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Technical Paper

The Influence of Fluid Motion on Flame Kernel Development and Cyclic Variation in a Spark Ignition Engine

The effect of engine flow field characteristics on cycle-to-cycle variation in a methane fueled engine was examined. The rate of early flame development was correlated with the turbulence characteristics and the mean flow. This, in turn, was correlated with engine performance characteristics such as peak cylinder pressure. Drastically different flow field characteristics were achieved in the engine through the use of a prechamber having a variable inlet orifice diameter. Three combustion chamber geometries were examined: main chamber combustion without a prechamber, a prechamber with a 9 mm entrance orifice, and a prechamber with a 27 mm entrance orifice. Measurements of mean velocity and turbulence intensity were made in the region of the spark using laser Doppler velocimetry. The engine had a compression ratio of 5.1 and was operated at speeds of 300, 600, and 1200 rpm. The equivalence ratios were 0.7 and 0.8.
Journal Article

Simulation of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Generation with Exhaust Heat Recovery from a 15 liter Diesel Engine

The performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) that recovers heat from the exhaust of a heavy-duty diesel engine was simulated. The work was an extension of a prior study that simulated the performance of an experimental ORC system developed and tested at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL). The experimental data were used to set model parameters and validate the results of that simulation. For the current study the model was adapted to consider a 15 liter turbocharged engine versus the original 1.9 liter light-duty automotive turbodiesel studied by ORNL. Exhaust flow rate and temperature data for the heavy-duty engine were obtained from Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads without EGR. Because of the considerably higher exhaust gas flow rates of the heavy-duty engine, relative to the engine tested by ORNL, a different heat exchanger type was considered in order to keep exhaust pressure drop within practical bounds.
Technical Paper

Performance Characteristics of a New On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor

A new electronic sensor has been developed to measure the time-resolved concentration of carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) emitted in engine exhaust. The sensor is approximately the size of a standard automotive spark-plug or lambda sensor and can be mounted directly in the engine exhaust. It consists of a pair of closely spaced electrically isolated electrodes that protrude into the exhaust flow. One electrode is given a voltage bias of 1000 V while the other is the signal electrode. The sensor is capable of providing cycle-resolved feedback on the carbonaceous PM concentration in the exhaust to the engine control unit (ECU), thereby enabling real-time control of engine operating parameters to lower PM emissions. This paper reports the results of an experimental study of various parameters that affect the performance of the electronic sensor.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation During Cranking in a Port-Injected 4-Valve SI Engine

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the fuel-air mixing process in a port-fuel-injected, 4-valve, spark-ignited engine that was motored to simulate cold cranking and start-up conditions. An infrared fiber-optic instrumented spark plug probe was used to measure the local, crank angle resolved, fuel concentration in the vicinity of the spark gap of a single-cylinder research engine with a production head and fuel injector. The crank-angle resolved fuel concentrations were compared for various injection timings including open-intake-valve (OIV) and closed-intake-valve (CIV) injection, using federal certification gasoline. In addition, the effects of speed, intake manifold pressure, and injected fuel mass were examined.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Local In-Cylinder Fuel Concentration Fluctuations in a Firing SI Engine

The cycle-resolved fuel concentration near the spark plug in a firing SI engine has been measured using an infrared fiber optic instrumented spark plug probe. The probe can measure in-cylinder concentrations of hydrocarbons in the pre-combustion regions of the engine cycle and give qualitative results for unburned hydrocarbons in the post-combustion regions. The device consists of a spark plug body that has been modified to accept a pair of sapphire optical fibers in addition to a spark electrode. Radiation from an infrared source is coupled into one fiber and reflected from a minor on the spark plug ground electrode to the other fiber which carries the signal to a detector and data acquisition system. The probe measures the attenuation of the infrared radiation transmitted through a region in the vicinity of the spark gap. The attenuation results from the absorption of radiation by the fuel. The measurements were made in a CFR engine at 600 rpm using propane fuel.
Technical Paper

Increasing Exhaust Temperature of an Idling Light-Duty Diesel Engine through Post-Injection and Intake Throttling

