the turbocharging technique was developed in the first part of the last century the acoustical behavior is still a field where there is a lack of research. In this paper an overview of the existing research is presented including the work done in the EC-project ARTEMIS. Some first results from recently started investigations at the new gas management research centre, KTH CICERO, will also be described. A turbo-unit always consists of a compressor which normally is driven by an exhaust turbine. Both the turbine and the compressor will have an influence on how the low frequency engine pulsations propagate in the intake/exhaust system. This is referred to as the passive acoustic property of the turbo-unit.
Technical Paper

Acoustical Methods for Investigating Turbocharger Flow Instabilities

In order to increase the internal combustion engine efficiency turbocharging is today widely used. The trend, in modern engine technology, is towards higher boost pressures while keeping the combustion pressure raise relatively small. The turbocharger surge occurs if the pressure at the outlet of the compressor is greater than it can maintain, i.e., a reverse flow will be induced. In presence of such flow conditions instabilities will occur which can couple to incident acoustic (pressure) waves and amplify them. The main objective of the present work is to propose a novel method for investigation of turbocharger flow instabilities or surge precursors. The method is based on the determination of the acoustic two-port data. The active part of this data describes the sound generation and the passive part the scattering of sound. The scattering data will contain information about flow-acoustic interaction and amplification of sound that could occur close to surge.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Simulation of Medium Speed IC-Engine Exhaust Gas After Treatment Devices with Substrate

The after treatment devices (ATD) used in internal combustion engine (IC-engine) exhaust systems are mainly designed with emphasis on emission control, i.e. chemical efficiency, while paying less attention to the acoustic performance. In automotive applications, the duct diameters are so small that studying the acoustic wave propagation only in the plane wave frequency range is usually sufficient. In the case of medium speed IC-engines, used for example in power plants and ships, the three dimensional acoustic phenomena must also be taken into account. The main elements of the medium speed IC-engine ATD are the selective catalytic reducer (SCR) and oxidation catalyst (OC), which are based on a large amount of coated channels, i.e. the substrates. The number and type of the substrates depends not only on the regional environment legislations but also on the engine type.
Journal Article

A Study on Acoustical Time-Domain Two-Ports Based on Digital Filters with Application to Automotive Air Intake Systems

Analysis of pressure pulsations in ducts is an active research field within the automotive industry. The fluid dynamics and the wave transmission properties of internal combustion (IC) engine intake and exhaust systems contribute to the energy efficiency of the engines and are hence important for the final amount of CO₂ that is emitted from the vehicles. Sound waves, originating from the pressure pulses caused by the in- and outflow at the engine valves, are transmitted through the intake and exhaust system and are an important cause of noise pollution from road traffic at low speeds. Reliable prediction methods are of major importance to enable effective optimization of gas exchange systems. The use of nonlinear one-dimensional (1D) gas dynamics simulation software packages is widespread within the automotive industry. These time-domain codes are mainly used to predict engine performance parameters such as output torque and power but can also give estimates of radiated orifice noise.
Technical Paper

A Steady-State Based Investigation of Automotive Turbocharger Compressor Noise

The challenging problem of noise generation and propagation in automotive turbocharging systems is of real interest from both scientific and practical points of view. Robust and fast steady-state fluid flow calculations, complemented by acoustic analogies can represent valuable tools to be used for a quick assessment of the problem during e.g. design phase, and a starting point for more in-depth future unsteady calculations. Thus, as a part of the initial phase of a long-term project, a steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow analysis is carried out for a specific automotive turbocharger compressor geometry. Acoustic data are extracted by means of aeroacoustics models available within the framework of the STAR-CCM+ solver (i.e. Curle and Proudman acoustic analogies, respectively).
Journal Article

A Compact Silencer for the Control of Compressor Noise

Current trends for IC-engines are driving the development of more efficient engines with higher specific power. This is true for both light and heavy duty vehicles and has led to an increased use of super-charging. The super-charging can be both in the form of a single or multi-stage turbo-charger driven by exhaust gases, or via a directly driven compressor. In both cases a possible noise problem can be a strong Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) typically in the kHz range and above the plane wave range. In this paper a novel type of compact dissipative silencer developed especially to handle this type of problem is described and optimized. The silencer is based on a combination of a micro-perforated (MPP) tube backed by a locally reacting cavity. The combined impedance of micro-perforate and cavity is chosen to match the theoretical optimum known as the Cremer impedance at the mid-frequency in the frequency range of interest.