Especially in crowded urban areas, light-duty vehicles often spend a great deal of time operating under idle conditions for which exhaust temperatures may be too low to maintain exhaust catalyst activity. This study investigated two methods of increasing Diesel exhaust temperature of a light-duty Diesel engine under idle conditions: post injection of fuel after TDC and intake throttling. For this particular study, EGR was not used. The engine operating parameters considered included three idle speeds of 800, 1100 and 1200 rpm, with the engine fully warmed up. Two rail pressures of 500 and 800 bar were studied with the injection strategy being the primary variable. The parameters measured included exhaust temperature, exhaust concentrations of NOx and HCs, as well as fuel consumption, IMEP and COV of IMEP. For the baseline idle conditions, manifold-out exhaust temperature was approximately 100 °C-105 °C.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Fuel Transport During the First Cranking Cycles in a Port Injected 4-Valve Engine

Fuel transport was visualized within the cylinder of a port injected four-valve SI engine having a transparent cylinder liner. Measurements were made while motoring at 250 rpm to simulate cranking conditions prior to the first firing cycle, and at 750 rpm to examine the effects of engine speed. A production GM Quad-4 cylinder head was used, and the stock single-jet port fuel injector was used to inject indolene. A digital camera was used to capture back-lighted images of cylinder wall wetting for open and closed intake valve injection. In addition, two-dimensional planar imaging of Mie scattering from the indolene fuel droplets was used to characterize the fuel droplet distribution as a function of crank angle for open and closed intake valve injection. LDV was used to measure the droplet and air velocities near the intake valves during fuel induction. It was found that with open-valve injection a large fraction of the fuel impinged on the cylinder wall opposite the intake valves.
Technical Paper

Improved Passage Design for a Spark Plug Mounted Pressure Transducer

Combustion chamber pressure measurement in engines via a passage is an old technique that is still widely used in engine research. This paper presents improved passage designs for an off-set electrode spark plug designed to accept a pressure transducer. The spark plug studied was the Champion model 304-063A. Two acoustic models were developed to compute the resonance characteristics. The new designs have a resonance frequency in a range higher than the fundamental frequency expected from knock so that the signal can be lowpass filtered to remove the resonance and not interfere with pressure signal components associated with combustion phenomena. Engine experiments verified the spark plug resonance behavior. For the baseline engine operating condition approximately 50 of 100 cycles had visible passage resonance in the measured pressure traces, at an average frequency of 8.03 kHz.
Technical Paper

Further Development of an Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor and Its Application to Diesel Engine Transients

This paper presents the latest developments in the design and performance of an electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor developed at The University of Texas at Austin (UT) and suitable, with further development, for applications in active engine control of PM emissions. The sensor detects the carbonaceous mass component of PM in the exhaust and has a time-resolution less than 20 (ms), allowing PM levels to be quantified for engine transients. Sample measurements made with the sensor in the exhaust of a single-cylinder light duty diesel engine are presented for both steady-state and transient operations: a steady-state correlation with gravimetric filter measurements is presented, and the sensor response to rapid increases in PM emission during engine transients is shown for several different tip-in (momentary increases in fuel delivery) conditions.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Spray/Charge-Motion Interaction within the Cylinder of a Direct-Injected, 4-Valve, SI Engine

The mixture preparation process was investigated in a direct-injected, 4-valve, SI engine under motored conditions. The interaction between the high-pressure fuel jet and the intake air-flow was observed. Laser-sheet droplet imaging was used to visualize the in-cylinder droplet distributions, and a single-component LDV system was used to measure in-cylinder velocities. The fuel spray was visualized with the engine motored at 1500 and 750 rpm, and with the engine stopped. It was observed that the shape of the fuel spray was distorted by the in-cylinder air motion generated by the intake air flow, and that this effect became more pronounced with increasing engine speed. Velocity measurements were made at five locations on the symmetry plane of the cylinder, with the engine motored at 750 rpm. Comparison of these measurements with, and without, injection revealed that the in-cylinder charge motion was significantly altered by the injection event.
Technical Paper

Fiber Optic Sensor for Time-Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Engines

A fiber optic infrared spectroscopic sensor has been developed to measure the time-resolved concentration of exhaust gas recirculated (EGR) into the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine. The sensor detects the attenuation of infrared radiation in the 4.3 μm infrared vibrational-rotational absorption band of CO2. The EGR mass fraction in the intake manifold is proportional to the CO2 concentration. The sensor was tested in a single-cylinder spark ignition engine fired on propane at a speed of 700 rpm. The sensor was located 10 cm upstream of the intake valve. The temporal resolution of the measurements was 700 μs (equivalent to 2.5 crank angle degrees) allowing the local EGR concentration throughout the cycle to be measured. Measurements were made with both real and simulated EGR. The EGR flows were introduced at various locations upstream of the probe.
Technical Paper

Fiber Optic Sensor for Crank Angle Resolved Measurements of Burned Gas Residual Fraction in the Cylinder of an SI Engine

A fiber optic infrared spectroscopic sensor was developed to measure the crank angle resolved residual fraction of burned gas retained in the cylinder of a four-stroke SI engine. The sensor detected the attenuation of infrared radiation in the 4.3 μm infrared vibrational-rotational absorption band of CO2. The residual fraction remaining in the cylinder is proportional to the CO2 concentration. The sensor was tested in a single-cylinder CFR spark ignition engine fired on propane at a speed of 700 rpm. The sensor was located in one of two spark plug holes of the CFR engine. A pressure-transducer-type spark plug was used to record the cylinder pressure and initiate the spark. The temporal resolution of the measurements was 540 μs (equivalent to 2.3 crank angle degrees) and the spatial resolution was 6 mm. Measurements were made during the intake and compression stroke for several intake manifold pressures. The compression ratio of the engine was varied from 6.3 to 9.5.
Technical Paper

Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor – Mechanisms and Application in a Modern Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

An electronic particulate matter sensor (EPMS) developed at the University of Texas was used to characterize exhaust gases from a single-cylinder diesel engine and a light-duty diesel vehicle. Measurements were made during transient tip-in events with multiple sensor configurations in the single-cylinder engine. The sensor was operated in two modes: one with the electric field energized, and the other with no electric field present. In each mode, different characteristic signals were produced in response to a tip-in event, highlighting the two primary mechanisms of sensor operation. The sensor responded to both the natural charge of the particulate matter (PM) emitted from the engine, and was also found to create a signal by charging neutral particles. The characteristics of the two mechanisms of operation are discussed as well as their implications on the placement and operation of the sensor.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR, Swirl, and Cylinder Deactivation on Exhaust Temperatures of a Throttled Light-Duty Diesel Engine under Idle Conditions

This study extends a previous study on the effects of intake throttling and post-injection on light-duty Diesel engine exhaust temperatures and emissions, and includes the effects of EGR, in-cylinder swirl air motion, and cylinder deactivation. The baseline injection strategy was adapted from a 2014 Chevrolet Cruze having an engine similar to the light-duty GM engine used for this study. While the engine was fixed to a motoring engine dynamometer, the dynamometer was not active for the study, as the engine was operated under idle conditions. The desired idle speed was controlled using a feedback loop in the control algorithm to vary the duration of the main injection event. Three methods were investigated. In the first method, the engine was operated fully warmed up, firing all four cylinders.
Technical Paper

Diluents and Lean Mixture Combustion Modeling for SI Engines with a Quasi-Dimensional Model

Lean mixture combustion might be an important feature in the next generation of SI engines, while diluents (internal and external EGR) have already played a key role in the reductions of emissions and fuel consumption. Lean burn modeling is even more important for engine modeling tools which are sometimes used for new engine development. The effect of flame strain on flame speed is believed to be significant, especially under lean mixture conditions. Current quasi-dimensional engine models usually do not include flame strain effects and tend to predict burn rate which is too high under lean burn conditions. An attempt was made to model flame strain effects in quasi-dimensional SI engine models. The Ford model GESIM (stands for General Engine SIMulation) was used as the platform. A new strain rate model was developed with the Lewis number effect included.
Technical Paper

Development of the Texas Drayage Truck Cycle and Its Use to Determine the Effects of Low Rolling Resistance Tires on the NOX Emissions and Fuel Economy

Trucks operating in inter-modal (drayage) operation in and around port and rail terminals, are responsible for a large proportion of the emissions of NOX, which are problematic for the air quality of the Houston and Dallas/Ft. Worth metro areas. A standard test cycle, called the Texas Dray Truck Cycle, was developed to represent the operation of heavy-duty diesel trucks in dray operations. The test cycle reflects the substantial time spent at idle (~45%) and the high intensity of the on-road portions. This test cycle was then used in the SAE J1321 test protocol to evaluate the effect on fuel consumption and NOX emissions of retrofitting dray trucks with light-weight, low-rolling resistance wide-single tires. In on-track testing, a reduction in fuel consumption of 8.7% was seen, and NOX emissions were reduced by 3.8% with the wide single tires compared to the conventional tires.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Resolved Measurements of Pre-Combustion Fuel Concentration Near the Spark Plug in a Gasoline SI Engine

An infrared fiber optic instrumented spark plug probe has been used to measure the fuel concentration in the vicinity of the spark gap in a port injected gasoline fueled SI engine. The probe measured the fuel concentration spatially averaged over a distance of 6.3 mm near the spark plug for consecutive firing cycles. The crank angle resolution of the measurements was 2.5 degrees, for a temporal resolution of between 0.9 and 0.3 ms depending on the engine speed. Quantitative measurements of the fuel concentration in the pre-ignition regions of the engine cycle were obtained. Qualitative results are reported for unburned hydrocarbons in the post-combustion regions. The measurements were made in a single cylinder research engine over a range of speed, load, and stoichiometric conditions. Strong mixture inhomogeneities were measured during the intake stroke and the inhomogeneities decreased through the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Resolved Measurements of Flame Kernel Growth and Motion Correlated with Combustion Duration

A recently developed spark plug equipped with fiber-optic flame-arrival detectors has been used to measure the motion and rate of growth of the early flame kernel. The cylinder pressure and gas velocity in the spark gap were measured simultaneously with the flame kernel measurements, permitting the data to be analyzed on a cycle-by-cycle basis to identify cause-and-effect correlations between the measured parameters. The data were obtained in a homogeneous-charge research engine that could be modified to produce three very different flow fields: (1) high swirl with high turbulence intensity, (2) tumble vortex with moderate turbulence intensity, and (3) negligible bulk motion with low turbulence intensity. The results presented show a moderate correlation between the combustion duration and the rate of growth of the flame kernel, but virtually no correlation with either the magnitude or direction of movement of the flame kernel away from the spark gap.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling in SI Engines with a Peninsula-Fractal Combustion Model

In premixed turbulent combustion models, two mechanisms have been used to explain the increase in the flame speed due to the turbulence. The newer explanation considers the full range of turbulence scales which wrinkle the flame front so as to increase the flame front area and, thus, the flame propagation speed. The fractal combustion model is an example of this concept. The older mechanism assumes that turbulence enables the penetration of unburned mixtures across the flame front via entrainment into the burned mixture zone. The entrainment combustion or eddy burning model is an example of this mechanism. The results of experimental studies of combustion regimes and the flame structures in SI engines has confirmed that most combustion takes place at the wrinkled flame front with additional combustion taking place in the form of flame fingers or peninsulas.
Technical Paper

Calculating a Viscosity Correction for Humid Air in a Laminar Flow Element

Laminar flow elements (LFEs) are commonly used to measure the flow rate of gases in various flow streams. Since LFEs operate on the principle of fully developed laminar pipe flow, the viscosity of the gas must be known. In many cases, the flowing gas is air of varying humidity, inlet temperature, and inlet pressure. While the viscosity of humid air has been studied extensively over the past 60+ years, the effects of humidity have not been consistently accounted for in the literature and industry documentation pertaining to LFE operation, and this can lead to errors. Additionally, the available LFE operational documentation is not presented in equation form; rather it is provided in tables and graphs which do not facilitate automation of the flow calculations during data acquisition. This paper provides a brief review of the available data and correlations for the viscosity of humid air and its application to the calculation of air flow rate using a laminar flow element.